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Learning to read =  reading to learn   Wendy Arnold [email_address] 14 th  July, 2010 ETAI - ISRAEL
Overview <ul><li>Part i)Identifying reading strategies </li></ul><ul><li>Part ii)Developing learner materials to use as re...
Part i) Reading strategies <ul><li>THINK-PAIR-SHARE-SMALL GROUP </li></ul><ul><li>What do you think? </li></ul><ul><li>How...
Identifying reading strategies <ul><li>Semantics – making meaning from text eg. </li></ul><ul><li>THINK-PAIR-SHARE </li></...
Identifying reading strategies <ul><li>Semantics – making meaning from text and visuals </li></ul><ul><li>The fungo’s huy ...
Identifying reading strategies <ul><li>Syntactic – grammar </li></ul><ul><li>Once upon a time there was a </li></ul><ul><l...
Identifying reading strategies <ul><li>THINK-PAIR-SHARE </li></ul><ul><li>You have used two processes which are necessary ...
Identifying reading strategies <ul><li>Graphophonic = linking letter and sound. </li></ul><ul><li>Understanding that not e...
Why do we need phonics? <ul><li>‘ …  phonics is key to learning to read and spell (decoding and encoding print) …’ </li></...
What teachers need before teaching phonemic awareness <ul><li>An understanding between the  difference of teaching the alp...
What teachers need before teaching phonemic awareness? <ul><li>There are  phonological differences between L1, L2+   e.g. ...
What teachers need before teaching phonemic awareness? <ul><li>Children need to be able to  hear  and  blend  the sounds i...
What teachers need before teaching phonemic awareness? <ul><li>Children need to learn about phonemic awareness using multi...
Something to consider about language learning …. <ul><li>THINK-PAIR-SHARE </li></ul><ul><li>read  write  say  hear </li></...
<ul><li>You need to </li></ul><ul><li>HEAR  </li></ul><ul><li>a word before you can </li></ul><ul><li>SAY </li></ul><ul><l...
<ul><li>You need to </li></ul><ul><li>SAY </li></ul><ul><li>a word before you can </li></ul><ul><li>READ </li></ul><ul><li...
<ul><li>You need to </li></ul><ul><li>READ </li></ul><ul><li>a word before you can </li></ul><ul><li>WRITE </li></ul><ul><...
Identifying decoding strategies <ul><li>Graphophonic can be divided into 3 sections </li></ul><ul><li>Synthetic phonics = ...
SYNTHETIC PHONICS Aa Bb Cc Dd Ee Ff Gg Hh Ii ce ge ci gi ch   gh Jj Kk Ll Mm Nn Oo Pp Qu/qu Rr rh ph Ss Tt Uu Vv Ww wh Xx ...
Lessons to be learnt from classrooms in the UK <ul><li>Phase 1 – focus on listening e.g. </li></ul><ul><li>songs, stories,...
First letters to be learnt and order <ul><li>Set 1 s a t p </li></ul><ul><li>Set 2 i n m d </li></ul><ul><li>Set 3 g o c k...
Rationale for decoding symbols <ul><li>Blending  is for  reading </li></ul><ul><li>Segmenting  is for  spelling/writing </...
Sound talk strategy - blending <ul><li>a t </li></ul><ul><li>. . </li></ul>
Sound talk <ul><li>chop </li></ul><ul><li>__ . . </li></ul><ul><li>light </li></ul><ul><li>. ___ . </li></ul>
Blending sounds for reading di plo do cus di  plo  do  cus
Segmenting sounds for writing stegosaurus How many syllables can you hear? Clap them! Where do the syllables fall?
Understanding the high frequency words that need to be learnt the that not look put and with them don’t could a all were c...
High frequency words Masterson, J Stuart, M Dixon M Lovejoy S (2003) Children’s Printed Word Database: Economic & Social R...
Part ii) Developing learner materials to use as reading resources Fiction/story – pictures only Non-fiction/information – ...
Developing learner materials to use as reading resources TASK:  Read the text in small groups. Look at the pictures as a s...
Developing learner materials to use as reading resources THEORY: If a learner can write language then they can read it. By...
Developing learner materials to use as reading resources THEORY: If a learner has written language it is ‘high interest’ a...
Developing learner materials to use as reading resources THEORY INTO PRACTICE TASK: Write sentences to match your pictures...
Part iii) Applying reading strategies <ul><li>THINK </li></ul><ul><li>Read the text silently. </li></ul><ul><li>Do you und...
<ul><li>Although some glial cells have voltage-gated ion channels in their membranes, glial cells generally do not produce...
Part B) <ul><li>Glial cell membranes are highly permeable to K+ and adjacent glial cells are often electrically coupled by...
THINK <ul><li>What language skills are you using? </li></ul>08/02/10
PAIR <ul><li>Work with a partner. </li></ul><ul><li>Take it in turns. </li></ul><ul><li>Read the text out to each other. <...
<ul><li>Although some glial cells have voltage-gated ion channels in their membranes, glial cells generally do not produce...
Part B) <ul><li>Glial cell membranes are highly permeable to K+ and adjacent glial cells are often electrically coupled by...
Reading out loud - SHARE <ul><li>What does the text mean? </li></ul><ul><li>How does it feel to read? </li></ul><ul><li>Ca...
THINK <ul><li>What language skills are you using? </li></ul>08/02/10
Now read this text to yourself <ul><li>Glial  cells are found in the  brain . </li></ul><ul><li>There are  five  types of ...
Look at the picture Glial cells 08/02/10
Aiding comprehensible input THINK-PAIR-SHARE <ul><li>Now what can you explain about </li></ul><ul><li>glial cells? </li></...
THINK-SHARE  <ul><li>What language skills are you using? </li></ul>08/02/10
Conclusion <ul><li>They need to HEAR words before they can .... them </li></ul><ul><li>They need to SAY words before they ...
<ul><li>Learners need EXPLICIT instruction on: </li></ul><ul><li>Graphophonics or sounds so YL can BLEND sounds and read w...
<ul><li>Time to reflect  </li></ul>3…2…1… 3 things I remember 2 ideas I could adapt 1 question I have
Thank you Wendy Arnold Invitation to all to join IATEFL YLT SIG discussion group – Just send an empty message to: [email_a...
References <ul><li>Kelly, A (2008)’How we got to where we are’ in J.Graham & A. Kelly (Eds)  Reading Under Control 3 rd  e...
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6 july learning to read reading to learn

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Learning to Read. Reading to Learn. The importance of early literacy. Wendy Arnold ETAI 2010

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  • Transcript of "6 july learning to read reading to learn"

    1. 1. Learning to read = reading to learn Wendy Arnold [email_address] 14 th July, 2010 ETAI - ISRAEL
    2. 2. Overview <ul><li>Part i)Identifying reading strategies </li></ul><ul><li>Part ii)Developing learner materials to use as reading resources </li></ul><ul><li>Part iii)Applying reading strategies </li></ul>
    3. 3. Part i) Reading strategies <ul><li>THINK-PAIR-SHARE-SMALL GROUP </li></ul><ul><li>What do you think? </li></ul><ul><li>How do learners learn to read? </li></ul>
    4. 4. Identifying reading strategies <ul><li>Semantics – making meaning from text eg. </li></ul><ul><li>THINK-PAIR-SHARE </li></ul><ul><li>Once upon a time there was a fungo who lived in a huy singo. </li></ul><ul><li>The huy singo was built high up in some grantins. </li></ul>READ the text. What is this about?
    5. 5. Identifying reading strategies <ul><li>Semantics – making meaning from text and visuals </li></ul><ul><li>The fungo’s huy singo </li></ul><ul><li>was very deep. </li></ul><ul><li>It had to climb up the high grantins </li></ul><ul><li>quickly so that the tinnies did not </li></ul><ul><li>eat it! </li></ul>
    6. 6. Identifying reading strategies <ul><li>Syntactic – grammar </li></ul><ul><li>Once upon a time there was a </li></ul><ul><li>white fungo. </li></ul><ul><li>It could run fast. </li></ul><ul><li>THINK-PAIR-SHARE Learning point? </li></ul><ul><li>Adjective + noun </li></ul><ul><li>Verb + adverb </li></ul>
    7. 7. Identifying reading strategies <ul><li>THINK-PAIR-SHARE </li></ul><ul><li>You have used two processes which are necessary for reading. </li></ul><ul><li>DECODING = saying words </li></ul><ul><li>ENCODING = making meaning </li></ul><ul><li>Can you have encoding without decoding? </li></ul><ul><li>CAUTION: reading out words DOES NOT MEAN UNDERSTANDING THEM  </li></ul>
    8. 8. Identifying reading strategies <ul><li>Graphophonic = linking letter and sound. </li></ul><ul><li>Understanding that not every word in English can be ‘sounded out’ but it is a good place to start! </li></ul>
    9. 9. Why do we need phonics? <ul><li>‘ … phonics is key to learning to read and spell (decoding and encoding print) …’ </li></ul><ul><li>Washtell (2008) </li></ul>
    10. 10. What teachers need before teaching phonemic awareness <ul><li>An understanding between the difference of teaching the alphabet/letter names and the phoneme sounds of the letters </li></ul><ul><li>An understanding that young learners need to have explicit instruction on making a connection between the symbols/letters and sounds </li></ul><ul><li>An understanding that young learners need a FLOOD of opportunities to LISTEN and SPEAK </li></ul>
    11. 11. What teachers need before teaching phonemic awareness? <ul><li>There are phonological differences between L1, L2+ e.g. extra sounds </li></ul><ul><li>There may be differences between how phonological differences are represented as symbols e.g. Hebrew script and English </li></ul><ul><li>Children need to hear a word in order to build up their listening database and so they can say it </li></ul>
    12. 12. What teachers need before teaching phonemic awareness? <ul><li>Children need to be able to hear and blend the sounds in words in order to be able to say unknown words when they read them </li></ul><ul><li>Children need to be able to hear and segment the sounds in words in order to be able to write words </li></ul><ul><li>If children can read words they are more likely to be able to write them meaningfully ! </li></ul>
    13. 13. What teachers need before teaching phonemic awareness? <ul><li>Children need to learn about phonemic awareness using multi-sensory teaching </li></ul><ul><li>Children have different learning styles e.g. visual, auditory, kinesthetic </li></ul><ul><li>Visual learners need a combination of text, visuals, watching others </li></ul><ul><li>Auditory learners need a combination of listening to stories, questions, drama </li></ul><ul><li>Kinesthetic learners need a combination of role play, mime, drama, following instructions </li></ul>
    14. 14. Something to consider about language learning …. <ul><li>THINK-PAIR-SHARE </li></ul><ul><li>read write say hear </li></ul><ul><li>You need to …… a word before you can ….. it </li></ul><ul><li>You need to ….. a word before you can …. it </li></ul><ul><li>You need to …. a word before you can …. It </li></ul><ul><li>(Linse 2005) </li></ul>
    15. 15. <ul><li>You need to </li></ul><ul><li>HEAR </li></ul><ul><li>a word before you can </li></ul><ul><li>SAY </li></ul><ul><li>it </li></ul><ul><li>WHY? </li></ul>
    16. 16. <ul><li>You need to </li></ul><ul><li>SAY </li></ul><ul><li>a word before you can </li></ul><ul><li>READ </li></ul><ul><li>it </li></ul><ul><li>WHY? </li></ul>
    17. 17. <ul><li>You need to </li></ul><ul><li>READ </li></ul><ul><li>a word before you can </li></ul><ul><li>WRITE </li></ul><ul><li>it </li></ul><ul><li>WHY? </li></ul>
    18. 18. Identifying decoding strategies <ul><li>Graphophonic can be divided into 3 sections </li></ul><ul><li>Synthetic phonics = each letter has a sound </li></ul><ul><li>Analytic phonics = seeing patterns in words </li></ul><ul><li>Whole words = high frequency words which need to be memorised </li></ul>
    19. 19. SYNTHETIC PHONICS Aa Bb Cc Dd Ee Ff Gg Hh Ii ce ge ci gi ch gh Jj Kk Ll Mm Nn Oo Pp Qu/qu Rr rh ph Ss Tt Uu Vv Ww wh Xx Yy Zz sh th
    20. 20. Lessons to be learnt from classrooms in the UK <ul><li>Phase 1 – focus on listening e.g. </li></ul><ul><li>songs, stories, rhymes </li></ul><ul><li>distinguish between speech sounds </li></ul><ul><li>blend and segment orally </li></ul><ul><li>introduce rhyming words </li></ul>
    21. 21. First letters to be learnt and order <ul><li>Set 1 s a t p </li></ul><ul><li>Set 2 i n m d </li></ul><ul><li>Set 3 g o c k </li></ul><ul><li>Set 4 ck e u r </li></ul><ul><li>Set 5 h b f/ff l/ll s/ss </li></ul>
    22. 22. Rationale for decoding symbols <ul><li>Blending is for reading </li></ul><ul><li>Segmenting is for spelling/writing </li></ul>
    23. 23. Sound talk strategy - blending <ul><li>a t </li></ul><ul><li>. . </li></ul>
    24. 24. Sound talk <ul><li>chop </li></ul><ul><li>__ . . </li></ul><ul><li>light </li></ul><ul><li>. ___ . </li></ul>
    25. 25. Blending sounds for reading di plo do cus di plo do cus
    26. 26. Segmenting sounds for writing stegosaurus How many syllables can you hear? Clap them! Where do the syllables fall?
    27. 27. Understanding the high frequency words that need to be learnt the that not look put and with them don’t could a all were come house to we go will old said can little Into too in are as back by he up no from day I had mum children made of my one him time it her then Mr. I’m
    28. 28. High frequency words Masterson, J Stuart, M Dixon M Lovejoy S (2003) Children’s Printed Word Database: Economic & Social Research Council funded project R00023406 - Primary National Strategy UK was what do get if you there me just help they out down now Mrs. on this dad came called she have big oh here is went when about off for be It’s got asked at like see their saw his some looked people make but so very your an
    29. 29. Part ii) Developing learner materials to use as reading resources Fiction/story – pictures only Non-fiction/information – pictures only TASK: make your own nonfiction book.
    30. 30. Developing learner materials to use as reading resources TASK: Read the text in small groups. Look at the pictures as a source of context.
    31. 31. Developing learner materials to use as reading resources THEORY: If a learner can write language then they can read it. By reading the text they have written they are making meaning and developing their language ability.
    32. 32. Developing learner materials to use as reading resources THEORY: If a learner has written language it is ‘high interest’ and at the ‘right level’ for them.
    33. 33. Developing learner materials to use as reading resources THEORY INTO PRACTICE TASK: Write sentences to match your pictures. Read your text to a partner. Listen to a partner. Read a partners text.
    34. 34. Part iii) Applying reading strategies <ul><li>THINK </li></ul><ul><li>Read the text silently. </li></ul><ul><li>Do you understand what it is about? </li></ul><ul><li>THINK-PAIR </li></ul><ul><li>Can you explain it to a partner? </li></ul>08/02/10
    35. 35. <ul><li>Although some glial cells have voltage-gated ion channels in their membranes, glial cells generally do not produce action potentials and their role in the nervous system has long been a puzzle. One suggestion has been that glial cells help to regulate the concentration of K+ and the pH in the extracellular fluid of the nervous system. </li></ul>Part A) 08/02/10
    36. 36. Part B) <ul><li>Glial cell membranes are highly permeable to K+ and adjacent glial cells are often electrically coupled by junctions that allow K+ to flow between them. This flux permits glial cells to take up and redistribute extracellular K+, which otherwise could build up to high concentrations in narrow extracellular spaces following activity in neurons. </li></ul>08/02/10
    37. 37. THINK <ul><li>What language skills are you using? </li></ul>08/02/10
    38. 38. PAIR <ul><li>Work with a partner. </li></ul><ul><li>Take it in turns. </li></ul><ul><li>Read the text out to each other. </li></ul>08/02/10
    39. 39. <ul><li>Although some glial cells have voltage-gated ion channels in their membranes, glial cells generally do not produce action potentials and their role in the nervous system has long been a puzzle. One suggestion has been that glial cells help to regulate the concentration of K+ and the pH in the extracellular fluid of the nervous system. </li></ul>Part A) 08/02/10
    40. 40. Part B) <ul><li>Glial cell membranes are highly permeable to K+ and adjacent glial cells are often electrically coupled by junctions that allow K+ to flow between them. This flux permits glial cells to take up and redistribute extracellular K+, which otherwise could build up to high concentrations in narrow extracellular spaces following activity in neurons. </li></ul>08/02/10
    41. 41. Reading out loud - SHARE <ul><li>What does the text mean? </li></ul><ul><li>How does it feel to read? </li></ul><ul><li>Can you understand what you are reading? </li></ul><ul><li>What are you missing? </li></ul>08/02/10
    42. 42. THINK <ul><li>What language skills are you using? </li></ul>08/02/10
    43. 43. Now read this text to yourself <ul><li>Glial cells are found in the brain . </li></ul><ul><li>There are five types of glial cells. </li></ul><ul><li>They are not nerve cells. </li></ul><ul><li>Neurons transmit nerve messages. </li></ul><ul><li>Glial cells are in direct contact with </li></ul><ul><li>neurons and often surround them. </li></ul>08/02/10
    44. 44. Look at the picture Glial cells 08/02/10
    45. 45. Aiding comprehensible input THINK-PAIR-SHARE <ul><li>Now what can you explain about </li></ul><ul><li>glial cells? </li></ul><ul><li>Where can you find them? </li></ul><ul><li>What do glial cells do? </li></ul><ul><li>What helped you understand better? </li></ul>08/02/10
    46. 46. THINK-SHARE <ul><li>What language skills are you using? </li></ul>08/02/10
    47. 47. Conclusion <ul><li>They need to HEAR words before they can .... them </li></ul><ul><li>They need to SAY words before they can .... them </li></ul><ul><li>They need to READ words before they can ... them </li></ul><ul><li>A mixed ability class is an advantage because ... </li></ul>
    48. 48. <ul><li>Learners need EXPLICIT instruction on: </li></ul><ul><li>Graphophonics or sounds so YL can BLEND sounds and read words </li></ul><ul><li>Semantics so YL can MAKE MEANING </li></ul><ul><li>Syntactics so YL can be accurate in speaking and writing </li></ul><ul><li>BUT </li></ul>Conclusion
    49. 49. <ul><li>Time to reflect </li></ul>3…2…1… 3 things I remember 2 ideas I could adapt 1 question I have
    50. 50. Thank you Wendy Arnold Invitation to all to join IATEFL YLT SIG discussion group – Just send an empty message to: [email_address]
    51. 51. References <ul><li>Kelly, A (2008)’How we got to where we are’ in J.Graham & A. Kelly (Eds) Reading Under Control 3 rd edition . Oxon:Routledge </li></ul><ul><li>Linse, C (2005) Young Learners . New York:McGraw Hill </li></ul><ul><li>Primary National Strategy UK – Letters and sounds: principles and practice of high quality phonics/ 6 Phase teaching programme. http://nationalstrategies.standards.dcsf.gov.uk/node/84969 </li></ul><ul><li>Vance, M h ttp://www.ican.org.uk/talkingpoint/related%20topics/language%20and%20literacy/the%20role%20of%20speech%20discrimination.aspx </li></ul><ul><li>Washtell, A (2008) ‘Getting to grips with phonics’ in J. Graham & A. Kelly (Eds) Reading under control 3 rd edition . Oxon:Routledge </li></ul>
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