14 july state and status of english


Published on

State and Status of English with a focus on India and China - Wendy Arnold ETAI 2010

Published in: Education
  • Be the first to comment

  • Be the first to like this

No Downloads
Total views
On SlideShare
From Embeds
Number of Embeds
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide

14 july state and status of english

  1. 1. State and status of English Wendy Arnold [email_address] ETAI Israel 14 th July, 2010
  2. 2. Many thanks to ETAI for inviting me <ul><li>ETAI is an Associate of IATEFL </li></ul>
  3. 3. Overview <ul><li>Highlights from a conference held in Bangalore in 2008 – The Way Forward:Learning from International Experience of TEYL </li></ul><ul><li>Lessons to be learnt about implementation of English language teaching </li></ul><ul><li>English in India </li></ul><ul><li>English in China </li></ul><ul><li>How else is English spreading globally? </li></ul>
  4. 4. The Way Forward: Learning from international experience of TEYL. Regional Institute of English, Bangalore, India, 3rd - 6th January 2008 <ul><li>Highlights from conference proceedings (Enever, Moon & Raman 2009) </li></ul><ul><li>Optimal start age </li></ul><ul><li>Class size </li></ul><ul><li>Curriculum and assessment design </li></ul><ul><li>Equity of TEYL provision </li></ul><ul><li>Continuity across school phases </li></ul><ul><li>Interplay between top down and bottom up procedures </li></ul>
  5. 5. Summary <ul><li>-’earlier the better’ brigade is winning </li></ul><ul><li>-teachers in some countries would prefer a later start (age) </li></ul><ul><li>-successes in implementation </li></ul><ul><li>-hastily implemented early start policies may be ineffective </li></ul><ul><li>-to ensure quality and sustainability over time, a planned and phased introduction is important </li></ul><ul><li>- education reform needs time. Quality cannot be achieved overnight. </li></ul>
  6. 6. English in India
  7. 7. A warning … <ul><li>David Graddol warns that ‘ … many [in India] complain that English has created one of the biggest social divisions in an already divided society …’ </li></ul><ul><li>‘ … between those who can speak English and those who cannot …’ (2010) </li></ul>
  8. 8. Some facts: <ul><li>Shortage of teachers who can implement English programmes to children in primary, secondary and colleges (ages 6-18 years) </li></ul><ul><li>Children do not learn English by being taught through English. English medium of instruction does not work without English language being taught . </li></ul><ul><li>Education in and development of the mother tongue is necessary (Graddol 2010) </li></ul>
  9. 9. Personal insights into English language teaching training in India 2009
  10. 10. Project groupwork
  11. 11. Shared presentations
  12. 12. Buddy reading
  13. 13. Made and played games
  14. 14. Made and presented materials
  15. 15. Made and presented materials
  16. 16. Acted out dramas
  17. 17. Class sizes 50-80 students
  18. 18. Summary <ul><li>Teachers, trainers and Principals were all engaged and motivated </li></ul><ul><li>Understanding of why learners needs should be considered in methodology </li></ul><ul><li>Classroom management strategies were identified to overcome large class sizes </li></ul><ul><li>Simple but effective materials were designed to support textbook </li></ul>
  19. 19. An innovation <ul><li>ACTIVITY BASED LEARNING </li></ul><ul><li>ABL </li></ul>
  20. 20. LEARNER AUTONOMY Learners working at their own pace Each task type has a logo All YL start at level 1 together but progress at their own pace through levels
  21. 21. WHOLE SCHOOL APPROACH Every subject uses ABL methodology
  22. 22. DIFFERENTIATION YL working on different tasks within a level
  23. 23. METACOGNITION YL doing some working out on the blackboard before writing in exercise book
  24. 24. LEARNER AUTONOMY YL collect task sheets from boxes on the shelves
  25. 25. Teacher supporting a group of less able YL
  26. 26. Activity Based Learning ABL – an innovation in action
  27. 27. Teacher can see progress of individual YL
  28. 28. Summary <ul><li>Innovation being monitored </li></ul><ul><li>70% of provinces using ABL </li></ul><ul><li>Needs classrooms to be re-modelled with shelving, blackboards on 3 walls and no other furniture </li></ul><ul><li>ABL supervisors support teachers by designing and modifying materials </li></ul>
  29. 29. English in China
  30. 30. CLT and TBL in China <ul><li>Communicative language teaching (CLT) </li></ul><ul><li>Task based learning (TBL) </li></ul>
  31. 31. Approaches considered in China <ul><li>Approach 1 </li></ul><ul><li>Native-speakerism (Holliday 2005) </li></ul><ul><li>‘ … most influential and dominating ideaology among Chinese school English curriculum designers, teacher trainers, and teachers … ‘ (Gong 2010) </li></ul>
  32. 32. Problems with approach no. 1 in China <ul><li>It is not appropriate for Chinese school learners because (Gong 2010): </li></ul><ul><li>It is extremely difficult especially for rural area school learners (60-70% of the population) as … </li></ul><ul><li>Students spend most of the lessons learning content which is not useful for them in their everyday lives and … </li></ul><ul><li>It needs a high language proficiency level for teachers (only 37% of school teachers have formal training at college or university level) </li></ul>
  33. 33. Approach no. 2 – Subject-oriented approach (SOA) <ul><li>Integration of school subject content with foreign language teaching objectives. </li></ul><ul><li>Other versions have been called: </li></ul><ul><li>CLIL (content and language integrated learning) </li></ul><ul><li>EMI (English medium of instruction) </li></ul><ul><li>CBI (content-based instruction) </li></ul>
  34. 34. Problems with approach no. 2 <ul><li>Lack of suitable materials </li></ul><ul><li>Lack of qualified teachers </li></ul><ul><li>Students expectations </li></ul><ul><li>No assessment available </li></ul><ul><li>(Gong 2010) </li></ul>
  35. 35. Approach no.3 – multi-goal approach <ul><li>Theoretical underpinnings: </li></ul><ul><li>Humanistic idea of language teaching </li></ul><ul><li>Learners perspectives </li></ul><ul><li>Curriculum design </li></ul><ul><li>Foreign language education goals </li></ul>
  36. 36. Research survey (Gong 2010) <ul><li>-3 year investigation: 2007-2009 </li></ul><ul><li>-rural,urban, small towns, big cities and village schools in national poverty counties </li></ul><ul><li>-semi-structured group interviews and 1:1 interviews </li></ul><ul><li>-20 interviews in 9 provinces </li></ul>
  37. 37. Why China needs to make changes <ul><li>Rural students said topics/content irrelevant to their life and difficult to understand </li></ul><ul><li>Students in big cities said that there is not enough authentic material </li></ul><ul><li>One size fits all curriculum cannot meet needs of different learners </li></ul>
  38. 38. Conceptual framework for approach no. 3 <ul><li>Communication </li></ul><ul><li>Cognition </li></ul><ul><li>Connection </li></ul><ul><li>Cultures </li></ul><ul><li>Cultivation </li></ul><ul><li>This almost matches what Do Coyle says is needed for CLIL (content and language integrated learning) http://www.teachingenglish.org.uk/transform/teachers/specialist-areas/clil </li></ul>
  39. 39. How else English is spreading globally?
  40. 40. Where English is the ‘official’ language http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:English-as-Official-Language.png
  41. 41. Where English is spreading!
  42. 42. Language usage on the Internet http://www.internetworldstats.com/stats7.htm You can reach 82.6% of the world’s population with these 10 languages!
  43. 43. Some facts: <ul><li>2 billion people are likely to be learning English in the next 10 years </li></ul><ul><li>Non-native speaker providers of ELT services will compete with UK providers </li></ul><ul><li>Native-speaker norms becoming less relevant as English becomes ‘component of basic education’ in many countries (Graddol 2006) </li></ul><ul><li>‘ … China … Asia … Latin America …across Europe … English is seen as a new ‘basic skill’ which all children require in the 21 st century …’ (Graddol 2010) </li></ul>
  44. 44. Conclusion <ul><li>-Bangalore conference in 2008 identified indicators for successful implementation of English language teaching and learning </li></ul><ul><li>-India may have discovered an innovative whole school approach to education with the ABL </li></ul><ul><li>-China may be about to make innovative changes to its English language education </li></ul><ul><li>-English is spreading globally at ever younger ages </li></ul>
  45. 45. Copy of ppt: [email_address]
  46. 46. Thank you Wendy Arnold Invitation to all to join IATEFL YLT SIG discussion group – Just send an empty message to: [email_address]
  47. 47. References <ul><li>WEBSITES </li></ul><ul><li>http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:English-as-Official-Language.png – accessed on 6 th July, 2010 </li></ul><ul><li>CLIL http://www.teachingenglish.org.uk/transform/teachers/specialist-areas/clil - accessed on 12 July 2010 </li></ul>Enever, J, Moon, J, Raman, U (2009) Young Learner English Language Policy and Implementation:International Perspectives . UK:Garnet Publishing Ltd Graddol, D (2006) English Next. UK:British Council Graddol, D (2010) English Next India . UK:British Council Holliday, A (2006) Native-speakerism in ELTJ Vol 40 Number 4 PRESENTATIONS Gong, Y (2010) A third approach to CLT in the Chinese EFL context – presentation at Cutting Edge conference, Canterbury Christ Church University, Canterbury, Kent 2 July 2010