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14 july state and status of english

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State and Status of English with a focus on India and China - Wendy Arnold ETAI 2010

State and Status of English with a focus on India and China - Wendy Arnold ETAI 2010

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  • 1. State and status of English Wendy Arnold [email_address] ETAI Israel 14 th July, 2010
  • 2. Many thanks to ETAI for inviting me
    • ETAI is an Associate of IATEFL
  • 3. Overview
    • Highlights from a conference held in Bangalore in 2008 – The Way Forward:Learning from International Experience of TEYL
    • Lessons to be learnt about implementation of English language teaching
    • English in India
    • English in China
    • How else is English spreading globally?
  • 4. The Way Forward: Learning from international experience of TEYL. Regional Institute of English, Bangalore, India, 3rd - 6th January 2008
    • Highlights from conference proceedings (Enever, Moon & Raman 2009)
    • Optimal start age
    • Class size
    • Curriculum and assessment design
    • Equity of TEYL provision
    • Continuity across school phases
    • Interplay between top down and bottom up procedures
  • 5. Summary
    • -’earlier the better’ brigade is winning
    • -teachers in some countries would prefer a later start (age)
    • -successes in implementation
    • -hastily implemented early start policies may be ineffective
    • -to ensure quality and sustainability over time, a planned and phased introduction is important
    • - education reform needs time. Quality cannot be achieved overnight.
  • 6. English in India
  • 7. A warning …
    • David Graddol warns that ‘ … many [in India] complain that English has created one of the biggest social divisions in an already divided society …’
    • ‘ … between those who can speak English and those who cannot …’ (2010)
  • 8. Some facts:
    • Shortage of teachers who can implement English programmes to children in primary, secondary and colleges (ages 6-18 years)
    • Children do not learn English by being taught through English. English medium of instruction does not work without English language being taught .
    • Education in and development of the mother tongue is necessary (Graddol 2010)
  • 9. Personal insights into English language teaching training in India 2009
  • 10. Project groupwork
  • 11. Shared presentations
  • 12. Buddy reading
  • 13. Made and played games
  • 14. Made and presented materials
  • 15. Made and presented materials
  • 16. Acted out dramas
  • 17. Class sizes 50-80 students
  • 18. Summary
    • Teachers, trainers and Principals were all engaged and motivated
    • Understanding of why learners needs should be considered in methodology
    • Classroom management strategies were identified to overcome large class sizes
    • Simple but effective materials were designed to support textbook
  • 19. An innovation
    • ACTIVITY BASED LEARNING
    • ABL
  • 20. LEARNER AUTONOMY Learners working at their own pace Each task type has a logo All YL start at level 1 together but progress at their own pace through levels
  • 21. WHOLE SCHOOL APPROACH Every subject uses ABL methodology
  • 22. DIFFERENTIATION YL working on different tasks within a level
  • 23. METACOGNITION YL doing some working out on the blackboard before writing in exercise book
  • 24. LEARNER AUTONOMY YL collect task sheets from boxes on the shelves
  • 25. Teacher supporting a group of less able YL
  • 26. Activity Based Learning ABL – an innovation in action
  • 27. Teacher can see progress of individual YL
  • 28. Summary
    • Innovation being monitored
    • 70% of provinces using ABL
    • Needs classrooms to be re-modelled with shelving, blackboards on 3 walls and no other furniture
    • ABL supervisors support teachers by designing and modifying materials
  • 29. English in China
  • 30. CLT and TBL in China
    • Communicative language teaching (CLT)
    • Task based learning (TBL)
  • 31. Approaches considered in China
    • Approach 1
    • Native-speakerism (Holliday 2005)
    • ‘ … most influential and dominating ideaology among Chinese school English curriculum designers, teacher trainers, and teachers … ‘ (Gong 2010)
  • 32. Problems with approach no. 1 in China
    • It is not appropriate for Chinese school learners because (Gong 2010):
    • It is extremely difficult especially for rural area school learners (60-70% of the population) as …
    • Students spend most of the lessons learning content which is not useful for them in their everyday lives and …
    • It needs a high language proficiency level for teachers (only 37% of school teachers have formal training at college or university level)
  • 33. Approach no. 2 – Subject-oriented approach (SOA)
    • Integration of school subject content with foreign language teaching objectives.
    • Other versions have been called:
    • CLIL (content and language integrated learning)
    • EMI (English medium of instruction)
    • CBI (content-based instruction)
  • 34. Problems with approach no. 2
    • Lack of suitable materials
    • Lack of qualified teachers
    • Students expectations
    • No assessment available
    • (Gong 2010)
  • 35. Approach no.3 – multi-goal approach
    • Theoretical underpinnings:
    • Humanistic idea of language teaching
    • Learners perspectives
    • Curriculum design
    • Foreign language education goals
  • 36. Research survey (Gong 2010)
    • -3 year investigation: 2007-2009
    • -rural,urban, small towns, big cities and village schools in national poverty counties
    • -semi-structured group interviews and 1:1 interviews
    • -20 interviews in 9 provinces
  • 37. Why China needs to make changes
    • Rural students said topics/content irrelevant to their life and difficult to understand
    • Students in big cities said that there is not enough authentic material
    • One size fits all curriculum cannot meet needs of different learners
  • 38. Conceptual framework for approach no. 3
    • Communication
    • Cognition
    • Connection
    • Cultures
    • Cultivation
    • This almost matches what Do Coyle says is needed for CLIL (content and language integrated learning) http://www.teachingenglish.org.uk/transform/teachers/specialist-areas/clil
  • 39. How else English is spreading globally?
  • 40. Where English is the ‘official’ language http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:English-as-Official-Language.png
  • 41. Where English is spreading!
  • 42. Language usage on the Internet http://www.internetworldstats.com/stats7.htm You can reach 82.6% of the world’s population with these 10 languages!
  • 43. Some facts:
    • 2 billion people are likely to be learning English in the next 10 years
    • Non-native speaker providers of ELT services will compete with UK providers
    • Native-speaker norms becoming less relevant as English becomes ‘component of basic education’ in many countries (Graddol 2006)
    • ‘ … China … Asia … Latin America …across Europe … English is seen as a new ‘basic skill’ which all children require in the 21 st century …’ (Graddol 2010)
  • 44. Conclusion
    • -Bangalore conference in 2008 identified indicators for successful implementation of English language teaching and learning
    • -India may have discovered an innovative whole school approach to education with the ABL
    • -China may be about to make innovative changes to its English language education
    • -English is spreading globally at ever younger ages
  • 45. Copy of ppt: [email_address]
  • 46. Thank you Wendy Arnold Invitation to all to join IATEFL YLT SIG discussion group – Just send an empty message to: [email_address]
  • 47. References
    • WEBSITES
    • http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:English-as-Official-Language.png – accessed on 6 th July, 2010
    • CLIL http://www.teachingenglish.org.uk/transform/teachers/specialist-areas/clil - accessed on 12 July 2010
    Enever, J, Moon, J, Raman, U (2009) Young Learner English Language Policy and Implementation:International Perspectives . UK:Garnet Publishing Ltd Graddol, D (2006) English Next. UK:British Council Graddol, D (2010) English Next India . UK:British Council Holliday, A (2006) Native-speakerism in ELTJ Vol 40 Number 4 PRESENTATIONS Gong, Y (2010) A third approach to CLT in the Chinese EFL context – presentation at Cutting Edge conference, Canterbury Christ Church University, Canterbury, Kent 2 July 2010

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