Might this make the concept of English less loaded
Take the bull by its horns … this is the aim
If grammar comes from making meaning then it would seem to be wise to narrow English language classroom learning down to concrete subjects where concepts are more predictable. Social interactions that YL engage in are NOT predictable … teacher model social interactions by doing it
So it would seem inappropriate for one culture to impose meaning making styles on another!
If the grammar of a language comes out of meaning. Then perhaps we need to be more flexible in how we teach grammar when we don’t know exactly what meaning is being made individually because of the multiplicity of ways of making meaning? Learner an L2+ is not grammar translation
Will let experts like David Crystal advise you more into what’s going on!
Peter has been busy being the Ambassador of Hungary in Syria so not sure if he’s added much to this but from personal experience in Hong Kong … bilingual teachers are by far the most effective L2+ language teachers in my opinion, as long as they are reasonably confident in English
Remember Halliday’s warning … learning English is not becoming an English person!
How do we show our culture in our language? What is it that we do? Choice of words? Contexts we choose to talk about?
Perhaps focusing on school subjects we can de-baggage any ‘hidden’ cultural messages which might be innappropriate or misunderstood
Who owns English? Wendy Arnold [email_address] 13 th July, 2010 ETAI conference, Israel
DEFINING ENGLISH LANGUAGE TEACHING AND LEARNING IS PROBLEMATIC!
Types of English
EAL - English as an additional language. The use of this term is restricted to certain countries. See the discussion in Terminology and types .
EAP - English for academic purposes
EFL - English as a foreign language. English for use in a non-English-speaking region, by someone whose first language is not English. See the discussion in Terminology and types .
EIL - English as an international language (see main article at International English )
ELF - English as a lingua franca
ELL - English language learner. The use of this term is restricted to certain countries. See the discussion in Terminology and types .
ELT - English language teaching. The use of this term is restricted to certain countries. See the discussion in Terminology and types .
ESL - English as a second language. English for use in an English-speaking region, by someone whose first language is not English. The use of this term is restricted to certain countries. See the discussion in Terminology and types .
ESOL - English for speakers of other languages. This term is used differently in different countries. See the discussion in Terminology and types .
ESP - English for specific purposes , or English for special purposes (e.g. technical English, scientific English, English for medical professionals, English for waiters).
EST - English for science and technology (e.g. technical English, scientific English).
‘ … different cultures have very different meaning styles …’ one cannot make the assumption that all cultures have the same meanings that just need to be ‘reworded’ eg. translated (Halliday in Bayham 2010)
‘ … one very important reason for learning English as an L2 [or additional language] is to communicate effectively with others who speak it as an L2 [or additional language] … it is a shared language that is nobody’s mother tongue …’ (Jenkins 2010)
‘ … a non - native cannot aspire to acquire a native speaker's language competence… in ELT, native -and non - native -speaking teachers reveal considerable differences in their teaching behaviour … most of the discrepancies are language-related … it does not follow from this … that non - native -speaking teachers are by definition less efficient. Indeed, I would contend that a deficient command of English may even have hidden advantages …’ (Medgyes 1992)
Hardman (2008) implies that if we only focus on native-English as spoken in the UK and US then we are turning ‘ … English into a controlled commodity that other countries and cultures cannot truly make their own …’
Is this what we are aiming for? http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=cRZz84aHZmY
‘ … a single language can help to bring in greater understanding among the different races plagued with suspicions because of inadvertent miscommunications …’ (Zenn 2010)
An argument for CALP Learners [in a school situation] need to go further than basic interpersonal communication skills [chatting to friends BICS] to learn the academic and disciplinary language needed for reading, writing and talking [CALP] … (Cummins & Swain in Ciechanowski 2009)
Prabhu warns of the possible danger to local languages if English starts too early and argues that English should be an addition to a child’s repertoire of languages not a substitution for their L1/ home language (Prahbu 2009)
Neutralizing the ‘baggage’ of the English language
Baynham, M (2009) ‘Talking to Halliday’ in R.Bhanot and E.Illes (eds) Best of Language Issues. UK:NATECLA
Braine, G (2006) Essential Matters 3 / 4, Dec 2006
British Library http://www.bl.uk/learning/langlit/changlang/across/languagetimeline.html - accessed 6th July
Ciechanowski, K.M (2009) The Reading Teacher Vol 62 , No. 7, April 2009, pp 558-568
Cummins, J. (2000) Language, Power and Pegagogy . Clevedon : Multimlingual Matters
Graddol, D (2010) English Next India . UK:British Council
Hardman, J (2008) Global English Teaching and Teacher Education:Praxis & Possibility . USA:TESOL
IATEFL YLT Sig www.yltsig.org
IBO - http://www.ibo.org/diploma/ accessed 12 th July 2010
Holliday, A. (1994) ‘The House of TESEP and the Communicative Approach: The Special Needs of State English
Education’ in English Language Teaching Journal 48/1 pp. 3-11.
Jenkins, J (2010) ‘Negotiating intelligibility in the ELT classroom’ in R. Bhanot and E. Illes (eds) Best of Language Issues . UK:NATECLA
Johnson, G and Rinvolucri, M (2010) Culture in our classrooms . England:Delta Teacher Development Series
Kachru, B.B. (1985). Standards, codification and sociolinguistic realism: The English language in the outer circle. In R. Quirk and H. Widdowson (Eds.), English in the world: Teaching and learning the language and literatures (pp. 11-36). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press
Kramsch, C (2010) ‘Language, culture and voice in the teaching of English as a Foreign Language’ in R. Bhanot and E. Illes (eds) Best of Language Issues . UK:NATECLA
Medgyes, P (1992) Native or non-native: who’s worth more? ELTJ Vol 46 / 4. UK:Oxford University Press
Prabhu, N.S (2009) ‘Teaching English to Young Learners:The promise and the threat’ in Enever, J, Moon, J, Raman, U (eds) Young Learner English Language Policy and Implementation:International Perspectives . UK:Garnet Publishing Ltd
Zenn, Z (2010) Glob.ish in Newsweek July 12, 2010
CLIL - http://www.teachingenglish.org.uk/transform/teachers/specialist-areas/clil accessed 11 th July 2010
Fleamarket - http://www.fotosearch.com/photos-images/flea-market.html- accessed 6th July 2010