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Wendy Park
Science 8C

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  1. 1. Science<br />Made by Wendy Park<br />
  2. 2. Stonehenge<br />Stonehenge is a prehistoric monument. Stonehenge is composed of earthworks surrounding a circular setting of large standing stones. It is center of most dense complex of Neolothic and Bronze Age monuments in England. The surrounding circular earth bank and ditch, which constitute the earliest phase of monument <br />
  3. 3. Aristotle <br />Aristotle was a Greek philosopher and polymath, a student of Plato and teacher of Alexander the Great. His writing covers many subjects such as physics, poetry, and politics. Together with Plato and Socrates, Aristotle is one of most important person in Western philosophy. Aristotle’s writings were the first to create a comprehensive system of Western philosophy. Aristotle’s views on physical science shaped the medieval scholarship and influenced extended well into the Renaissance. All aspects of Aristotle’s philosophy continue to be the object of active academic study today. Though Aristotle wrote many elegant treatises and dialogues, it is thought that majority of his writings are now lost and only about one-third of the original works have survived.<br />
  4. 4. Aristarchus <br />Aristarchus was a Greek astronomer and mathematician born on the island of Samos, in Greece. He presented the first known heliocentric model of solar system placing Sun, not Earth at center of universe. He was influenced by Pythagorean Philolaus of Croton but identified the central fire with Sun and put the other planet in their correct order of distance around Sun. his astronomical ideas was often rejected because of fgeocentric theories of Aristotle and Ptolemy. The heliocentric theory was revived 1800 years later by Copernicus after Kepler and Newton gave explanation to it based on laws of physics mostly Kelpler’s law for motion of planets and Newtion’s law on gravitational attractions and dynamics.<br />
  5. 5. Ptolemy <br />Claudius Ptolemy was a Roman citizen of Egypt who wrote in Greek. He was a mathematician, astronomer, geographer, astrologer, and poet. He lived in Egypt under Roman rule. He was the author of several scientific treatises, at least three of which were of continuing importance to later Islamic and European science. The first is the astronomical treatise now known as Almagest. The second is the Geography which is a thorough discussion of geographic knowledge of the Greco-Roman world. The third is the astrological treatise called the Tetrabiblos in Greek and Quadripartitum in Latin as he attempted to adapt horoscopic astrology to the Aristotelian natural philosophy of his day.<br />
  6. 6. Copernicus<br />Nicolaus Copernicua was a Renaissance astronomer and first person to formulate comprehensive heliocentric cosmology which displace Earth from center of universe. Hi epochal book, ‘De revolutionibusorbiumcoelestium’ published just before his death. His heliocentric model with Sun at center of universe demonstrated that he observed motions of celestial objects can be explained without putting Earth at rest in center of universe. His work stimulated further investigation and becomes landmark in history of science which is Copernican Revolution. He was a mathematician, astronomer, physician, quadrilingual polyglot, classical scholar, translator, artist, Catholic cleric, jurist, governor, military leader, diplomat and economist. <br />
  7. 7. Tycho brahe<br />Tycho Brahe was Danish nobleman known for his accurate and comprehensive astronomical and planetary observations. He was well-known as an astronomer and alchemist. In ‘De nova stella’, he refuted the theory of celestial sphere by showing celestial heavens were not in unchanging state of perfection as previously assumed by Aristotle and Ptolemy. He was granted an estate to build instruments and took many careful measurements and later Stherneborg, underground, he discovered his instruments in former were not steady. He built the new observatory at BenatkynadJizerou. Until his death, he was assisted by Johannes Kepler, who later used his astronomical results to develop his own theories of astonomy. He worked to combine geometrical benefits of Copernican system with philosophical benefits of Ptolemaic system to his own model of universe, Tychonic system. He was last of major naked eye astronomers working without telescope for his observations.<br />
  8. 8. Galileo<br />Galileo Galilei was an Italian physicist, mathematician, astronomer and philosopher who was one of the people who discovered the Scientific Revolution. He made improvement to the telescope and did consequent astronomical observations and support for Copernicanism. He is called the ‘Father of modern observational astronomy’, ‘Father of modern physics’ and ‘Father of science’. His contributions to astronomy include the telescopic confirmation of the phases of Venus, discovery of the four largest satellites of Jupiter, observation, analysis of sunspots and invented an improved military compass and other instruments. He was house arrest for the rest of his life because of the heliocentrism. In there, he wrote ‘Two New Sciences’ which is the summarized work of 2 sciences called ‘kinematics’ and ‘strength of materials’. <br />
  9. 9. Kepler<br />Johannes Kepler was a German mathematicians, astronomer and astrologer. He is best known for eponymous laws of planetary motion, based on his works Astronomia nova, Harmonices Mundi and Epitome of Copernican Astronomy. This provided Newton’s theory of universal gravitation’s idea. He lived in an era when there was no clear distinction between astronomy and astrology but there was a strong division between astronomy and physics. He described his new astronomy as “celestial physics’. As “an excursion into Aristotle’s Metaphysics”, and as “a supplement to Aristotle’s On the Heavens”, transforming ancient tradition of physical cosmology by treating astronomy as part of a universal mathematical physics.<br />
  10. 10. Telescope <br />The word ‘telescope’ was created by a greek mathematician Giovanni Demisiani for one of Galileo’s instruments shown at banquet at the AccademiadeiLicei. In the Starry Messenger Galileo had used the term ‘perspicillum’. Telescope is an instrument that is needed in the observation of remote objects by collecting electromagnetic radiation like a visible light. The first known telescopes were invented in the Netherlands. They used the glass lenses. They found use in terrestrial applications and astronomy. Few decades after, reflecting telescope which uses mirrors was invented. In 20th century, new types of telescopes were invented which includes the radio telescope and the infrared telescopes. The word ‘telescope’ refers to a wide range of instruments detecting different regions of electromagnetic spectrum, sometimes there is other types of detectors. A major development of telescope is the microscope which magnifies things. Classical telescope are optional computer that form image by replicating a Fourier transform in real times using same medium collected for processing and display output. <br />
  11. 11. Newton<br />Sir Isaac Newton was an English physicist, mathematician, astronomer, natural philosopher, alchemist, and theologian. His monograph ‘PhilosophiaeNaturalis Principia Mathematica’ published in 1687, is the foundations for most of classical mechanics. He described universal gravitation and three laws of motion which dominated the scientific view of the physical universe for the next three centuries. He showed that the motions of objects on Earth and of celestial bodies are governed by the same set of natural laws by demonstrating the consistency between kepler’s laws of planetary motion and his theory of gravitation. Principia are most important scientific books ever written. Newton built first practical reflecting telescope and developed a theory of color based on observation that a prism decomposes white light into the many color that form visible spectrum. He formulated an empirical law of cooling and studied the speed of sound. In mathematics, he and Gottfried Leibniz found the development of differential and integral calculus. He demonstrated the generalised binomial theorem developed Newton’s method for approximating the roots of a function, and contributed to the study of power series. <br />
  12. 12. Bibliography<br /><br /><br /><br /><br /><br /><br /><br /><br /><br /><br />