Instructional Design: the who, what, when, where and why By Wendy Stubbs, Ed.S. Instructional Designer NSU
MEMORIES OF SCHOOL
Take 3 minutes to write down your first experience of school: the teacher, room, smells, food, travel, classmates, etc.
How was that memory created?
How do people learn? How do you learn?
MAIN GOAL OF ID
Create the most effective learning process for the student
Based upon the psychologies of learning
Systematic process of creating courses – considering technology available
HISTORY OF ID
Came from WWII
How to effectively teach troops – Instructional technologist position developed – films, motion pictures, manuals and then TV
Early distance education was often correspondence (via mail) or classes via TV
Mr. Wizard – science show for kids
The systems approach to designing instruction was introduced by James Finn . Seels (1989) states that Finn "was a father of the instructional design movement because he linked the theory of systems design to educational technology, and thus encouraged the integrated growth of these related fields of study. It was Finn who made educational technologists aware that technology was as much a process as a piece of hardware" (Seels 1989, 11).
How do I consider learning or generational styles?
Have I done a thorough analysis of my audience?
Created lesson plans? Objectives of course?
What technology applications will assist me in best teaching my students?
Higher Education act demands accountability of distance education – partially due to growth of for profit colleges
Standards set to make sure distance courses meet requirements same as face to face courses
Our online courses have to pass this review before they are taught online and every three years.
Apply models and theory to create effective design
Utilize information on Pedagogy and Andragogy, Educational Psychology, learning styles, technology resources, teaching philosophy, etc.
Train, consult, review, teach, offer input
Often done in a team approach: ID person, instructor, media person, technology expert
How do people learn? Traditionally applied to face to face learning.
Piaget – children learn when they are ready – Stages of learning – Cognitive
Distance learning - “Guide on the side” rather than “Sage on the Stage”
How has the Internet changed teaching and learning?
What about how various Generations learn online?
Knowles – adult learners learn differently from children.
Social constructivist - want to collaborate and share practical application
1. “Adults need to be involved in the planning and evaluation of their instruction.
2. Experience (including mistakes) provides the basis for learning activities.
3. Adults are most interested in learning subjects that have immediate relevance to their job or personal life.
4. Adult learning is problem-centered rather than content-oriented.”
THEORISTS IN EDUCATION
Skinner – Operant conditioning and Programmed Instruction
Bloom – three domains of learning – cognitive, affective and psychomotor (KSA)
Maslow – Hierarchy of needs
Mager – Learning Objectives
R. Glaser – criterion referenced measure
Behaviorism – “Behaviorism is a theory of animal and human learning that only focuses on objectively observable behaviors and discounts mental activities. Behavior theorists define learning as nothing more than the acquisition of new behavior. “ Uses positive and negative rewards. Pavlov, Skinner, etc.
Cognitive – “…focuses on the inner mental activities – opening the “black box” of the human mind is valuable and necessary for understanding how people learn. Mental processes such as thinking, memory, knowing, and problem-solving need to be explored. Knowledge can be seen as schema or symbolic mental constructions. Learning is defined as change in a learner’s schemata.
A response to behaviorism, people are not “programmed animals” that merely respond to environmental stimuli; people are rational beings that require active participation in order to learn, and whose actions are a consequence of thinking.
Constructivist – build upon what we know already. “The basic premise is that an individual learner must actively "build" knowledge and skills (e.g., Bruner , 1990) and that information exists within these built constructs rather than in the external environment.”
Social Constructivist – “Pioneered by theorists such as Vygotsky (1978), this paradigm argues for the importance of culture and context in forming understanding. Learning is not a purely internal process, nor is it a passive shaping of behaviours. Vygotsky favoured a concept of learning as a social construct which is mediated by language via social discourse. “
“ All teachers already use instructional design, even if they are not trained in this. The purpose of an instructional designer is to make this process thoughtful, purposeful and effective. The ID professional should be trained on technological applications that will assist the teaching/learning process. ”
Reiser, R.A. (2001). A History of Instructional Design and Technology: Part I: A History of Instructional Media. Educational Technology Research and Development , 49 (1), 53-64.
Reiser, R.A. (2001). A History of Instructional Design and Technology: Part II: A History of Instructional Design. Educational Technology Research and Development , 49 (2), 57-67. http://www.aect.org/pdf/etr&d/4902/4902-04.pdf