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Bioreview2011 s

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    Bioreview2011 s Bioreview2011 s Presentation Transcript

    • BIOLOGY REVIEW
      ASHE – Spring ‘11
    • What is an object called that is alive now or was once alive?
    • 7 Characteristics of Life
      M: Movement
      R: Respiration
      S: Sensitive to the environment
      G: Growth
      R: Reproduction
      E: Excretion
      N: Nutrition
      A LIVING OBJECT
    • Is the object below a living or nonliving object?
    • NONLIVING
    • What are the 2 main differences between plant and animal cells?
    • Plant cells have a cell wall and chloroplast
    • Which cell organelle is the outer boundary of the cell?
    • http://apbio82007.blogspot.com/2007/11/cell-membrane.html
      The cell membrane
    • What organelle produces energy for the cell? It is also known as the powerhouse of the cell.
    • MITOCHONDRIA
    • The ribosomes in the cell are responsible for making ____________.
    • protein
    • WHAT TYPE OF SYMBIOTIC RELATIONSHIP IS DESCRIBED BELOW:
      BARNACLES ATTACH TO WHALES FOR STABILITY AND ALSO GET FOOD FROM THE FILTERED WATER AROUND THE WHALE
    • Commensalism because the barnacles gain but the whales didn’t benefit nor were they harmed.
      Image from http://www.alaska-in-pictures.com/humpback-whale-skin-barnacles-6432-pictures.htm
    • Look at the food chain above. Label the producer, the primary consumer and the secondary consumer.
    • ** Grass – producer
      ** Rabbit – primary consumer; eats the grass
      ** Fox – secondary consumer; eats the rabbit
    • Look at this food chain. What would happen if a drought hit the area and the grass died?
    • If the grass were to die, the rabbits would not have food so they would eventually die. Then the foxes would not have food when the rabbits die so they would die as well.
    • What are the two types of passive transport?
    • Passive transport is when particles move from areas of high concentration to areas of low concentration. It requires no energy.
      Two examples of passive transport is diffusion and osmosis.
    • When a dog pants, it is trying to maintain a level body temperature. This is an example of what process?
    • HOMEOSTASIS
      The balance that all living things have to maintain, is called HOMEOSTASIS.
    • Particles are always moving around. They move from areas that more crowded to areas that are less crowded. This process is called ______________________.
    • DIFFUSION
      crowdedless crowded
    • Diffusion occurs in cells too. What organelle allows diffusion to take place by allowing things to enter and exit the cell?
    • Cell Membrane
    • Osmosis
      is the diffusion of _______
    • Water
    • Like Passive Transport (diffusion/osmosis), Active Transport moves particles in and out of the cell, but this time it moves them from less crowded to MORE crowded.
      When moving particles against the crowd, it requires ____________.
    • Energy
    • In what type of organisms does photosynthesis occur?
    • Plants/ Producers
    • In photosynthesis, plants take in water, sunlight and carbon dioxide to make what?
    • carbon
      dioxide
      + water + energy  glucose + oxygen
      light
      energy

      6CO2
      6H2O
      6O2
      +
      +
      +
      C6H12O6
      Glucose (Sugar) and Oxygen
    • In what cellular organelle does photosynthesis take place?
    • Chloroplast
    • What process breaks down glucose and oxygen to produce water, carbon dioxide and ENERGY (ATP)?
    • Cellular Respiration
    • In what cellular organelle does cellular respiration take place?
    • Mitochondria – the powerhouse of the cell
    • In order for your computer to work, it needs electricity. Electricity is a type of energy. Cellular respiration produces energy called ATP. Why is this important?
    • Cells need energy, ATP, to carry out all chemical functions to make our bodies run properly.
    • carbon
      dioxide
      + water + energy  glucose + oxygen
      light
      energy

      6CO2
      6H2O
      6O2
      +
      +
      +
      C6H12O6
      The equation below is for what process?
    • PHOTOSYNTHESIS
    • This cellular organelle is often called the “brain” of the cell. It contains the DNA.
    • Nucleus
    • A DNA molecule is in the shape of double helix. It looks like a _______ ______________.
    • Twisted ladder
    • What are the 4 main organic compounds?
    • Lipids (fats), carbohydrates, proteins, and nucleic acids
    • ________________ are substances that help speed up a chemical reaction without being used.
    • Enzymes
    • A DNA molecule is made up of nucleotides. The three parts of a nucleotide is :
      Nitrogen base
      Phosphate group
      _______________
    • The third part of the nucleotide in a DNA molecule is the DEOXYRIBOSE (which is a sugar)
    • In a DNA molecule there are can be 4 different nitrogen bases. Name those bases and which bases pair together.
    • The 4 Nitrogen bases are Adenine (A), Thymine (T), Guanine (G), and Cytosine (C)
      A pairs with T
      G pairs with C
    • A DNA molecule makes a copy of itself through a process called DNA Replication.
      There are three steps to replication.
      The DNA molecule untwists & unzips
      _________________________________
      The molecules re-twist and there is now a new DNA molecule
    • Image taken from library.thinkquest.org
      2. Free nucleotides from inside the nucleus bond with the nitrogen bases on the original DNA molecule
    • Take this DNA sequence and go through DNA replication and form a new DNA section.
      AACGCGTACGTATC
    • Original DNA: AATCGCGTACGTATC
      New DNA sequence: TTAGCGCATGCATAG
    • Now take that same original DNA sequence and form a RNA sequence:
      AATCGCGTACGTATC
    • Original DNA sequence:
      AATCGCGTACGTATC
      RNA sequence:
      UUAGCGCAUGCAUAG
    • Now take that original DNA sequence and form the protein sequence
      AATCGCGTACGTATC
    • Original DNA sequence:
      AATCGCGTACGTATC
      RNA sequence:
      UUAGCGCAUGCAUAG
      By looking at the amino acid chart this RNA sequence would give us this protein sequence:
      Leucine – Alanine – Histidine – Alanine - Stop
    • For BROWN eyes, you can have a genotype of
      BB or Bb
      Of those two genotypes, which one is a homozygous genotype?
    • Homozygous means the two alleles are the same.
      So BB is a homozygous genotype
    • Tom has blue eyes and his wife, Janelle, has blue eyes.
      What are the genotypes of both Tom and Janelle?
      Perform a Punnett Square, to determine the probability that their children will have brown eyes.
    • The Blue allele for eyes is a RECESSIVE trait. Therefore, in order to have BLUE eyes, both alleles must be recessive. So the genotype for both Tom and Janelle is bb
      Tom and Janelle’s children have a ZERO chance of having Brown eyes
      b b
      b
      b
    • Why does our DNA need to replicate?
    • So that every cell will have the same DNA
    • Adenine (A) only combines with __________
      Cytosine (C) only combines with __________
      In a DNA molecule, the nitrogen bases make up the “steps of the ladder.” The bases can only combine in certain ways.
    • Adenine (A) only combines with Thymine (T)
      Cytosine (C) only combines with Guanine (G)
    • Who is the Father of Genetics?
    • Gregor Mendel
    • Genes are passed from the parents to their children. The child gets _______ of their genes from their mom and _______ of their genes from their dad.
    • HALF
    • Tall (T) is a dominant trait in Pea Plants.
      Short (t)is a recessive trait.
      If you cross a heterozygous Tall plant with a short plant, what is the probability that you will get a short plant?
    • A Tall heterozgyous plant would have a genotype of Tt
      A short plant would have a genotype of tt
      t
      T
      t
      t
      There is a 50% chance that you will get a short plant