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Urban and peri-urban agriculture (UPA):an important strategy to building resilient cities ?! The Role of Urban Agriculture in building resilient cities Conference UPA, Monrovia, Liberia, 14-15 February 2013 René van Veenhuizen, RUAF Foundation
Urban and peri-urban agriculture• Agricultural production (crops, trees, livestock, fish) in and around urban areas for food (vegetables, eggs, milk, meat, ..) and other products (e.g. medicinal and aromatic herbs, fodder, fuel, flowers and ornamental plants, water storage, a/o)….• And related inputs supply, transport, processing, marketing and support services…• Often combined with other functions (recreation, urban greening, recycling of wastes, capturing CO2, etcetera), as part of the urban system
Multiple Benefits ECOLOGICAL (Healthy City) SOCIAL (Inclusive City) ECONOMIC (Productive City ) Multiple Levels And ActorsRehabilitate Resilience Transformation
Variety of urban farming systems a) In the urban spaces used
d) in degree of formality, organisation and marketing
Nothing New? Urban Population is projected to double from 300 – 600 Million in the next 25 years- Urbanisation- Urbanisation of Poverty 70 % living of less than US 2 per day A healthy diet would cost cost almost all of its- Food Insecurity / Prices income of the poor- Depleting Resources Cities not ready for changing climate:- Climate Change -Ecologically unfriendly configuration -Often lack effective waste management City Region Food Systems African Green Urbanism (UN Habitat)
Renewed interest- RUAF, Resource Centres on Urban Agriculture and Food Security- Urban Harvest (CGIAR)- FAO, Food for the Cities,- IWMI (CGIAR), International Water Management Institute: resource recovery- START, Climate Change Adaptation and UPA- UN Habitat, Cities and Climate Change Initiative- ICLEI, Resilient Cities- UNEP, UPA and Environment- AFSUN, Africa Food Security Urban Network- USAID, EU, IDRC, Sida, GiZ, SDC, etc…..
ACTUAL URBAN CHALLENGES; CAN URBAN AGRICULTURE MAKE A CONTRIBUTION?1. Growing urban poverty and social exclusion2. Growing food insecurity and malnutrition in cities3. Growing need to enhance resilience of the cities and reduce climate change/disaster risks and ecological foot print4. Growing waste management problems5. Growing need for green spaces and recreational services for the urban population
Is UPA contributing to reducing urban poverty and social exclusion?• UPA is an important primary or secondary source of income for large numbers of poor urban people (RUAF, FAO)• In market oriented UPA often good net returns to capital invested are realised (table) … (ODI, FAO Studies)• UPA stimulates SME’s in compost production, food processing, marketing and agro-tourism (green jobs)• UPA is often used to facilitate social integration of newcomers and disadvantaged groups and community development
Integration in employment generating strategies•Exploring the potential of green jobs: UPA as a driver for job creation in cleanenergy production through waste re-use... ...and productive decentralised waste management Or micro- enterprise development One job per 110 sq. meter (FAO)
Is UPA enhancing urban food security & nutrition?• About 15-20% of the world’s food is producedin urban areas; For perishable products this mayrise to 60 % or more (table)• poor urban households produce 20-60 % oftheir food themselves (e.g. East Jakarta 18%, Kampala 50 %, Harare 60 %)•….. AFSUN, RUAF studies ……• Producing households are less vulnerable toeconomic crisis and increases in food pricesthan non-producing households (RUAF)•The costs of supplying food from distantsources are rising rapidly; often onlylimited cold storage transport facilities availableWhile < 10 % of SSA homes have refrigerator
In Africa• 70 % of urban poor households normally source food from the informal sector, of which 31 % do so on a daily basis (informal markets, street foods, small shops)• 22 % of households obtain food from their own gardens (on home plot or on public land) but only 8 per cent get food from this source at least once a week.• 40 % of urban residents are engaged in some sort agricultural activity, including production of staple crops, vegetables, fruit, milk, etc.• In Nairobi, Kibera, 11,000 households have “sack gardens”, which provide food and sales to cater for monthly rent.(sources: AFSUN, FAO, RUAF)
Is UPA contributing to disaster reduction and cities’ adaptation to climate change?• UPA reduces the urban energy consumption (less transport, cooling, packaging)• UPA reduces floods and land slides by keeping flood plains free from construction, reducing erosion and run off and facilitating water infiltration and -storage• Productive reuse of urban organic wastes in UPA reduces methane emission from landfills & use of fosile minerals• UPA improves the urban micro-climate (wind breaks, shade, reduction of urban heat, dust and CO2) and conserves biodiversity.
Is UPA contributing to reducing urban wastes and fresh water problems?• Urban wastewater and organic wastes contain large amounts ofnutrients with high economic value• 14-17% increase of water supply for irrigation in agriculture isneeded by 2030 to meet dietary needs; but fresh wateravailability is quickly declining.• Productive reuse of urban wastewater and organic wastes will:a. enable year round production close to the consumers,b. reduce the pressure on freshwater resources withouthampering food productionc. reduce the need for artificial fertilisersand methane emissions from landfillsd. Contribute to cost recovery of investment inSanitation and treatement
*) Source Separation and Re-use *) Service Orientation….By creating value Ouagadougou, Burkina Faso Cagayan de Oro, Philippines A market for Human manure is being developed. Improved production (12% - Community gets improved sanitation and pays for higher yield, earlier collection of waste - Farmers pay for fertilizers at market prices flowering, greener leaves - Willingness to pay is high with farmers, but does (palm, mango) and healthier not cover transport crop stand) when urine applied *) Productive Sanitation *) Urban and Rural Linkages in Food *) Multiple Use of Water (MUS) Production
Health and Environmental risks• Contamination of crops with pathogens due to irrigation with contaminated water or unhygienic handling of food• Diseases transferred to humans by rodents and flies attracted by agriculture (tick born diseases) or scavenging domestic animals• Contamination of crops: due to a: overuse of agrochemicals (occurs mainly in areas with many years of intensive horticulture) and b. due to air, soil and water pollution by industry or heavy traffic.• Contamination of groundwater due to excessive use of agrochemicals or nitrate-rich manure or wastewater.• Non-farming neighbours may complain of visual untidiness, dust, smell and noise created by the urban farms Regulation, Risk minimisation, Safety Guidelines
•Drip and furrow irrigation•Sedimentation ponds•Cessation of irrigation•Filter•Low water & soil splash•Improved water fetching•Increased retention time•On-farm treatment
SOME STRATEGIES THAT CITIES APPLY TO PROMOTE URBAN AGRICULTURE AND CITY RESILIENCE Creation of an enabling policy environment (recognition, policies and legislation, institutional home Reducing health and environmentl risks (coordination, zoning, awareness, active source pollution control) Enhancing access to land and use security (mapping, zoning, tax incentives) Support to Farmers in organisation, access to land, finance, marketing (support organisation, access to credit, extension support, value chain development, farmers markets).
Liberia Multi Stakeholder Platforms Land use maps and develop in Greater zoning and negotiations with Monrovia, Tubmanburg and the farmers in Greater GbarngaUPA – including farmer Monrovia and Tubmanburgmarkets – as part of greeningof Monrovia UPA in New Ordinances of Tubmanburg and Urban Farmer Organisation Gbarnga FLUPFACurriculum Development
Freetown/ Western Area Rural District, Sierra LeoneZoning and allocating low lyingareas and valleys for agricultureto reduce impacts offlooding, storm water runoff isreduced, and excess water isstored and infiltrating in thesegreen open spacesPolitical agreement brokered byFreetown Urban and Peri UrbanAgriculture Platform (FUPAP)•Min. of Lands maps and demarcates the areas;•Local authorities sign agreements with farmers groups;•Min. of Agriculture provide extension services and inputs;•Finance and Credit Institutions accept as collaterals•FUPAP: Conflict Mgt + Monitoring Impact
Cape Town, South Africa1. Protection of 450 hectare of wetlands withinthe built up city as horticulture cum ecologicalarea (against pressure of building companies)2. Provision of vacant land, seed, tools andwater to groups of urban poor for small scalehorticulture3. Establishment of “short chain” marketingschemes (producer2consumer)
The Peepoo value chain in Kibera1 2 3 4 5Local semi- Women micro- Personal Drop-points Processed intomanual entrepreneurs Home Toilet with refund commercialproduction fertiliser School Toilet Bag gardens
Colombo, Sri Lanka1. Integration of urban agriculture as part of slum and lane upgrading (beautification, drainage, shade, consumption)2. Housing design and plot regulations take into account micro-farming requirements (growing on walls and window sills, location with regards to solar access; limiting maximum built-up area)
Lima, Peru1.Participatory design of multi-functional“productive parks”2.Reuse of wastewater to irrigate parksand urban forests (greening; recreation;income generation through communitynurseries)
3. Electricity company is leasing land under power lines to groups of urbanpoor to prevent illegal building on these strips
Belo Horizonte, Brazil• Major urban agriculture programme (as part of national Zero Hunger policy)• Promotion of small scale organic urban horticulture (technical assistance, credit , certification, farmers’ markets)• Support to associative food enterprises• Local food procurement by government offices and social programmes)
Almere, The NetherlandsUrban agriculture as part of the city food strategy: is it possible to produce inAgromere 20% of the daily food basket of future Almere with 350.000inhabitants?Design Agromere: 180 ha urban farming (88 ha animal husbandry; 25 ha fruits andvegetables; 62 ha arable farming; 5 ha horticulture)What would be the climate impact due to production of fresh food close to city(less transport, cooling, packaging processing) ?Reduction:-16 million km transport-Energy use of 11.000 households Almere-GHG emission of 2.000 Dutchinhabitants Agromere
RUAF• International network of 8 Resource centers on Urban Agriculture and Food security• Working in and around 20 cities in 17 countries• City partners and local and international partnersCity Programmes including:Facilitating a Multi-stakeholder Forum MPAPStrategic Action planning and Integration of urban agriculture in land use planning, institutional programs and budgetsKnowledge generation and disseminationStrengthening (poor) urban producer groupsand enhancing their capacity to innovate their production systems;Enhancing access to local financingNational Policy LobbyingProductive re-use of water and waste waterAdaptation to Climate Change
City Percentage of urban consumption met by urban agriculture All Eggs Poultry Milk Pork vegetablesLa Paz (2000) 30Dakar (2000) 70-80 65-70Dar Es Salaam 90 60(2000)Accra (2003) 90Nouakchott (1999) 90Shanghai (2000) 60 90 50 90- 50 100Hanoi (2000; 2004) 30-75 40 50 50 (seasonal)Vientiane (2004) 20-100 back (seasonal)
City Typical monthly net income in US$ for irrigated peri-urban vegetable productionAccra 40-50Bangui 320 (producers), 140 (retailers)Brazzaville 140-170 (producers), 120 (retailers)Cameroon 69Lagos 120Ouagadougou 25-100 (70)Yaoundé 34-67Ho Chi Minh City 40-125 (80)Jakarta 30-50 back