Managers and Management
L E A R N I N G  O U T C O M E S <ul><li>Describe the difference between managers and operative employees. </li></ul><ul><...
L E A R N I N G  O U T C O M E S  (cont’d) <ul><li>Describe the four general skills necessary for becoming a successful ma...
Who Are Managers And  Where Do They Work? <ul><li>Organization </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A systematic arrangement of people br...
EXHIBIT 1 –1 Common Characteristics of Organizations
People Differences <ul><li>Operatives </li></ul><ul><ul><li>People who work directly on a job or task and have no responsi...
EXHIBIT 1 –2 Organizational Levels
Identifying Managers <ul><li>First-line Managers </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Supervisors responsible for directing the day-to-da...
How Do We Define Management? <ul><li>Management </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The process of getting things done,  effectively and...
EXHIBIT 1 –3 Efficiency and Effectiveness
EXHIBIT 1 –4 Management Process Activities
Management Processes <ul><li>Planning </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Includes defining goals, establishing strategy, and developing...
Management Processes (cont’d) <ul><li>Leading </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Includes motivating employees, directing the activitie...
EXHIBIT 1 –5 Mintzberg’s Managerial Roles <ul><li>Interpersonal </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Figurehead </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><l...
Is The Manager’s Job Universal? <ul><li>Level in the Organization </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Do managers manage differently bas...
EXHIBIT 1 –6 Distribution of Time per Activity by Organizational Level Source:  Adapted from T. A. Mahoney, T. H. Jerdee, ...
EXHIBIT 1 –7 Importance of Managerial Roles  in Small and Large Businesses Source:  Adapted from J. G. P. Paolillo, “The M...
Is The Manager’s Job Universal? (cont’d) <ul><li>Management Concepts and National Borders </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Is managem...
General Skills for Managers Conceptual Skills Political skills Interpersonal skills Technical skills Skills of Successful ...
Steps in Mentoring <ul><li>Communicate honestly and openly with your protégé. </li></ul><ul><li>Encourage honest and open ...
Specific Skills for Managers <ul><li>Behaviors related to a manager’s  effectiveness : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Controlling t...
EXHIBIT 1 –8 Standards Overview of Managerial Competencies Management Competencies A cluster of knowledge, skills, and att...
How Much Importance Does The Marketplace Put On Managers? <ul><li>Good (effective) managerial skills are a scarce commodit...
Why Study Management? <ul><li>We all have a vested interest in improving the way organizations are managed. </li></ul><ul>...
How Does Management Relate  To Other Disciplines? Sociology Psychology Political Science Economics Philosophy Anthropology...
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Managers and Management

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  • While the importance of managerial roles varies depending on a manager’s position within an organization, the differences are of degree and emphasis, not of function. As managers move up the organization, for example, they spend less time supervising and more time planning. All managers, however, make decisions and plan, lead, organize, and control. But the amount of time they give to each activity is not necessarily constant. In addition, the content of the managerial activities changes with the manager’s level. When measuring managerial performance in business, profit (the bottom line) is an unambiguous criterion. Even though not-for-profit organizations need money to survive, however, their managers do not live and die to maximize profits. Given this difference, managers working in profit and not-for-profit organizations must perform similar functions: planning, organizing, leading, and controlling.
  • While the importance of managerial roles varies depending on a manager’s position within an organization, the differences are of degree and emphasis, not of function. As managers move up the organization, for example, they spend less time supervising and more time planning. All managers, however, make decisions and plan, lead, organize, and control. But the amount of time they give to each activity is not necessarily constant. In addition, the content of the managerial activities changes with the manager’s level. When measuring managerial performance in business, profit (the bottom line) is an unambiguous criterion. Even though not-for-profit organizations need money to survive, however, their managers do not live and die to maximize profits. Given this difference, managers working in profit and not-for-profit organizations must perform similar functions: planning, organizing, leading, and controlling.
  • Research has also identified specific sets of behaviors that explain more than 50 percent of a manager’s effectiveness. Controlling the organization’s environment and resources . Effective managers are proactive and stay ahead of environmental changes. They base decisions on clear, up-to-date, accurate knowledge of the organization’s objectives. Organizing and coordinating . Managers organize around tasks and coordinate interdependent relationships among tasks wherever they exist Handling information . Managers use information and communication channels for identifying problems, understanding environmental changes, and making effective decisions. Providing for growth and development . Managers use continual learning on the job to provide for the personal growth and development of themselves and their employees. Motivating employees and handling conflicts . Effective managers maximize positive on-the-job situations and minimize conflicts so that employees feel motivated to do their best work. Strategic problem solving . Managers take responsibility for their decisions and ensure that subordinates use effective decision-making skills.
  • Managers are usually more highly paid than operatives. As a manager’s authority and responsibility expand, so typically does his or her pay. So, compensation packages are one measure of the value that organizations place on good managerial skills. Most first-line supervisors earn between $30,000 and $55,000 a year. Middle managers start near $45,000 and top out at about $120,000 annually. Senior managers can earn $1 million or more per year. Reflecting the law of supply and demand, management superstars are wooed with attractive perquisites.
  • We study management because we interact with organizations every day and have a vested interest in improving the way they are managed. Why? Because we interact with them every day of our lives. We also study management because after graduation we will either manage or be managed. For those who plan on careers in management, understanding the process of management can form the foundation on which to build their skills. Even if you do not plan to be a manager, the study of management will help you to understand the way your boss behaves and the internal workings of organizations.
  • Fom6 ch01in

    1. 1. Managers and Management
    2. 2. L E A R N I N G O U T C O M E S <ul><li>Describe the difference between managers and operative employees. </li></ul><ul><li>Explain what is meant by the term management. </li></ul><ul><li>Differentiate between efficiency and effectiveness. </li></ul><ul><li>Describe the four primary processes of management. </li></ul><ul><li>Classify the three levels of managers and identify the primary responsibility of each group. </li></ul><ul><li>Summarize the essential roles performed by managers. </li></ul><ul><li>Discuss whether the manager’s job is generic. </li></ul>After reading this chapter, you will be able to:
    3. 3. L E A R N I N G O U T C O M E S (cont’d) <ul><li>Describe the four general skills necessary for becoming a successful manager. </li></ul><ul><li>Describe the value of studying management. </li></ul><ul><li>Identify the relevance of popular humanities and social science courses to management practices. </li></ul>After reading this chapter, you will be able to:
    4. 4. Who Are Managers And Where Do They Work? <ul><li>Organization </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A systematic arrangement of people brought together to accomplish some specific purpose; applies to all organizations. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Where managers work (manage). </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Common Characteristics of Organizations </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Distinct purpose and goals </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>People </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Systematic structure </li></ul></ul>
    5. 5. EXHIBIT 1 –1 Common Characteristics of Organizations
    6. 6. People Differences <ul><li>Operatives </li></ul><ul><ul><li>People who work directly on a job or task and have no responsibility for overseeing the work of others. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Managers </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Individuals in an organization who direct the activities of others. </li></ul></ul>
    7. 7. EXHIBIT 1 –2 Organizational Levels
    8. 8. Identifying Managers <ul><li>First-line Managers </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Supervisors responsible for directing the day-to-day activities of operative employees </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Middle Managers </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Individuals at levels of management between the first-line manager and top management </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Top Managers </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Individuals who are responsible for making decisions about the direction of the organization and establishing policies that affect all organizational members </li></ul></ul>
    9. 9. How Do We Define Management? <ul><li>Management </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The process of getting things done, effectively and efficiently , through and with other people </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Efficiency </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Doing the thing correctly; refers to the relationship between inputs and outputs; seeks to minimize resource costs </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Effectiveness </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Doing the right things; goal attainment </li></ul></ul></ul>
    10. 10. EXHIBIT 1 –3 Efficiency and Effectiveness
    11. 11. EXHIBIT 1 –4 Management Process Activities
    12. 12. Management Processes <ul><li>Planning </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Includes defining goals, establishing strategy, and developing plans to coordinate activities </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Organizing </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Includes determining what tasks to be done, who is to do them, how the tasks are to be grouped, who reports to whom, and where decisions are to be made </li></ul></ul>
    13. 13. Management Processes (cont’d) <ul><li>Leading </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Includes motivating employees, directing the activities of others, selecting the most effective communication channel, and resolving conflicts </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Controlling </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The process of monitoring performance, comparing it with goals, and correcting any significant deviations </li></ul></ul>
    14. 14. EXHIBIT 1 –5 Mintzberg’s Managerial Roles <ul><li>Interpersonal </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Figurehead </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Leader </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Liaison </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Informational </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Monitor </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Disseminator </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Spokesperson </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Decisional </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Entrepreneur </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Disturbance handler </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Resource allocator </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Negotiator </li></ul></ul>Source: The Nature of Managerial Work (paperback) by H. Mintzberg. Table 2, pp. 92–93. Reprinted by permission of Pearson Education Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ.
    15. 15. Is The Manager’s Job Universal? <ul><li>Level in the Organization </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Do managers manage differently based on where they are in the organization? </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Profit versus Not-for-profit </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Is managing in a commercial enterprise different than managing in a non-commercial organization? </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Size of Organization </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Does the size of an organization affect how managers function in the organization? </li></ul></ul>
    16. 16. EXHIBIT 1 –6 Distribution of Time per Activity by Organizational Level Source: Adapted from T. A. Mahoney, T. H. Jerdee, and S. J. Carroll, “The Job(s) of Management.” Industrial Relations 4, no. 2 (1965), p. 103.
    17. 17. EXHIBIT 1 –7 Importance of Managerial Roles in Small and Large Businesses Source: Adapted from J. G. P. Paolillo, “The Manager’s Self-Assessments of Managerial Roles: Small vs. Large Firms,” American Journal of Small Business (January–March 1984) pp. 61–62.
    18. 18. Is The Manager’s Job Universal? (cont’d) <ul><li>Management Concepts and National Borders </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Is management the same in all economic, cultural, social and political systems? </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Making Decisions and Dealing with Change </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Do managers all make decisions and deal with change in the same ways? </li></ul></ul>
    19. 19. General Skills for Managers Conceptual Skills Political skills Interpersonal skills Technical skills Skills of Successful Managers
    20. 20. Steps in Mentoring <ul><li>Communicate honestly and openly with your protégé. </li></ul><ul><li>Encourage honest and open communication from your protégé. </li></ul><ul><li>Treat the relationship with the protégé as a learning opportunity. </li></ul><ul><li>Take the time to get to know your protégé. </li></ul>
    21. 21. Specific Skills for Managers <ul><li>Behaviors related to a manager’s effectiveness : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Controlling the organization’s environment and its resources. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Organizing and coordinating. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Handling information. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Providing for growth and development. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Motivating employees and handling conflicts. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Strategic problem solving. </li></ul></ul>
    22. 22. EXHIBIT 1 –8 Standards Overview of Managerial Competencies Management Competencies A cluster of knowledge, skills, and attitudes related to effective managerial performance.
    23. 23. How Much Importance Does The Marketplace Put On Managers? <ul><li>Good (effective) managerial skills are a scarce commodity. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Managerial compensation packages are one measure of the value that organizations place on managers. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Management compensation reflects the market forces of supply and demand. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Management superstars, like superstar athletes in professional sports, are wooed with signing bonuses, interest-free loans, performance incentive packages, and guaranteed contracts. </li></ul></ul></ul>
    24. 24. Why Study Management? <ul><li>We all have a vested interest in improving the way organizations are managed. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Better organizations are, in part, the result of good management. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>You will eventually either manage or be managed. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Gaining an understanding of the management process provides the foundation for developing management skills and insight into the behavior of individuals and the organizations. </li></ul></ul>
    25. 25. How Does Management Relate To Other Disciplines? Sociology Psychology Political Science Economics Philosophy Anthropology Management
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