Agricultural Productivity and Economic Development in Southern Africa

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A presentation by Dr. Irene Forichi, former research officer for the Ministry of Agriculture, Zimbabwe, and Regional Emergency Agronomist for the Food and Agriculture Organization for Southern Africa. …

A presentation by Dr. Irene Forichi, former research officer for the Ministry of Agriculture, Zimbabwe, and Regional Emergency Agronomist for the Food and Agriculture Organization for Southern Africa. Dr. Forichi's spoke with our IB year 2 Economics classes about the role of agricultural productivity in contributing to human development and economic growth in Southern Africa.

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  • 1. SMALLHOLDER AGRICULTURE AND SOCIO- ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT IN SOUTHERN AFRICA Prepared by Dr. Irene Kadzere- Forichi For ZIS Grade 12 Economics Class
  • 2. SOUTHERN AFRICA 15 countries in SADC
  • 3. • Vegetables• Maize/corn • Tobacco• Wheat • Potatoes• Small grains • Sweet potatoes• Sugarcane • Cassava• Cotton • Plantation crops e.g.• Fruits
  • 4. http://www.liv.ac.uk/~kempsj/projects.html#tophttp://www.newcastle-staffs.gov.uk http://www.foodnet.cgiar.org/images/Livestock_MIS.jp
  • 5. SELECTED HUMAN DEVELOPMENT INDICATORS IN SELECTED COUNTRIESBasic Indicators Malawi South Africa ZimbabweTotal population (thousands), 2009 15263 50110 12523Total adult literacy rate (%), 2005-2008* 73 89 91Primary school net enrolment/attendance (%), 2005-2009* 91 87 90% of population using improved drinking-water sources 2008, urban 95 99 99% of population using improved drinking-water sources 2008, rural 77 78 72% of population using improved sanitation facilities 2008, urban 51 84 56% of population using improved sanitation facilities 2008, rural 57 65 37Estimated adult HIV prevalence rate (aged 15-49), 2009 11 17.8 14.3Orphans, Children (aged 0-17) orphaned due to all causes, 2009, estimate (thousands) 1000 3400 1400Youth (15-24 years) literacy rate, 2004-2008*, male 87 96 98Youth (15-24 years) literacy rate, 2004-2008*, female 85 98 99Number per 100 population , 2008, phones 12 91 13Number per 100 population , 2008, Internet users 2 8 11Life expectancy, 1970 41 53 55Life expectancy, 1990 49 61 61Life expectancy, 2009 54 52 46GNI per capita (US$), 2009 280 5770 aGDP per capita average annual growth rate (%), 1970-1990 -0.1 0.1 -0.4GDP per capita average annual growth rate (%), 1990-2009 0.5 1.2 -1.9Average annual rate of inflation (%), 1990-2009 28 8 62% of population below international poverty line of US$1.25 per day, 1994-2008* 74 26 -Source:
  • 6. POPULATION DEMOGRAPHICSSADC National SADC Aggregated Population 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010Angola 15.9 16.3 16.8 17.3 17.8 280 277Botswana 1.7 1.8 1.8 1.8 1.8 275DRC 63.7 65.8 68.1 70.4 72.8 Population (millions)Lesotho 1.9 1.9 1.9 1.9 1.9 270 267.1Madagascar 19.2 19.7 20.2 20.8 21.3 265Malawi 12.8 12.9 13.1 13.5 15.9 260.3 260Mauritius 1.3 1.3 1.3 1.3 1.3 255 253.8Mozambiqu 19.9 20.6 21.2 21.8 22.4e 248 250Namibia 2 2 2.1 2.1 2.1Seychelles 0.9 0.9 0.9 0.9 0.9 245South Africa 47.4 47.9 48.7 49.3 50 240Swaziland 1 1 1 1 1.1 235Tanzania 37.5 38.3 39.5 40.7 42Zambia 11.8 12.2 12.5 12.9 13 230Zimbabwe 12 12 12.1 12.2 13.5 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010SADCRegion 248 253.8 260.3 267.1 277 Source, SADC
  • 7. RURAL AND URBAN POPULATION Steady increase in urban population and decline in rural populationSource: Southern African Development Community, 2012
  • 8. : Growth (%) -20 -10 0 10 20 30 40 50 An go la Bo ts w an aSource, SADC D R C Le so th o M al aw i M au ri t iu M s oz am bi qu e N am ib So ia ut h Af ric a Sw az il a nd Fig 2: SADC – Inflation, 2008-2010 Ta nz an ia Za m 2008 bi a Zi m ba bw 2009 e SA D 2010 C
  • 9. Source: Rugube, 2011
  • 10. Source: Rugube, 2011
  • 11. Source: Rugube, 2011
  • 12. AGRICULTURE AND SOCIO-ECONOMICDEVELOPMENT IN SOUTHERN AFRICA
  • 13.  Up to 80% of the population in SADC depends on agriculture Crops Livestock GDP contribution (see figure below)
  • 14. http://www.imf.org/external/pubs/ft/spn/2009/spn0914.pdf
  • 15. FACTORS LIMITING ATTAINMENT OFAGRICULTURAL POTENTIAL IN THE REGION Poverty – limited use of external inputs such as fertilizers, poor asset base e.g. Animals for land preparation Technological limitations Gender imbalance in access to production resources and decision making Policy limitations Limited/lack of financing or access to credit by smallholder farmers Limited technical know-how/capacity Limited access to information Poor access to markets Poor infrastructure – roads, rail, air, ports, storage facilities, etc High postharvest losses on farm, in transit to markets, during marketing Limited diversity of crops/livestock Climatic challenges – floods, droughts, variability in rainfall High land degradation problems (erosion, siltation, salinity, deforestation etc) Disease pandemics – human Pests and diseases outbreaks – and implications on output, qulity and marketability Conflicts/unrest Low investments into agricultural resach and development
  • 16. Land DegradationSource, ACT
  • 17. Source: IFPRI, 2004
  • 18. Low investments into agricultureSource: Rugube, 2011
  • 19. 5.0 Botswana 4.5 Lesotho MalawiMaize Yield (tonnes per hectare) 4.0 Mozambique South Africa 3.5 Zambia 3.0 Zimbabwe 2.5 2.0 1.5 1.0 0.5 0.0 Source, FAO STAT
  • 20. Poor Crop
  • 21. SOME POSSIBLE WAYS TO ADDRESS THE CONSTRAINTS Development and promotion of suitable technologies Empower women – address gender disparities and mainstream issues such as HIV/AIDS Promote policies that are more favourable to smallholder farmers including subsidies as appropriate Improved credit access or financing of rural farming interventions Improved access to quality inputs Capacity building including information generation, networks and communication Support to establishment of sustainable market linkages Infrastrucre development including local level storage facilities and handling and processing zones Reduce postharvest losses – improve onfarm storage etc Diversify production and support COMMERCIALIZATION OF SMALLHOLDER FARMING Increase productivity Climate mitigation through e.g. small scale irrigation Building up the asset base for the poor – e.g livetsock Social protection measures Addressing soil and land degradation problems (erosion, siltation, salinity, deforestation etc) – intergrating agroforesty Smallscale agroprocessing initiatives – value addition Increased public and private sector invetsments into agricultural research and development
  • 22. Selected imports by Malawi - 2009 160000 140000Quantity (tonnes) 120000 100000 Major sources 80000 60000 40000 20000 0 90000 80000 Total Value (000 US $) 70000 60000 50000 $81 million of wheat imported in 40000 2010, a 23% rise from 2009 30000 20000 10000 0
  • 23. Source: FAO STAT, 2012
  • 24. SUPPORTING VULNERABLE FARMERS TOINCREASE PRODUCTIVITY IN SOUTHERN AFRICARecovery from emergencies/disasters, riskreduction and mitigation• Access to inputs and market linkages (e.g. Contract farming)• Improved production techniques• Mitigation to disastsers - diversification, conservation farming techniques, local seed production, small scale irrigation, gardening• Small livestock projects including pass on-schemes• Control of pests and diseases• Improved postharvest handling
  • 25. Most common method of planting under smallholder farming
  • 26. CONSERVATION AGRICULTURE Conservation agriculture (CA)can increase maize yields by up to 200% Source: ACT and FAO
  • 27. Conservation agriculture can help farmers to prepare their fields and plant on time 100 90 80 70percent of plots 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 ay ly t y ry ne h ril er r r r us be be be ar c Ju Ap ua ob M ar Ju g nu m m m Au br M ct ve ce te Ja O Fe p No De Se timing of field preparation CF basins plow Source: Haggblade and Tembo (2003)
  • 28. Practicing various forms ofcrop mixtures/rotations underCA help to improve soil health and diversiy food Source, ACT
  • 29. AWARENESS AND CAPACITYBUILDING REQUIRED AT ALL LEVELS Training of agricultural extension workers
  • 30. Capacity building – practical sessions for farmersAwareness and training among farmers and extension staff Source, ACT and GART
  • 31. Increasing awareness among policy and decision makersSource, FAO and ACT
  • 32. More research on the farms
  • 33. AGROFORESTR Y
  • 34. CAN AGRICULTURE HELP SADC COUNTIRES TO DEVELOP?http://www.sarpn.org/documents/d0000393/index.php Most are pre-dominantly agricultural based Food dominates agricultural trade Enhanced agricultural trade could help to  fight poverty  promoting regional integration  increasing economic growth and welfare. The World Bank estimates - 10% increase in crop yields could reduce by 9% the proportion of people surviving on less than $1 per day. IFPRI: Increased farm incomes (by $1) can significantly increase rural incomes (by between $0.5 and $1.5)
  • 35. MALAWI AS AN EXAMPLEOF AGRICULTURE-BASEDECONOMIC GROWTH 2005 -launched an improved seed and fertilizer voucher subsidy programme targeted at the vulnerable households Increased maize yields observed – see earlier graph Positive balance on maize supply – surplus exported
  • 36. Malawi Agricutural Value and GDP 3000 12 Gross Production Value of food (million US$) 2500 10Gross Production Value (million US$) Gross Production Value of Tobacco (million US$) 2000 GDP Growth 8 GDP Growth (%) 1500 6 1000 4 500 2 122 108 116 113 153 109 65 0 0 1980-89 1990-94 1995-99 2000-2005 2006 2007 2008 According to NEPAD CAADP report, Malawi is among theSource: FAO STAT; SADC countries allocating more than 10% of their annual budgets to agriculture
  • 37. Malawi is one of the countries reported to be allocating more than 10% (2007 CAADP report) Source: http://www.nepad.org,
  • 38. GLOBAL TRADE AND AFRICAN SMALLHOLDERFARMERS – OBSTACLES FACED IN COMPETINGWITH WESTERN COUNTRIES Quota system More border restrictions – exporting as a country rather than as region – compare e.g. with EU Competitiveness – costs of production Subsidies in developed countries which may render their goods cheaper than those from developing countries Quality standards of produce is lower Exporting primary or semi processed products Trade policies – need for regional trade policies to conform to a global economy SADC countries are members of other regional trading block, such as COMESA - overlaps in trade
  • 39. General exports from the SADC Region 45 Yr 2000 40Proportion of export (%) 35 Yr 2007 30 25 20 15 10 5 0 Source: Negasi 2009
  • 40. IFPRI, 2004
  • 41. MILLENIUM DEVELOPMENT GOALS Goal 1: Eradicate extreme poverty and hunger Goal 2: Achieve universal primary education Goal 3: Promote gender equality and empower women Goal 4: Reduce child mortality Goal 5: Improve maternal health Goal 6: Combat HIV/AIDS, malaria and other diseases Goal 7: Ensure environmental sustainability Goal 8: Develop a global partnership for development
  • 42. ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS All sources of information used All organizations and projects that I have worked for and with
  • 43. THANK YOU