i) technical knowledge — understanding linguistics; grasping basic principles of language learning and teaching; language proficiencies in speaking, reading, writing and listening; knowledge about language learning process through one ’ s own experience; understanding the relationship between culture and language and knowledge of latest development of language teaching and learning.
Deductive learning of grammar — is an approach to language learning in which learners are taught rules and given specific information about a language. They then apply these rules when they use the language.
Inductive learning — is an approach to language learning in which learners are not taught grammatical or other types of rules directly but are left to discover or induce rules from their experience of using the language.
Top-down processing — a way in which humans analyze and process language as part of the process of comprehension and learning by making use of previous knowledge (higher-level knowledge) in analyzing and processing information which is received such as one ’ s expectations, experience, schemata in reading the text.
Bottom-up processing — a way making use principally of information which is already present in the data (words, sentences, etc.) such as understanding a text mainly by analyzing the words and sentences in the text itself.
Teacher-centered (fronted) teaching — a teaching style in which instruction is closely managed and controlled by the teacher
Learner-centered teaching — methods of teaching which emphasizes the active role of students in learning, tries to give learners more control over what and how they learn and encourages learners to take more responsibility for their own learning. It is encouraged by many current teaching approaches.