memory and knowledge

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memory and knowledge

  1. 1. Memory and Knowledge
  2. 2. A Model of Information ProcessingExposure,AttentionPerception Understanding Outcome:Attitudessensations informationMemory / Prior KnowledgeIndividualConsumerEnvironmentalCharacteristicsStimulibeliefs
  3. 3. 3Exhibit 4.1:ChapterOverview --Memory andKnowledge
  4. 4. Chapter Overview4 What Is Memory? What Are the Types of Memory? How Memory Is Enhanced Knowledge Content, Structure and Flexibility Retrieval Failures and Errors How Retrieval Is Enhanced
  5. 5. Memory and its functions5Memory: “Personal storehouse of knowledge”Retrieval: “The process of remembering”Knowledge and Attitudes <--> MemoryMemory and Retrieval <--> Decision Making
  6. 6. Taxonomy of Memory6MemorySensory memory Short-term memory Long-term memoryEpisodic memory Semanticmemory
  7. 7. Memory: Process Flow7Long-termmemoryShort-termMemorySensoryInputSensoryMemoryAttentionEncodingRetrievalRecirculation
  8. 8. Types of Memory Sensory Memory Sensory experiences stored temporarily in memory Short-Term Memory (STM) Where incoming information is encoded Limited: can hold only a few pieces of information at a time Short-Lived: cannot hold information for very long Discursive vs. Imagery Processing Dual-Coding8
  9. 9. Types of Memory (cont.) Long-Term Memory (LTM) Where information is permanently stored for later use Autobiographical (Episodic) Memory Past experiences  primarily sensory (e.g. images, sounds) Acquisitions, consumption episodes, dispositions etc. Semantic Memory Knowledge about “things” Detach from specific episodes9
  10. 10. 10Explicit or Implicit Explicit MemoryConsumers are consciously aware that they remember something Recognition: Determining whether the stimulus has beenencountered before Recall:Ability to retrieve information (free recall vs. cuedrecall) Implicit MemoryConsumers are NOT consciously aware that they remembersomething
  11. 11. 11Explicit Memory Recall“Please name all the brands of hamburgers that you can think of…”----------------------------- ---------------------------------------------------------- ---------------------------------------------------------- ----------------------------- Recognition“Please check all the brands of hamburgers that you haveheard of…”___ McDonalds ____Triple O’s____Mos Burger ____Freshness Burger____Burger King ____Si Sun Fast Food____KFC ____Monster Burger
  12. 12. 12Implicit MemoryFree Association◦ “What is the first word that comesto mind when I mentionMcDonalds?”Fragment Completion• “Fill in the blanks to make a word.” s _ o _• Stem Completion• “Fill in the blanks to make a word.” d i s _ _ _
  13. 13. How Memory Is Enhanced Chunking Grouping items to process them as a unit Rehearsal Actively reviewing information in LTM Recirculation Simple repetition of information within STM Elaboration Processing information more deeply13Y=mx+bY=mx+bY=mx+bY=mx+b
  14. 14. 14389610578
  15. 15. Knowledge Content: Schemas15The set of associations linked to a concept Schemas We have schemas for everything Places, people, brands, even ourselves! Scripts: sequence of actions
  16. 16. Professional Singer Idol
  17. 17. 17Associative networksLink Strength: Strength ofassociations◦ Stronger link  More accessibleSpreading of Activation:Remembering one thing from another◦ Depending on MAO◦ Priming: Activation outside consciousawareness• Favorability, uniqueness, salience
  18. 18. Schema exampleMcDonalds ?
  19. 19. 1919Associative NetworkMcDonald’sBig MacFriesTastyConvenientLG5Burger KingNoodles andCongeeCathay PacificGood service
  20. 20. Knowledge Content (cont.)22 Images Brand Image: A set of distinctive associations stored in a brand schema Brand Personality: The set of associations that reflects “human” aspects of thebrand Applications Brand Extension: Same brand name, different category – leverage the existingschema Licensing: Sell the rights to your brand name Brand Alliance: Two brand names on one product Repositioning: Changing schemas, images, or personalities Product crisis: brand personality
  21. 21. Knowledge Structure23 Taxonomic categorization A system of classification Maximal vs. minimal similarity Properties: Graded and hierarchical Graded structure Category members are different in terms of how well they representthe category
  22. 22. Prototypes24The “best example” of a category Example: Theme park: Canned soup: Cereal: Ketchup: What Affects Prototypicality Maximum shared associations within a category; minimum acrosscategories Frequency of experienced membership Pioneer / first-mover
  23. 23. Knowledge Structure (cont.)25 Hierarchical Structure (e.g. Park N Shop) Superordinate Level Basic Level Subordinate Level Correlated Associations Associations that frequently occur together within a schema
  24. 24. 26Exhibit 4.6: Hierarchical StructureRESTAURANTSFast-food,CafesWestern,JapaneseMcDonalds,Mos Burger
  25. 25. Knowledge Flexibility Goal-Derived Categories Classifying things together because they satisfy the same goals Different way of categorizing (as opposed to taxonomic categorization) E.g. things to buy for a party Construal Level Theory: high vs. low construal High construal: abstract thinking (e.g. desirability) Low construal: concrete thinking (e.g. feasibility) Factors: time; geographical distance
  26. 26. Why Consumers Differ in Knowledge Culture (different sets of associations, category members,prototypes, etc.) Level of Expertise (“Ability” to process new information –experts vs. novices)
  27. 27. Retrieval: Accessing information from thesemantic network Retrieval Failures Decay: Weakening of nodes or links over time Sleeper effect: remember the message, but not thesource Interference: Signals getting mixed up E.g. similar ads Primacy and Recency Effects Greater memory for information that comes first orlast in a sequence Retrieval Errors Memory is subject to distortion and confusion
  28. 28. 30Retrieval: Marketing Implications As a communication objective Increase recall of brand name, attributes, benefits, etc. Influencing consumer choices Internal search  useful input for attitudes and choice Advertising effectiveness Measures of recognition, recall, persistence Segmentation Segment the customers according to how well they can remember
  29. 29. 31How Retrieval Is EnhancedCharacteristics of the Stimulus◦ Salience: e.g. multipage ads◦ Prototypicality◦ Redundant cues: information that go together naturally◦ Medium in which the stimulus was processedWhat the Stimulus Is LinkedTo◦ Retrieval Cues: Stimuli that facilitate the activation of memory◦ Internal cues◦ External cues: e.g. brand name, logos, packages
  30. 30. The Geico gecko is a classic example of an effective retrieval cue. Just seeingthe little lizard evokes the insurance company’s brand name. Geico has usedrepetition to ensure that the gecko/Geico link is stored in consumers’ long-term memory.While the message is the same, the execution of the adschanges to prevent habituation and wear-out.32
  31. 31. How Retrieval Is Enhanced How a Stimulus Is Processed in STM Imagery processing: processing of information in sensory form Discursive processing: processing of information as words Dual Coding: Imagery + Discursive Processing Consumer Characteristics Mood Expertise33

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