A Model of Information ProcessingExposure,AttentionPerception Understanding Outcome:Attitudessensations informationMemory / Prior KnowledgeIndividualConsumerEnvironmentalCharacteristicsStimulibeliefs
Chapter Overview What Are Attitudes? Forming and Changing Attitudes The Cognitive Foundations of Attitudes How Cognitively Based Attitudes Are Influenced The Affective Foundations of Attitudes How Affectively Based Attitudes Are Influenced Attitude Toward the Ad When Do Attitudes Predict Behavior?4
What are Attitudes?5An overall evaluation (like / dislike) of an object,issue, person, or action. Learned Enduring Importance of Attitudes Cognitive: thoughts Affective: feelings Connative: behaviors
Characteristics of Attitudes6 Favorability Accessibility Confidence Persistence Resistance to attack Ambivalence“I like it a lot.”“I can remember my attitude easily.”“I’m sure I like it.”“I’ve liked it for a long time and willcontinue to like it.”“I’ll like it no matter what anyonesays about it.”“I like and hate it at the same time”
Overview of Attitudes7Foundation of Attitudes Cognition: thoughts Affect: emotionsRole of Effort in Attitude Formation High effort: Central-route processing: careful and effortful analysis of the central issues Low effort: Peripheral-route processing: rely on superficial cues contained in the messageAttitude Formation and Change based on Cognitive vs. affective Message vs. source
8Exhibit 5.1: General Approaches toAttitude Formation and Change.
Cognitive Foundations of Attitudes9 Direct or Imagined Experience Elaborating on actual experience Reasoning by Analogy or Category How similar a products to other products Values-Driven Attitudes How the products conform to your values Social Identity-Based Attitude Generation How you can express your social identity Analytical Processes of Attitude Formation
Analytical Processes of Attitude Formation10 The Cognitive Response Model Consumers’ thought reactions to a message affect their attitudes Expectancy-Value Models Consumers form and change attitudes based on: Existing beliefs / knowledge about an object or action Evaluations of these beliefs
The Cognitive Response Model11Suppose Person X said Brand A is goodCounterarguments◦ “But I know Brand A is not good”Support Arguments◦ “Yes I heard Brand A is indeed good”Source Derogations◦ “Person X doesn’t know anything / cannot be trusted.”
Fishbeins Multiattribute Model of Attitudes12MODEL: A = Σ biei A= Attitude towards the object o bi = extent of belief that o possesses attribute i ei = evaluation of attribute i So, get relevant attributes for a product, (depth interview)measure bs and es and get A This is what you are using for your project!
Evident difference between the Fishbein model andthe multi-attribute model you saw earlier13 Remember: multiattribute model Summation (biIi) Ii in multiattribute model is the importance of the attribute positive number (e.g., from 1 to 7) ei in Fishbein model is the evaluation of the attribute can be either positive or negative (e.g., from-3 to +3) For a soft drink, both Mr. A and Mr. B may say that sweetness is an important attribute but for twodifferent reasons: Mr. A wants low sweetness but Mr. B wants high sweetness Therefore, the scales used to measure ei usually range from a negative value to a positive value; e.g.,-3 to +3 (bipolar), not simply 1 to 7 (unipolar). E.g. Low sweetness: -3 (undesirable) to +3 (desirable) Having a bipolar scale also allows us to define a “0” point on the scale, e.g., some consumers maynot care at all about sweetness, and they would circle “0”.
Example: Attitude towards Athletic Shoes14 5 attributes (through qualitative research): “Shock-absorbence” ; “Durability”; “Styling”; “Price”; “Number of sizes available”
Measure all ei15Please state your opinion on the following scales:For athletic shoes: price is:Unimportant 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Important
Sample ei question for price(correct version)16Please state your opinion on the following scales:For athletic shoes: High price is:Undesirable -3 -2 -1 0 1 2 3 Desirable
Measure all ei(-3 to +3)17Please state your opinion on the following scales:For athletic shoes: high price is:Undesirable -3 -2 -1 0 1 2 3 Desirable high durability is:Undesirable -3 -2 -1 0 1 2 3 Desirable
Measure bi values for the brand18Please tell us what you think about brand A on thesefeatures:Brand A shoes is high in priceDisagree -3 -2 -1 0 1 2 3 AgreeBrand A shoes is high in durabilityDisagree -3 -2 -1 0 1 2 3 Agree
Compute Average Scores for bi and ei19 ei for high price: Consumer 1 -3 Consumer 2 -1 Consumer 3 -2 Consumer 4 -2⇒Average ei for price = ? bi for price of Brand A: Consumer 1 3 Consumer 2 3 Consumer 3 3 Consumer 4 3⇒Average bi for Brand A price = ?
Attitude Measurement: Brand A20-1-1+2+2Large Number of Sizes-2-2+3+3High Price+3+3+1+1Fashionable Styling+2+2+3+3High Durability+2+2+3+3High Shock-AbsorbenceSalientBeliefsBeliefStrength (bi)EvalScore (ei) bieiOverall attitude =-1-1-2-2Large Number of Sizes-2-222High Price+3+3-1-1Fashionable Styling+2+2+3+3High Durability+2+2+2+2High Shock-AbsorbenceSalientBeliefsBeliefStrength (bi)EvalScore (ei) bieiOverall attitude =Attitude Measurement: Brand B
Attitude Measurement: Brand A-2-2-1-1+2+2Large Number of Sizes-6-6-2-2+3+3High Price+3+3+3+3+1+1Fashionable Styling+6+6+2+2+3+3High Durability+6+6+2+2+3+3High Shock-AbsorbenceSalientBeliefsBeliefStrength (bi)EvalScore (ei) bieiOverall attitude = +7+2+2-1-1-2-2Large Number of Sizes-4-4-2-222High Price-3-3+3+3-1-1Fashionable Styling+6+6+2+2+3+3High Durability+4+4+2+2+2+2High Shock-AbsorbenceSalientBeliefsBeliefStrength (bi)EvalScore (ei) bieiOverall attitude = +5Attitude Measurement: Brand B
Note: Calculating Attitudes22 Right (i.e., recommended) Way Consumer A: bi = 2 ei = -1 Consumer B: bi = 4 ei = -3Average bi = ?? ei = ?? So: attitude for this segment = ?? Wrong (i.e., NOT recommended) Way Consumer A: bi = 2 ei = -1 attitude for Consumer A = ?? Consumer B: bi = 4 ei = -3 Attitude for Consumer B = ?? So: average attitude for this segment = ??
Model Problem: Attitude Not AlwaysPredictive of Behavior!23• Need to Measure Behavioral Intention; not justAttitude• Need to Include the Influence of Other People’sOpinions (Subjective Norms)• Not a part of your project!• Theory of Reasoned Action Does Both
24Exhibit 5.4:The Theory of Reasoned Action+ + - ++ -
How Cognitively Based Attitudesare Influenced26 The Source Spokesperson Credibility Trustworthiness, expertise, status Company Reputation The Message Argument Quality One- Versus Two-Sided Messages Comparative Messages
Example: Strong vs. Weak Arguments27 The special coating in the knife forms a chemical sealwhich bonds with the metal and protects it fromelements which can ruin the knifes sharpness and finish. The special coating in the knife protects it from harmfulelements - elements which can ruin a good knife.
The Affective (Emotional) Foundations ofAttitudes Affective Involvement Strong emotional engagement with a stimulus Affective Responses Feelings and images a consumer generates inresponse to a message Emotional Appeals Messages that elicit an emotional response29
How Affectively Based Attitudes AreInfluenced The Source Attractiveness Physical attractiveness, likeability,familiarity, similar to self Match-up Hypothesis Source should be appropriate for themessage30
How Affectively Based Attitudes AreInfluenced The Message Emotional Appeals Elicit positive emotions (humor, love, hope, joy, excitement) to attractconsumers to product Advantages? Drawbacks? Elicit negative emotions (fear, pain, andanxiety) that will occur if consumersdo not use the product) Fear Appeals: Advantages? Drawbacks?311. Too much fear – Terror Management Theory2. Fear with resolution
A fear appeal is presented inthis ad to encourage parentsto talk frankly with theirchildren about various issuesincluding drugs, drinking,tobacco, and sex. This ad iseffective because itaddresses a fear that everyparent has, and suggestscourses of actions thatparents can take to decreasethat fear.
Attitude Toward the Ad Whether the consumer likes or dislikes an ad May or may not be different from Attitude toward theBrand Influenced by Utilitarian Dimension Ad provides information Hedonic Dimension Ad creates positive or negative feelings Interesting? Causes Elaboration?33
When Do Attitudes Predict Behavior? Level of Involvement/Elaboration Knowledge and Experience Analysis of Reasons Attitude Accessibility Attitude Confidence Specificity of Attitudes Attitude-Behavior Relationship over Time Emotional attachment Situational Factors Normative Factors Personality Variables: e.g. self-monitoring34