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  • 1. Attitudes Based onHigh Effort
  • 2. A Model of Information ProcessingExposure,AttentionPerception Understanding Outcome:Attitudessensations informationMemory / Prior KnowledgeIndividualConsumerEnvironmentalCharacteristicsStimulibeliefs
  • 3. 3Exhibit 5.2:ChapterOverview:AttitudeFormation andChange – HighConsumer Effort
  • 4. Chapter Overview What Are Attitudes? Forming and Changing Attitudes The Cognitive Foundations of Attitudes How Cognitively Based Attitudes Are Influenced The Affective Foundations of Attitudes How Affectively Based Attitudes Are Influenced Attitude Toward the Ad When Do Attitudes Predict Behavior?4
  • 5. What are Attitudes?5An overall evaluation (like / dislike) of an object,issue, person, or action. Learned Enduring Importance of Attitudes Cognitive: thoughts Affective: feelings Connative: behaviors
  • 6. Characteristics of Attitudes6 Favorability Accessibility Confidence Persistence Resistance to attack Ambivalence“I like it a lot.”“I can remember my attitude easily.”“I’m sure I like it.”“I’ve liked it for a long time and willcontinue to like it.”“I’ll like it no matter what anyonesays about it.”“I like and hate it at the same time”
  • 7. Overview of Attitudes7Foundation of Attitudes Cognition: thoughts Affect: emotionsRole of Effort in Attitude Formation High effort: Central-route processing: careful and effortful analysis of the central issues Low effort: Peripheral-route processing: rely on superficial cues contained in the messageAttitude Formation and Change based on Cognitive vs. affective Message vs. source
  • 8. 8Exhibit 5.1: General Approaches toAttitude Formation and Change.
  • 9. Cognitive Foundations of Attitudes9 Direct or Imagined Experience Elaborating on actual experience Reasoning by Analogy or Category How similar a products to other products Values-Driven Attitudes How the products conform to your values Social Identity-Based Attitude Generation How you can express your social identity Analytical Processes of Attitude Formation
  • 10. Analytical Processes of Attitude Formation10 The Cognitive Response Model Consumers’ thought reactions to a message affect their attitudes Expectancy-Value Models Consumers form and change attitudes based on: Existing beliefs / knowledge about an object or action Evaluations of these beliefs
  • 11. The Cognitive Response Model11Suppose Person X said Brand A is goodCounterarguments◦ “But I know Brand A is not good”Support Arguments◦ “Yes I heard Brand A is indeed good”Source Derogations◦ “Person X doesn’t know anything / cannot be trusted.”
  • 12. Fishbeins Multiattribute Model of Attitudes12MODEL: A = Σ biei A= Attitude towards the object o bi = extent of belief that o possesses attribute i ei = evaluation of attribute i So, get relevant attributes for a product, (depth interview)measure bs and es and get A This is what you are using for your project!
  • 13. Evident difference between the Fishbein model andthe multi-attribute model you saw earlier13 Remember: multiattribute model  Summation (biIi) Ii in multiattribute model is the importance of the attribute  positive number (e.g., from 1 to 7) ei in Fishbein model is the evaluation of the attribute  can be either positive or negative (e.g., from-3 to +3) For a soft drink, both Mr. A and Mr. B may say that sweetness is an important attribute but for twodifferent reasons: Mr. A wants low sweetness but Mr. B wants high sweetness Therefore, the scales used to measure ei usually range from a negative value to a positive value; e.g.,-3 to +3 (bipolar), not simply 1 to 7 (unipolar). E.g. Low sweetness: -3 (undesirable) to +3 (desirable) Having a bipolar scale also allows us to define a “0” point on the scale, e.g., some consumers maynot care at all about sweetness, and they would circle “0”.
  • 14. Example: Attitude towards Athletic Shoes14 5 attributes (through qualitative research): “Shock-absorbence” ; “Durability”; “Styling”; “Price”; “Number of sizes available”
  • 15. Measure all ei15Please state your opinion on the following scales:For athletic shoes: price is:Unimportant 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Important
  • 16. Sample ei question for price(correct version)16Please state your opinion on the following scales:For athletic shoes: High price is:Undesirable -3 -2 -1 0 1 2 3 Desirable
  • 17. Measure all ei(-3 to +3)17Please state your opinion on the following scales:For athletic shoes: high price is:Undesirable -3 -2 -1 0 1 2 3 Desirable high durability is:Undesirable -3 -2 -1 0 1 2 3 Desirable
  • 18. Measure bi values for the brand18Please tell us what you think about brand A on thesefeatures:Brand A shoes is high in priceDisagree -3 -2 -1 0 1 2 3 AgreeBrand A shoes is high in durabilityDisagree -3 -2 -1 0 1 2 3 Agree
  • 19. Compute Average Scores for bi and ei19 ei for high price: Consumer 1 -3 Consumer 2 -1 Consumer 3 -2 Consumer 4 -2⇒Average ei for price = ? bi for price of Brand A: Consumer 1 3 Consumer 2 3 Consumer 3 3 Consumer 4 3⇒Average bi for Brand A price = ?
  • 20. Attitude Measurement: Brand A20-1-1+2+2Large Number of Sizes-2-2+3+3High Price+3+3+1+1Fashionable Styling+2+2+3+3High Durability+2+2+3+3High Shock-AbsorbenceSalientBeliefsBeliefStrength (bi)EvalScore (ei) bieiOverall attitude =-1-1-2-2Large Number of Sizes-2-222High Price+3+3-1-1Fashionable Styling+2+2+3+3High Durability+2+2+2+2High Shock-AbsorbenceSalientBeliefsBeliefStrength (bi)EvalScore (ei) bieiOverall attitude =Attitude Measurement: Brand B
  • 21. Attitude Measurement: Brand A-2-2-1-1+2+2Large Number of Sizes-6-6-2-2+3+3High Price+3+3+3+3+1+1Fashionable Styling+6+6+2+2+3+3High Durability+6+6+2+2+3+3High Shock-AbsorbenceSalientBeliefsBeliefStrength (bi)EvalScore (ei) bieiOverall attitude = +7+2+2-1-1-2-2Large Number of Sizes-4-4-2-222High Price-3-3+3+3-1-1Fashionable Styling+6+6+2+2+3+3High Durability+4+4+2+2+2+2High Shock-AbsorbenceSalientBeliefsBeliefStrength (bi)EvalScore (ei) bieiOverall attitude = +5Attitude Measurement: Brand B
  • 22. Note: Calculating Attitudes22 Right (i.e., recommended) Way Consumer A: bi = 2 ei = -1 Consumer B: bi = 4 ei = -3Average bi = ?? ei = ?? So: attitude for this segment = ?? Wrong (i.e., NOT recommended) Way Consumer A: bi = 2 ei = -1 attitude for Consumer A = ?? Consumer B: bi = 4 ei = -3 Attitude for Consumer B = ?? So: average attitude for this segment = ??
  • 23. Model Problem: Attitude Not AlwaysPredictive of Behavior!23• Need to Measure Behavioral Intention; not justAttitude• Need to Include the Influence of Other People’sOpinions (Subjective Norms)• Not a part of your project!• Theory of Reasoned Action Does Both
  • 24. 24Exhibit 5.4:The Theory of Reasoned Action+ + - ++ -
  • 25. 25Exhibit 6.4:The Theory of Reasoned Action
  • 26. How Cognitively Based Attitudesare Influenced26 The Source Spokesperson Credibility Trustworthiness, expertise, status Company Reputation The Message Argument Quality One- Versus Two-Sided Messages Comparative Messages
  • 27. Example: Strong vs. Weak Arguments27 The special coating in the knife forms a chemical sealwhich bonds with the metal and protects it fromelements which can ruin the knifes sharpness and finish. The special coating in the knife protects it from harmfulelements - elements which can ruin a good knife.
  • 28. 28
  • 29. The Affective (Emotional) Foundations ofAttitudes Affective Involvement Strong emotional engagement with a stimulus Affective Responses Feelings and images a consumer generates inresponse to a message Emotional Appeals Messages that elicit an emotional response29
  • 30. How Affectively Based Attitudes AreInfluenced The Source Attractiveness Physical attractiveness, likeability,familiarity, similar to self Match-up Hypothesis Source should be appropriate for themessage30
  • 31. How Affectively Based Attitudes AreInfluenced The Message Emotional Appeals Elicit positive emotions (humor, love, hope, joy, excitement) to attractconsumers to product Advantages? Drawbacks? Elicit negative emotions (fear, pain, andanxiety) that will occur if consumersdo not use the product) Fear Appeals: Advantages? Drawbacks?311. Too much fear – Terror Management Theory2. Fear with resolution
  • 32. A fear appeal is presented inthis ad to encourage parentsto talk frankly with theirchildren about various issuesincluding drugs, drinking,tobacco, and sex. This ad iseffective because itaddresses a fear that everyparent has, and suggestscourses of actions thatparents can take to decreasethat fear.
  • 33. Attitude Toward the Ad Whether the consumer likes or dislikes an ad May or may not be different from Attitude toward theBrand Influenced by Utilitarian Dimension Ad provides information Hedonic Dimension Ad creates positive or negative feelings Interesting? Causes Elaboration?33
  • 34. When Do Attitudes Predict Behavior? Level of Involvement/Elaboration Knowledge and Experience Analysis of Reasons Attitude Accessibility Attitude Confidence Specificity of Attitudes Attitude-Behavior Relationship over Time Emotional attachment Situational Factors Normative Factors Personality Variables: e.g. self-monitoring34