What is Information Processing?2Information Processing:◦ Forming beliefs and attitudes about a single object (e.g., watchingan ad and forming an attitude towards the advertised brand)Decision Making:◦ Choosing among several brands◦ Buy / no-buy decisions
Reminder: A Model of ComplexDecision Making3ProblemRecognitionInformationAcquisitionInformationProcessingComparativeEvaluation/PurchasePost-PurchaseEvaluations
A Model of Information ProcessingExposure,AttentionPerception UnderstandingOutcome:Attitudessensations informationMemory / Prior KnowledgeIndividualConsumerEnvironmentalCharacteristicsStimulibeliefs
Chapter Overview6 Exposure(e.g., Consumer Must “See” Your Message) Attention(e.g., Consumer Must “Look at” Message) Perception(e.g., Consumer Must “Take In” Message) Comprehension(e.g., Consumer tries to “Understand” Message)
Exposure7“The process by which a person (consumer) comes into contactwith a (marketing) stimulus.”Factors Influencing Exposure◦ Ad location and scheduling (magazine or TV) and product placement◦ Product distribution and shelf placementSelective Exposure◦ Zipping and Zapping
Attention“The process by which a person allocates part of his / her mentalactivity to a stimulus.” Characteristics of Attention (“Paying attention”) Selective Can Be Divided Limited Focal vs. Nonfocal Attention (hk.yahoo.com) Preattentive Processing: Liking and Choice Hemispheric Lateralization8
Marketing Implications:Methods of Enhancing Attention10Make the Stimuli: Personally Relevant Appeal to Needs (e.g. hungry foodads) Using Similarity Using Dramas Using Rhetorical Questions(e.g. Who wants to be a Millionaire?) Pleasant Using Attractive Models Using Music Using Humor Surprising Using Novelty Using Unexpectedness Using a Puzzle Easy to Process Prominent Stimuli Concrete Stimuli(e.g. Sunlight vs. Joy) The Amount of CompetingInformation Contrasting Stimuli
Using a Puzzle11
Exposure and Attention: A Quick Review12Exposure: The process by which a person (consumer) comesinto contact with a (marketing) stimulusAttention: The process by which a person allocates part ofhis / her mental activity to a stimulus.◦ Selective◦ Can Be Divided◦ Limited◦ Focal vs. Nonfocal Attention
PerceptionThe process by which stimuli activate one ofthe five senses: vision, hearing, taste, smell, andtouch13
Perception14 Perceiving Through Vision Size and Shape Lettering Image location (on package) Color: E.g. Warm vs. Cool colors Effects: Moods, Physiological Responses, Liking
Perception15 Perceiving through hearing Consistency in message delivery Sonic identity: e.g. McDonalds Sound symbolism: e.g. fast vs. slow music Perceiving through taste Food sampling
Perception16Perceiving Through Smell◦ Physiological and emotional responses◦ Product Trial◦ Effects: Liking and BuyingPerceiving Through Touch◦ E.g. clothes
When Do We Perceive Stimuli?17Absolute Thresholds◦ The lowest level of stimulation at which you can detect a differencebetween “something” and “nothing”Differential Thresholds◦ Just Noticeable Difference (JND) Change in stimulus intensity required to result in detection of a change◦ Weber’s Law The stronger the initial stimulus, the greater the change required for thesecond stimulus to be perceived as different
When Do We Perceive Stimuli?18 Weber’s Law The stronger the initial stimulus, the greater the change required for thesecond stimulus to be perceived as different Usually a constant proportion (k) of the baseline intensity of the stimulus. Example: if k = 0.1 Case 1: initial price of hamburger = $5, so ∆ S? Case 2: initial price of hamburger = $50, so ∆ S?∆S (i.e., Change in Stimulus Intensity)k =S (i.e., Initial Stimulus Intensity)
The “Betty Crocker” Brand:Evolution of a Brand Image 1920-200019What psychological principle has been exploited here?
When Do We Perceive Stimuli?20 Subliminal Perception “Eat Popcorn”, “Drink Coke” Does Subliminal Perception AffectConsumer Behavior?
How Do Consumers Perceive a Stimulus?21Perceptual organization: The process by which stimuli are organized into meaningfulunits1.Figure and Ground Interpreting a stimulus in the context of the background2.Closure Organizing perceptions to form a meaningful whole3.Grouping A tendency to group stimuli to form a unified impression3.Bias for the whole Perceiving more value in a whole than in the combined parts that make up the whole(e.g. $500 vs. 5 x $100)
Figure and Ground: Examples22
ComprehensionComprehension25 Source Identification Comprehension: Try to understand Objective Comprehension: The extent to which a receiver correctlyunderstands the message Subjective Comprehension: What the receiver thinks s/he knows (may or maynot be correct) Miscomprehension = Objectively wrong
Sources of Consumer Inferences26 Brand Names and BrandSymbols Misleading Names and Labels(e.g. lite) Inappropriate or Similar Names Product Features andPackaging Product Attributes Country of Origin Package Design Color Price Retail Atmospherics,Displays, andDistribution(e.g. discount store)
Consumers makeinferences based ona brand’s country-of-origin.
28 Memory and Knowledge (Session 10 and 11) Read Chapter 4