Your SlideShare is downloading. ×
0
exposure attention perception
exposure attention perception
exposure attention perception
exposure attention perception
exposure attention perception
exposure attention perception
exposure attention perception
exposure attention perception
exposure attention perception
exposure attention perception
exposure attention perception
exposure attention perception
exposure attention perception
exposure attention perception
exposure attention perception
exposure attention perception
exposure attention perception
exposure attention perception
exposure attention perception
exposure attention perception
exposure attention perception
exposure attention perception
exposure attention perception
exposure attention perception
exposure attention perception
exposure attention perception
exposure attention perception
exposure attention perception
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in...5
×

Thanks for flagging this SlideShare!

Oops! An error has occurred.

×
Saving this for later? Get the SlideShare app to save on your phone or tablet. Read anywhere, anytime – even offline.
Text the download link to your phone
Standard text messaging rates apply

exposure attention perception

3,441

Published on

0 Comments
6 Likes
Statistics
Notes
  • Be the first to comment

No Downloads
Views
Total Views
3,441
On Slideshare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
0
Actions
Shares
0
Downloads
0
Comments
0
Likes
6
Embeds 0
No embeds

Report content
Flagged as inappropriate Flag as inappropriate
Flag as inappropriate

Select your reason for flagging this presentation as inappropriate.

Cancel
No notes for slide

Transcript

  • 1. Exposure, Attention,Perception
  • 2. What is Information Processing?2Information Processing:◦ Forming beliefs and attitudes about a single object (e.g., watchingan ad and forming an attitude towards the advertised brand)Decision Making:◦ Choosing among several brands◦ Buy / no-buy decisions
  • 3. Reminder: A Model of ComplexDecision Making3ProblemRecognitionInformationAcquisitionInformationProcessingComparativeEvaluation/PurchasePost-PurchaseEvaluations
  • 4. A Model of Information ProcessingExposure,AttentionPerception UnderstandingOutcome:Attitudessensations informationMemory / Prior KnowledgeIndividualConsumerEnvironmentalCharacteristicsStimulibeliefs
  • 5. 5Exhibit 3.1Chapter Overview:From Exposure, toComprehension
  • 6. Chapter Overview6 Exposure(e.g., Consumer Must “See” Your Message) Attention(e.g., Consumer Must “Look at” Message) Perception(e.g., Consumer Must “Take In” Message) Comprehension(e.g., Consumer tries to “Understand” Message)
  • 7. Exposure7“The process by which a person (consumer) comes into contactwith a (marketing) stimulus.”Factors Influencing Exposure◦ Ad location and scheduling (magazine or TV) and product placement◦ Product distribution and shelf placementSelective Exposure◦ Zipping and Zapping
  • 8. Attention“The process by which a person allocates part of his / her mentalactivity to a stimulus.” Characteristics of Attention (“Paying attention”) Selective Can Be Divided Limited Focal vs. Nonfocal Attention (hk.yahoo.com) Preattentive Processing: Liking and Choice Hemispheric Lateralization8
  • 9. Hemispheric Lateralization9
  • 10. Marketing Implications:Methods of Enhancing Attention10Make the Stimuli: Personally Relevant Appeal to Needs (e.g. hungry  foodads) Using Similarity Using Dramas Using Rhetorical Questions(e.g. Who wants to be a Millionaire?) Pleasant Using Attractive Models Using Music Using Humor Surprising Using Novelty Using Unexpectedness Using a Puzzle Easy to Process Prominent Stimuli Concrete Stimuli(e.g. Sunlight vs. Joy) The Amount of CompetingInformation Contrasting Stimuli
  • 11. Using a Puzzle11
  • 12. Exposure and Attention: A Quick Review12Exposure: The process by which a person (consumer) comesinto contact with a (marketing) stimulusAttention: The process by which a person allocates part ofhis / her mental activity to a stimulus.◦ Selective◦ Can Be Divided◦ Limited◦ Focal vs. Nonfocal Attention
  • 13. PerceptionThe process by which stimuli activate one ofthe five senses: vision, hearing, taste, smell, andtouch13
  • 14. Perception14 Perceiving Through Vision Size and Shape Lettering Image location (on package) Color: E.g. Warm vs. Cool colors Effects: Moods, Physiological Responses, Liking
  • 15. Perception15 Perceiving through hearing Consistency in message delivery Sonic identity: e.g. McDonalds Sound symbolism: e.g. fast vs. slow music Perceiving through taste Food sampling
  • 16. Perception16Perceiving Through Smell◦ Physiological and emotional responses◦ Product Trial◦ Effects: Liking and BuyingPerceiving Through Touch◦ E.g. clothes
  • 17. When Do We Perceive Stimuli?17Absolute Thresholds◦ The lowest level of stimulation at which you can detect a differencebetween “something” and “nothing”Differential Thresholds◦ Just Noticeable Difference (JND) Change in stimulus intensity required to result in detection of a change◦ Weber’s Law The stronger the initial stimulus, the greater the change required for thesecond stimulus to be perceived as different
  • 18. When Do We Perceive Stimuli?18 Weber’s Law The stronger the initial stimulus, the greater the change required for thesecond stimulus to be perceived as different Usually a constant proportion (k) of the baseline intensity of the stimulus. Example: if k = 0.1 Case 1: initial price of hamburger = $5, so ∆ S? Case 2: initial price of hamburger = $50, so ∆ S?∆S (i.e., Change in Stimulus Intensity)k =S (i.e., Initial Stimulus Intensity)
  • 19. The “Betty Crocker” Brand:Evolution of a Brand Image 1920-200019What psychological principle has been exploited here?
  • 20. When Do We Perceive Stimuli?20 Subliminal Perception “Eat Popcorn”, “Drink Coke” Does Subliminal Perception AffectConsumer Behavior?
  • 21. How Do Consumers Perceive a Stimulus?21Perceptual organization: The process by which stimuli are organized into meaningfulunits1.Figure and Ground Interpreting a stimulus in the context of the background2.Closure Organizing perceptions to form a meaningful whole3.Grouping A tendency to group stimuli to form a unified impression3.Bias for the whole Perceiving more value in a whole than in the combined parts that make up the whole(e.g. $500 vs. 5 x $100)
  • 22. Figure and Ground: Examples22
  • 23. Closure: Examples
  • 24. Grouping: Examples
  • 25. ComprehensionComprehension25 Source Identification Comprehension: Try to understand Objective Comprehension: The extent to which a receiver correctlyunderstands the message Subjective Comprehension: What the receiver thinks s/he knows (may or maynot be correct) Miscomprehension = Objectively wrong
  • 26. Sources of Consumer Inferences26 Brand Names and BrandSymbols Misleading Names and Labels(e.g. lite) Inappropriate or Similar Names Product Features andPackaging Product Attributes Country of Origin Package Design Color Price Retail Atmospherics,Displays, andDistribution(e.g. discount store)
  • 27. Consumers makeinferences based ona brand’s country-of-origin.
  • 28. 28 Memory and Knowledge (Session 10 and 11) Read Chapter 4

×