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香港六合彩
香港六合彩
香港六合彩
香港六合彩
香港六合彩
香港六合彩
香港六合彩
香港六合彩
香港六合彩
香港六合彩
香港六合彩
香港六合彩
香港六合彩
香港六合彩
香港六合彩
香港六合彩
香港六合彩
香港六合彩
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香港六合彩

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香港六合彩在床上坐也不是,躺也不是,猛然想起不能重蹈覆辙,于是掏出作业本。偏不巧,掏出的第一本就是物理,香港六合彩厌恶地骂了一句,又觉得这难啃的物理题比起跟父母摊牌到学校的事简单得多。外面玻璃板的桌子上传来摆碗的声音,然后传来母亲的敲门声。子允应着,屁股却胶在椅子上直到母亲再次来催。见桌上台灯亮着,母亲心疼地埋怨学校布置的作业太多。子允想就着这话说昨天的作业更多,结果才……但香港六合彩没说,现在说 …

香港六合彩在床上坐也不是,躺也不是,猛然想起不能重蹈覆辙,于是掏出作业本。偏不巧,掏出的第一本就是物理,香港六合彩厌恶地骂了一句,又觉得这难啃的物理题比起跟父母摊牌到学校的事简单得多。外面玻璃板的桌子上传来摆碗的声音,然后传来母亲的敲门声。子允应着,屁股却胶在椅子上直到母亲再次来催。见桌上台灯亮着,母亲心疼地埋怨学校布置的作业太多。子允想就着这话说昨天的作业更多,结果才……但香港六合彩没说,现在说会影响父母的食欲。饭桌上,菜色很丰富,赶上平时子允定狼吞虎咽。香港六合彩望着透明玻璃桌面下自己一双虎头棉拖发呆,思忖着如何把请家长的事情说得委婉些,把父母的难过程度降到最低。香港六合彩希望自己是个日本人,可以厚颜无耻地把侵略说成是解放苦难的中国人民,可以理直气壮地把靖国神社里的战争罪犯当作英雄供奉,还可以委屈地对中国人说,香港六合彩为香港六合彩牺牲了那么多将士,香港六合彩不但不像香港六合彩一样虔诚地敬奉还一再干涉香港六合彩的内政……《Y滋味》有滋又有味子允胡思乱想着,只觉得今天的饭一点味道也没有,好像都是日本人的唾沫星,并从电影中得出结论,那些哄小孩上当的日本鬼子个个长着眯眯眼。妈妈见儿子不像平时生猛,一个劲给香港六合彩搛菜。子允更觉羞愧,看着妈妈一如往常地为自己忙乎,充分理解了只有失去才知道珍惜的含义。现在把话说出口,这样和睦的气氛短期内肯定回不来。想着,子允鼻子酸起来,快要掉下的泪珠被妈妈挟来的菜挡了回去,但谢谢之声有滋又有味。父亲的印象中,子允今天的表现是进入青春叛逆期后难得一见的好,心情也跟着一片大好,对儿子和蔼许多不说,还头一回招呼子允多吃菜,并亲自去看灶台上的汤怎么样了。这更要子允的命,悲情的事件往往都伴随着极为反差的气氛。眼圈红润的子允开始打掩护,直怨妈妈辣椒放多了。妈妈听后忙端水给香港六合彩。有了水的后援,泪水开始在眼眶里肆无忌惮地酝酿,香港六合彩控制不住

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  • Thank you for the opportunity to speak to the AIC today on the topic of government-wide IPv6 implementation.
  • IPv4 was developed 20 years ago. IPv6 is a new version of IP protocol which overcomes many of the limitations of IPv4, in particular, the global shortage of IP addresses.
    Since it takes one or more IP addresses to make a device internet-enabled, this shortage has constrained the use of the Internet world-wide, and has slowed down the development of new internet-enabled devices, applications, and services.
    Although the IT community has come up with workarounds for this shortage (such as implementing NATs - Network Address Translation mechanisms) - IPv6 is the true answer to this problem. IPv4 provides the world with only 4 billion IP addresses, while IPv6 will provide undecillion (1036) addresses. With IPv6, the number of available IP addresses will be practically unlimited.
  • There are several reasons that IPv6 transition has been mandated for all Federal government agencies.
    International competition
    Lead by example
    Serve as market catalyst
    But most importantly, IPv6 will create a new communication paradigm. IPv6 is going to allow the Federal government to adopt entirely new business capabilities that it was unable to do before. With more available IP addresses, and the increased mobility features of IPv6, agencies will be able to do things like……TBD
  • IPv6 has several key technological features that are considered superior to IPv4.
    New header format – IPv6 improves network performance by reducing packet size.
    Efficient routing – Designed so Internet backbone routers will have much smaller routing tables.
    Integrated security – Any computer running IPv6 will support IPSec encryption, regardless of O/S. IPSec is mandatory in IPv6, where it was only optional in IPv4.
    Larger address space – Every device in the world can have an IP address with IPv6.
    Standardized QoS – With IPv6, QoS can still function even if the packet body is encrypted. We can therefore more effectively transmit encrypted audio and video files.
    Auto-configuration - 128-bit address structure allows for device auto-configuration (“plug and play”).
  • Regardless of how many new features IPv6 has, the real question agencies should be asking is, “What are the business benefits of IPv6? What will IPv6 give me that I can’t already do today?”
    While IPv6 has many new features, the benefits of IPv6 can be boiled down into three (3) key categories:
    Improved network performance and reduced network admin burden - And although invisible to end-users, IPv6 will make network management less cumbersome, less costly, and more secure in the long run.
    Enhanced mobility - IPv6 also allows computer and internet-device users to be more mobile, and stay connected to the internet – and to each other. For example, IPv6 is better able to support “Care of Addressing (CoA)”. CoA is similar to the post office re-routing your mail from your home to another location. With IPv6, a user can remove their laptop from their home network, and move it into another network, with no interruption in connectivity. CoA was not supported by IPv4 due to the limited number of IP addresses. This is extremely important to organizations whose employees are likely to operate away from their home networks, such as emergency first responders, war fighters, intelligence operatives, and other types of field agents.
    More devices can be internet-enabled: It often takes several IP addresses to make a single device internet-enabled. With the increased public and private sector demand for “smart devices” such as internet-enabled refrigerators, microwaves, and military equipment, we are running out of IP addresses. With IPv6, this shortage will be eliminated and more devices can be connected to the internet. Practically EVERYTHING will be addressable… (NEED EXAMPLES OF INNOVATIVE USE OF INTERNET HERE)
    Note: IPv4 supports only 4.2 billion IP addresses, while IPv6 supports about 340 undecillion (3.4 × 1038) addresses.
  • Chapter I focuses solely on how agencies should update their enterprise architecture to reflect the new capabilities
  • Chapter I focuses solely on how agencies should update their enterprise architecture to reflect the new capabilities
  • Once a permanent IPv6 lead is identified by AIC, some of OMB’s coordination activities – such as publication of the DISA matrix and facilitation of DOC’s address acquisition - may be shifted either to the AIC or to the IPv6 working group.
  • Transcript

    • 1. 1 Government-wide IPv6 Oversight OMB & AIC Dick Burk OMB Chief Architect November 17, 2005
    • 2. 2 Agenda • What is IPv6? • What are the features of IPv6? • What are the benefits of IPv6? • OMB Memorandum 05-22 • What IPv6 guidance will be issued? • How do I integrate IPv6 into agency EA planning? • How will OMB be assessing agency progress with IPv6? • What else is being done to support agencies? • What are OMB and AIC roles and responsibilities? • Guiding principles for IPv6 implementation
    • 3. 3 What is IPv6? [ Please read the notes section for more detail ] • IPv6 is a new version of the Internet Protocol (IP) • “next generation internet” • Designed to overcome limitations of IPv4 - limited IP address space - constrained user mobility - cumbersome device configuration • Will enable expansion of “net-centric” devices, applications, and services • VoIP (Voice over IP) • Remote sensing • “Smart” devices
    • 4. 4 Why is the Federal government mandating IPv6? [ Please read the notes section for more detail ] •International competition – The U.S. must address the challenge from international competition (e.g. Asia, Europe) in IPv6 implementation. • Lead by example – Federal government agencies will serve as a model for U.S. enterprise IPv6 transformation. • Serve as market catalyst – Federal government adoption will spur innovation and development of IPv6 products in the marketplace. But most importantly… • Business drivers - IPv6 will enable a new communication paradigm for the Federal government.
    • 5. 5 What are the features of IPv6? [ Please read the notes section for more detail ] Key IPv6 Features Key IPv6 Features Improved Network Performance Improved Network Performance Larger Address Space Larger Address Space Standardized Quality of Service (QoS) Standardized Quality of Service (QoS) Device auto- configuration Device auto- configuration Integrated Security (IPSec) Integrated Security (IPSec) • 128 bit address • device “plug and play”• variable header size • mandatory IPSec • better audio/video transmission
    • 6. 6 What are the business benefits of IPv6? [ Please read the notes section for more detail ] New Business Capabilities Enhanced Mobility Ease of Network Administration Unlimited opportunity to bring new communication capabilities to the enterprise, such as internet-enabled: - medical, military, and first-responder devices - RFID tags - revenue collection and/or case management tools - environmental remote sensing - net-centric apps and services (e.g. VoIP) The possibilities are endless…
    • 7. 7 What does OMB Memorandum 05-22 instruct agencies to do? [ Please read the notes section for more detail ] 1. Identify an IPv6 agency lead 2. Develop a network backbone transition plan for IPv6 3. Complete two (2) inventories of IP-aware devices and technologies • First is due in February 2006 • Second is due in June 2006 4. Complete an IPv6 transition impact analysis 5. Complete an IPv6 progress report 6. Submit to OMB all of these items (with the exception of the second inventory) with their February 28, 2006 Enterprise Architecture assessment OMB Memorandum 05-22 directs agencies to successfully transition their network backbone to IPv6 by June 2008, and….
    • 8. 8 What IPv6 guidance will be published? [ Please read the notes section for more detail ]  Chapter I – Integrating IPv6 into EA Planning Activities (target date – 11/15/05) • Focus on EA planning and February 2006 EA submission  IPv6 Frequently Asked Questions (target date – 11/30/05) • Focus on compliance with 05-22  Chapter II – Developing an IPv6 Transition Plan (target date – 1/15/06) • Focus is on general transition planning, IA/security, applications, testing, and training; based on DoD best practices  Chapter III – Governance (target date – 2/15/06; exact date TBD)  Chapter IV – Acquisition/Procurement (target date – 2/28/06; exact date TBD) To assist agencies with development of their IPv6 transition plans, the AIC will be publishing guidance in several chapters, as well as an IPv6 “Frequently Asked Questions (FAQ)” document. More in-depth, technical guidance will need to come out of an AIC-sponsored IPv6 working group…
    • 9. 9 How do I integrate IPv6 into EA planning? [ Please read the notes section for more detail ] Chapter I – Integrating IPv6 into EA Planning Activities  Identify strategic drivers and business uses for IPv6 at agency-level  Incorporate IPv6 (including new business capabilities) into IRM Strategic Plan  Update the Agency Enterprise Architecture to reflect new capabilities and technologies • Baseline architecture • Target architecture • EA transition strategy • Other EA documentation Chapter I of IPv6 guidance addresses these topics in more depth…
    • 10. 10 EA Transition and Sequencing Plans Segment Architecture Segment Architecture Segment Architecture Program A Program C Program B TargetEA Projects with Milestones and Dependencies Project 1 Project 2 Project 3 Project 4 Project 5 Project 6 Project 7 Project 8 Project 9 Project 10 Project 11 Project 12 Project 13 TransitionStrategy Performance Improvement Plan TransitionArchitecture Period 1 Period 2 Period 3 Agencies should integrate IPv6 with other infrastructure-related efforts. The EA Transition Strategy should reflect these interrelationships and milestones…
    • 11. 11 - Level 1 Practices Activities: Agency has assigned an official to lead and coordinate agency planning for IPv6 transition. Artifacts: Memorandum signed by the agency CIO documenting appointment and duties/responsibilities thereof Level 2 Practices Activities: agency has completed an inventory of existing routers, switches, hardware firewalls, and other IP-compliant devices and technologies.   Artifacts: Agency IP device inventory using guidance in attachment A, OMB M-05-22 Level 3 Practices Activities: agency has performed an impact analysis to determine fiscal and operational impacts and risks of migrating to IPv6.   Artifacts: Agency IPv6 impact analysis document using guidance in attachment B, OMB M-05-22 Level 4 Practices Activities: agency has developed an IPv6 transition plan and integrated this plan with the agency EA transition strategy.   Artifacts: Agency EA transition strategy with integrated IPv6 transition plan addressing areas listed in attachment C, OMB M-05-22. Level 5 Practices Activities: agency has migrated its network backbone to IPv6, and provided a capability for all its networks to interface with this backbone.   Artifacts: Agency SDLC (systems development lifecycle) artifacts documenting the updated network infrastructure. EA Assessment Framework 2.0 OMB will use EA Assessment Framework 2.0* to assess agency compliance with OMB Memorandum 05-22, and overall progress with IPv6 * Excerpted from EA Assessment Framework 2.0, still in draft form…
    • 12. 12 How will OMB assess agency IPv6 progress? [ Please read the notes section for more detail ] OMB Enterprise Architecture Assessment Framework 2.0 IPv6 Progress Report Agency EA Transition Strategy Agency IRM Strategic Plan OMB will look at:OMB will use: Specifically, OMB will be looking for establishment of IPv6 transition milestones, and progress against those milestones… IPv6 Device Inventories
    • 13. 13 What else is being done to support agencies? [ Please read the notes section for more detail ]  Communications • IPv6 portal (Core.gov?)  Acquisition policy • FAR and DFAR cases opened  Address-space acquisition • Department of Commerce  Standards/guidelines • NIST standards (not funded yet) • DISA IPv6-capable requirements matrix
    • 14. 14 What still needs to be done? [ Please read the notes section for more detail ] Stand up an IPv6 Working Group (IPv6 agency leads and SMEs) to: • Lead development of more in-depth transition guidance • Coordinate inter-agency and stakeholder issues • Coordinate agency interoperability testing, where needed • Post and maintain IPv6 knowledge capital on IPv6 portal Agency IPv6-leads need to begin working with one another….
    • 15. 15 OMB & AIC Roles and Responsibilities [ Please read the notes section for more detail ] OMB • Compose Chapters II, III, and IV of IPv6 guidance with support from IPv6 SMEs, as needed. • Compose IPv6 FAQ. • Review IPv6 inventory device submissions; aggregate and redact for publication to industry. • Facilitate creation of FAR and DFAR cases for IPv6 acquisition. • Facilitate NIST publication of IPv6 standards. • Publish DISA IPv6-capable matrix as RFC. • Facilitate government-wide IP-address acquisition by Dept of Commerce. • Assess agency progress with IPv6 transition and compliance with Memorandum 05-22. AIC • Review and publish Chapters II, III, and IV of guidance to agencies. •Review and publish IPv6 FAQ to agencies. • Stand up and oversee IPv6 working group (agency IPv6 leads?). • Oversee development and publication of any additional IPv6 technical guidance or work products (coming from working group). IPv6 working group (and potentially IAC) will be tasked with additional responsibilities as deemed appropriate…
    • 16. 16 Guiding Principles for IPv6 Implementation [ Please read the notes section for more detail ] • IPv6 transition IS: • A strategic enterprise transformation • Focused on new business capabilities • Future-oriented – an opportunity for agencies to INNOVATE • Enterprise-architecture driven • An initiative that should be integrated with other infrastructure efforts (e.g. COOP, HSPD-12) • IPv6 transition IS NOT: • Just a network “upgrade” • Just the CIO’s problem
    • 17. 17 Some IPv6 Government Resources •http://www.whitehouse.gov/omb/memoranda/fy2005/m05-22.pdf - OMB IPv6 memorandum •http://www.ntia.doc.gov/ntiahome/ntiageneral/ipv6 - National Telecommunications and Information Administration; IPv6 white papers • http://ipv6.disa.mil – Defense Information Systems Agency IPv6 web site •http://www.osec.doc.gov/cio/oipr/SITP_IPv6_addendum.htm - Department of Commerce • DoD IPv6 Transition Plan – Available upon request by agency IPv6 lead to OMB (Lew Olenick, 202-395-7188 or Debbie Pianko, 202-395-3081) • DoD IPv6 Program Manager Guide - Available upon request by agency IPv6 lead to OMB (Lew Olenick, 202-395-7188 or Debbie Pianko, 202-395- 3081)
    • 18. 18 Other IPv6 Resources •http://www.ietf.org - Internet Engineering Task Force; IPv6 standards and internet operating protocols •http://www.ipv6forum.com/ •http://www.nav6tf.org/ •http://www.usipv6.com/ Note: With exception of IETF, this does not imply sponsorship by OMB. Intended as knowledge resource only.

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