An effective teacher has many characteristics including high expectations, effective classroom management and mastery teaching. This training focuses on effective classroom management. We will have subsequent training in Module II: High Expectations and Module III: Mastery Teaching.
Classroom management starts the very first day teachers come back to school after summer break, not the first day students are present. Teachers must prepare classrooms and everything in the classroom before students arrive in order to set the stage for effective classroom management during the rest of the year. Preparation always starts with planning. Because student achievement at the end of the year is directly related to the degree the teacher establishes good control of the classroom procedures in the very first week of school, it is critical to know what your are doing, why you are doing it and how you will train students to do the same. For example, you will want to maintain a clean, well-organized room. You may have your own reasons but for students a clean, well-organized room fosters student involvement and cooperation in all classroom activities. It also models organization to students. However, if you don’t train the students to maintain the clean, well-organized room you have created, it will be a matter of days before it turns into chaos.
We must model positive attitudes and thinking so our students will follow. We can find a positive side for every learning experience regardless of whether or not the student failed. For example, if a student passes the reading TAKS test but not the math, we can respond by saying, “This is good. Now, we know that we need to focus on math for the next few weeks. Let’s me think of another way we can talk about fractions. What is your favorite food…” From here, we would explain fractions based on food that is pleasant for this specific student. The most important thing in affecting a student’s likes and dislikes is discovering what that student finds enjoyable and start there.
Again, modeling is important as we influence a student’s attitude toward learning. If the student says, “Fractions are really hard for me.” We often may respond by disputing the students thought and saying, “No, they aren’t. You can do this.” However, we must affirm the student’s thoughts as we redirect them. Instead we might say, “I know this is hard but I remember when addition was hard for you and you are really excellent at it now. Let’s get out my new puzzle and talk about fractions again.”
Developing a respect “FEAR” of authority does not mean that we want students to respect teachers. The respect discussed on this slide is the same as the respect we have of the police, government if we do not pay our taxes, and of the district if we break the rules. It is healthy for people to respect authority and that respect usually keeps them from having inappropriate behavior that might result in a negative consequence. A student without respect of authority is unruly, disrespectful and possibly dangerous. There are a few ways to instill respect without physical pain. The best way is to be consistent and coherent when students behave inappropriately. The students need to know that you are not going to miss anything. During the first week of school, it is imperative that teachers establish that themselves as an authority figure in the eyes of the students. This is done by making sure that all expectations and rules are followed and consequences occur in every instance that they are not. For example, if you have trained the students on Monday and Tuesday to put their hands behind their back. On Wednesday, if one student does not have his hands behind their back, then you might wait and tell the class that everyone is waiting on one student to remember how we line up. This shows the students that you are watching every detail of their actions. If they do not feel that they can get away with not putting their hands behind their back, then they are less likely to try running in the hall, touching another student or getting out of the line. This also establishes security because the students sense that because you are watching them closely, no one will be able to harm them without your knowledge.
These ideas contribute to the notion that behavior is reinforced one way or another. An undesirable behavior that goes without notice can be viewed as positive reinforcement by the student and therefore continue. Note that reinforcers are not necessarily rewards because they may or may not be pleasant and desirable.
This model is useful when we need help deciding what to do about a behavior. It shows us how to increase the frequency of behaviors or how to extinguish them. I am handing out a copy of this slide for you to keep handy as you deal with student behavior. Be sure to remember that you focusing on a behavior that is already happening and deciding how to make it continue or stop.
Skinner has identified two major problems for us. We can combat these issues by planning ahead and providing reinforcements that can not only be given immediately but also relate to the concepts we are teaching in the present life of our students. We will use fractions again for an example. If the students successfully cut a cookie into halves then they can eat one half, then that half into fourths, eat one and so on. This reinforcer is immediate and directly relates to the objective we are teaching.
Discipline management in classroom (didactica)
Discipline Management in Classroom By: Weizmar Lozada
Characteristics of an Effective Teacher Classroom Management High Expectations Mastery Teaching
Classroom Management <ul><li>Classroom management includes all of the things a teacher must to do toward these: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>To promote student involvement and cooperation in all classroom activities. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>To establish a productive working environment. </li></ul></ul>
<ul><li>Using classical conditioning, we have the ability to: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Affect students likes/dislikes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Influence our student’s attitudes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Develop a respect for authority </li></ul></ul>Classical Conditioning
<ul><li>Affecting Students Likes/Dislikes </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Classical Conditioning Theory indicates that people develop a taste for pleasant experiences and hates to experiences they find unpleasant </li></ul></ul>Classical Conditioning Therefore, we must intentionally provide learning experiences for which the students find pleasant if we want students to enjoy learning.
<ul><li>Influencing students’ attitudes toward learning </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Classical Conditioning, this suggests that students will develop a positive attitude toward learning simply by presenting content along with words and images that suggest positive feelings such as “excellent”, “amazing,” and “good work.” </li></ul></ul>Classical Conditioning Therefore, we must intentionally incorporate words and images in our classrooms that suggest positive feelings for students.
<ul><li>Develop a respect of authority </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Classical Conditioning, this explains that people develop respect/fear based on conditioned stimuli that are associated with unpleasant unconditioned stimuli. </li></ul></ul>Classical Conditioning Therefore, we must inspire a healthy sense of “respect” of authority so that students will avoid behaviors that result in unpleasant consequences.
Operant Conditioning <ul><li>Skinner’s Basic Law of Operant Conditioning Theory: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Reinforcer – a response that increases in frequency when preceded with a stimulus or event. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Almost any behavior can be learned through operant conditioning including academic, social and psychomotor. </li></ul></ul>
Operant Conditioning <ul><li>Positive and Negative Reinforcers </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Positive Reinforcement involves the presentation of a stimulus after a response such as a smile, positive words, and a good grade. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Negative Reinforcement increases a response through the removal of a stimulus. </li></ul></ul>
Operant Conditioning <ul><li>Punishment is not negative reinforcement. </li></ul><ul><li>Punishment decreases the frequency of a response by giving a negative stimulus or taking away a positive stimulus. </li></ul>
Operant Conditioning Give Positive Stimulus Take Away Negative Stimulus Positive Reinforcement Negative Reinforcement Give Negative Stimulus or Take Away Positive Stimulus Increase? Punishment Decrease? What do you want the behavior to do?
Operant Conditioning <ul><li>Skinner’s assessment of operant conditioning and teaching. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Teachers have the difficult task of teaching behaviors that will be useful for students in their future. Teachers use artificial reinforcers such as stickers which are effective for young students. </li></ul></ul>Therefore, we must make learning relevant to students’ present interests and provide effective connections between learning and the reinforcement method we choose.
Classroom Management Strategies <ul><li>Establish routines and procedures for every task. </li></ul><ul><li>Communicate discipline plan which includes positive and negative consequences or reinforcers </li></ul>“ Effective teachers MANAGE their classrooms. Ineffective teachers DISCIPLINE their classrooms.”
Classroom Management Strategies <ul><li>Investing time in teaching discipline and procedures just for an effective use of class time. </li></ul><ul><li>Here are a few things to keep in mind establishing rules: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Rules are expectations of appropriate behavior. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Rules immediately create a work-oriented atmosphere </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Include consequences – What the student chooses to accept if a rule is broken. </li></ul></ul>Establishing a Discipline Plan