Prepared by, Khadija Arshad Tahir Institute of Home Economics University of Agriculture,Faisalabad Pakistan
Bipolar Disorder is mood disorder. It is a mental illness, also known as manic depression, is characterized by severe mood swing, repeated episodes of depression and at least one episode of mania.
It is fifth leading cause of disability Worldwide. It is ninth leading cause of death. People who suffer from Bipolar Disorder are at a risk of suffering from other mental health problems. Males may develop Bipolar Disorder earlier in life as compared to females. Number of individuals who commit suicide is 60 times higher than that of general population.
Bipolar |: Individual has at least one manic episode but does not require history of major depression. Bipolar ||: Person has experienced at least one episode of major depression and at least one episode of hypomania. Cyclothymic disorder describes periods of hypomania with brief periods of depression.
Mixed bipolar involve full symptoms of both mania and full depressive episodes. Rapid-cycling bipolar disorder is characterized by four or more mood episodes that occur within a 12-month period.
Persistently depresses or irritable mood Decreased interest in previously pleasurable activities Change or problems in appetite, weight, or sleep Lack of activity Fatigue Feeling of worthlessness Trouble concentrating Thought of death, or suicidal thoughts, plans or actions
It includes symptoms of: Sadness, anxiety, anger, isolation, hopelessness Disturbances in sleep and appetite Shyness or social anxiety Lack of motivation Suicidal ideation Delusion Hallucinations
Distinct period of elevated mood. Increase in energy. Decrease need for sleep. Pressured speech. Racing thoughts. Impaired judgment. Aggressive behavior. Euphoric.
It is mild to moderate level of mania, characterized by:*. Optimism*. Pressure of speech and activity*. Decreased need for sleep It does not inhibit functioning like mania. Creativity increased as person becomes more active Energy increase & tend to Hallucination It is not problematic, but if left untreated it can last from few weeks to several years
People with mixed episode experience depression and mania at the same time. This leads to unpredictable behavior, such as sadness while doing a favorite activity or feeling very energetic. Its more common in people who develop bipolar disorder at a young age, particularly during adolescence. But some estimates suggest up to 70% of bipolar patients experience mixed episodes.
Doctors arent exactly sure what causes bipolar disorder. A leading theory is that brain chemicals fluctuate abnormally. When levels of certain chemicals become too high, the patient develops mania. When levels drop too low, depression may result.
Some evidence from high-tech imaging studies indicates that people with bipolar disorder have physical changes in their brains. The significance of these changes is still uncertain but may eventually help pinpoint causes. The naturally occurring brain chemicals called neurotransmitters, which are tied to mood, also may play a role. Hormonal imbalances also are thought to be a culprit.
Genes. Some studies show that bipolar disorder is more common in people whose biological family members also have the condition. Researchers are trying to find genes that may be involved in causing bipolar disorder.
Environment. Environment also is thought to play a causal role in some way. Some studies of identical twins show that one twin has the condition while the other doesnt — which means genes alone arent responsible for bipolar disorder. Environmental causes may include problems with self-esteem, significant loss or high stress.
A crucial step in diagnosing bipolar disorder is to rule out other possible causes of extreme mood swings. These may include brain infection or other neurological disorders, substance abuse, thyroid problem, HIV, ADHD, side effects of certain medications, or other psychiatric disorders. There is no lab test for bipolar disorder. A psychiatrist usually makes the diagnosis based on a careful history and evaluation of the patients mood and other symptoms.
Medications are key in helping people with bipolar disorder live stable, productive lives. Mood stabilizers can smooth out the cycle of ups and downs. Patients may also be prescribed antipsychotic drugs and anticonvulsant drugs. Between acute states of mania or depression, patients typically stay on maintenance medication to avoid a relapse.
Talk therapy can help patients stay on medication and cope with their disorders impact on work and family life. Cognitive behavioral therapy focuses on changing thoughts and behaviors that accompany mood swings. Interpersonal therapyaims to ease the strain bipolar disorder may place on personal relationships. Social rhythm therapyhelps patients develop and maintain daily routines.
Establishing firm routines can help manage bipolar disorder. Routines should include sufficient sleep, regular meals, and exercise. Because alcohol and recreational drugs can worsen the symptoms, these should be avoided. Patients should also learn to identify their personal early warning signs of mania and depression. This will allow them to get help before an episode spins out of control.
Electroconvulsive therapy can help some people with bipolar disorder. ECT uses an electric current to cause a seizure in the brain. It is one of the fastest ways to ease severe symptoms. ECT is usually a last resort when a patient does not improve with medication or psychotherapy.
Friends and family may not understand bipolar disorder at first. They may become frustrated with the depressive episodes and frightened by the manic states. If patients make the effort to explain the illness and how it affects them, loved ones may become more compassionate. Having a solid support system can help people with bipolar disorder feel less isolated and more motivated to manage their condition.