01/30/15 LAVC Writing Center 1
A SELF-GUIDED
TUTORIAL
01/30/15 LAVC Writing Center 2
Introduction
This presentation
has been provided for you
by the LAVC Writing Center
01/30/15 LAVC Writing Center 3
What Will We Know By the End?What Will We Know By the End?
• What are comma splices and run...
01/30/15 LAVC Writing Center 4
Terms to become familiar with…Terms to become familiar with…
• Subject
• Verb
• Comma
• Sem...
01/30/15 LAVC Writing Center 5
What is a Subject?What is a Subject?
• A subject is who or what the
sentence is about.
01/30/15 LAVC Writing Center 6
Examples of a Subject
Person, Place, or Thing:Person, Place, or Thing:
Person = George Bush...
01/30/15 LAVC Writing Center 7
What is a Verb?What is a Verb?
• A verb describes the action or the state of
being of the s...
01/30/15 LAVC Writing Center 8
Examples of a Verb
VerbsVerbs:
Jump(s), Jumping, Jumped
Run(s), Running, Ran
Talk(s), Talki...
01/30/15 LAVC Writing Center 9
What is an Independent Clause?What is an Independent Clause?
• An independent clause is a s...
01/30/15 LAVC Writing Center 10
Example
(Independent Clause/
Complete Sentence)
subject verb
Independent Clause
Johnny ran...
01/30/15 LAVC Writing Center 11
What is a Dependent Clause?What is a Dependent Clause?
• A dependent clause is a fragment ...
01/30/15 LAVC Writing Center 12
Example
(Dependent Clause)
When Tom wrote his paper …
DEPENDENT CLAUSE
•This statement
dep...
01/30/15 LAVC Writing Center 13
What is a Comma?What is a Comma?
• A comma is a form of punctuation that can
off-set or se...
01/30/15 LAVC Writing Center 14
EXAMPLEEXAMPLE
(Comma Usage with Independent and(Comma Usage with Independent and
Dependen...
01/30/15 LAVC Writing Center 15
The Comma in the SentenceThe Comma in the Sentence
• If the Dependent Clause (incomplete
s...
01/30/15 LAVC Writing Center 16
NOW what is our Focus?
Sentences with two or more IndependentIndependent
ClausesClauses (c...
01/30/15 LAVC Writing Center 17
What do we have if there is no (orWhat do we have if there is no (or
the wrong) punctuatio...
01/30/15 LAVC Writing Center 18
What is a Semi-Colon?What is a Semi-Colon?
• A semi-colon is one method of punctuation
tha...
01/30/15 LAVC Writing Center 19
EXAMPLEEXAMPLE
(Semi-colon)(Semi-colon)
The Writing Center tutors LAVC students ;
it is op...
01/30/15 LAVC Writing Center 20
What are CoordinatingWhat are Coordinating
Conjunctions?Conjunctions?
• A coordinating con...
01/30/15 LAVC Writing Center 21
(Coordinating Conjunctions)
F A N B O Y S
F or
A nd
N or
B ut
O r
Y et
S o
“FANBOYS” is an...
01/30/15 LAVC Writing Center 22
Example of How to Use aExample of How to Use a
Coordinating ConjunctionCoordinating Conjun...
01/30/15 LAVC Writing Center 23
What is a Run-On Sentence?What is a Run-On Sentence?
A run-on sentence is two or more inde...
01/30/15 LAVC Writing Center 24
ExampleExample
(Run-On Sentence)(Run-On Sentence)
• Joey thought that Jill was pretty Jill...
01/30/15 LAVC Writing Center 25
HOW DID WE FIX IT?HOW DID WE FIX IT?
We used a coordinating conjunction (one of
the FANBOY...
01/30/15 LAVC Writing Center 26
What is a Comma Splice?What is a Comma Splice?
• A comma splice is two independent clauses...
01/30/15 LAVC Writing Center 27
Example
(Comma Splice)
It is really hot outside,
drink plenty of water.
•This sentence nee...
01/30/15 LAVC Writing Center 28
WHY DO WE NEED TO USE THE
SEMI-COLON OR FANBOY’S?
• Punctuation is like a street sign on t...
01/30/15 LAVC Writing Center 29
Is there a more simple way to fix aIs there a more simple way to fix a
Comma Splice or Run...
01/30/15 LAVC Writing Center 30
CONCLUSIONCONCLUSION
Comma Splices and Run-ons detract from our ability to
clearly and eff...
01/30/15 LAVC Writing Center 31
LIST OF WORKS USED TOLIST OF WORKS USED TO
MAKE THIS PRESENTATIONMAKE THIS PRESENTATION
Gi...
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Run on sentences

  1. 1. 01/30/15 LAVC Writing Center 1 A SELF-GUIDED TUTORIAL
  2. 2. 01/30/15 LAVC Writing Center 2 Introduction This presentation has been provided for you by the LAVC Writing Center
  3. 3. 01/30/15 LAVC Writing Center 3 What Will We Know By the End?What Will We Know By the End? • What are comma splices and run-on sentences? • Why do we need to fix sentences with these mistakes? • How do we fix these sentences?
  4. 4. 01/30/15 LAVC Writing Center 4 Terms to become familiar with…Terms to become familiar with… • Subject • Verb • Comma • Semi-colon • Independent Clause/ Complete Sentence • Dependent Clause • Conjunction • Run-on sentence • Comma Splice
  5. 5. 01/30/15 LAVC Writing Center 5 What is a Subject?What is a Subject? • A subject is who or what the sentence is about.
  6. 6. 01/30/15 LAVC Writing Center 6 Examples of a Subject Person, Place, or Thing:Person, Place, or Thing: Person = George Bush Place = The LAVC Writing Center Thing = A baseball
  7. 7. 01/30/15 LAVC Writing Center 7 What is a Verb?What is a Verb? • A verb describes the action or the state of being of the subject.
  8. 8. 01/30/15 LAVC Writing Center 8 Examples of a Verb VerbsVerbs: Jump(s), Jumping, Jumped Run(s), Running, Ran Talk(s), Talking, Talk Write(s), Writing, Wrote
  9. 9. 01/30/15 LAVC Writing Center 9 What is an Independent Clause?What is an Independent Clause? • An independent clause is a sentence with at least one subject and one verb and is a complete thought. A complete sentence is an independent clause.
  10. 10. 01/30/15 LAVC Writing Center 10 Example (Independent Clause/ Complete Sentence) subject verb Independent Clause Johnny ran quickly . This statement can stand alone.
  11. 11. 01/30/15 LAVC Writing Center 11 What is a Dependent Clause?What is a Dependent Clause? • A dependent clause is a fragment of a complete sentence that cannot stand alone. It cannot stand alone because it is missing either its subject or its verb, which leaves the reader confused as to who is doing what.
  12. 12. 01/30/15 LAVC Writing Center 12 Example (Dependent Clause) When Tom wrote his paper … DEPENDENT CLAUSE •This statement depends on more information. • This statement cannot stand alone.
  13. 13. 01/30/15 LAVC Writing Center 13 What is a Comma?What is a Comma? • A comma is a form of punctuation that can off-set or set aside specific details in a sentence as well as help prevent confusion within or misreading of a sentence. ,
  14. 14. 01/30/15 LAVC Writing Center 14 EXAMPLEEXAMPLE (Comma Usage with Independent and(Comma Usage with Independent and Dependent Clauses)Dependent Clauses) Because I love flowers, I grow a garden. Dependent Clause Independent Clause
  15. 15. 01/30/15 LAVC Writing Center 15 The Comma in the SentenceThe Comma in the Sentence • If the Dependent Clause (incomplete sentence) appears before the Independent Clause (complete sentence), there must be a comma connecting the two clauses in the sentence. (Like the sentence on this page!)
  16. 16. 01/30/15 LAVC Writing Center 16 NOW what is our Focus? Sentences with two or more IndependentIndependent ClausesClauses (complete sentences). • How do these Independent Clauses get properly connected or linked in a single sentence?
  17. 17. 01/30/15 LAVC Writing Center 17 What do we have if there is no (orWhat do we have if there is no (or the wrong) punctuation connectingthe wrong) punctuation connecting your Independent Clauses??your Independent Clauses?? *Two very common punctuation mistakes in writing… •A RUN-ON SENTENCE or •A COMMA SPLICE
  18. 18. 01/30/15 LAVC Writing Center 18 What is a Semi-Colon?What is a Semi-Colon? • A semi-colon is one method of punctuation that unites two related independent clauses without using a conjunction. (We’ll talk about conjunctions later) ;
  19. 19. 01/30/15 LAVC Writing Center 19 EXAMPLEEXAMPLE (Semi-colon)(Semi-colon) The Writing Center tutors LAVC students ; it is open five days a week. Independent Clause Independent Clause
  20. 20. 01/30/15 LAVC Writing Center 20 What are CoordinatingWhat are Coordinating Conjunctions?Conjunctions? • A coordinating conjunction is one of seven (7) words that are used to connect two independent clauses together in one sentence. In order to use a conjunction correctly, it is necessary to add a comma when using a conjunction.
  21. 21. 01/30/15 LAVC Writing Center 21 (Coordinating Conjunctions) F A N B O Y S F or A nd N or B ut O r Y et S o “FANBOYS” is an easy way of remembering all 7 Coordinating Conjunctions (For, And, Nor, But, Or, Yet, So).
  22. 22. 01/30/15 LAVC Writing Center 22 Example of How to Use aExample of How to Use a Coordinating ConjunctionCoordinating Conjunction • Sentence 1: Robert is reading his favorite book. • Sentence 2: Tam is writing an essay for English 101. * Combined Sentence: Robert is reading his favorite book, and, and Tam is writing an essay for English 101.
  23. 23. 01/30/15 LAVC Writing Center 23 What is a Run-On Sentence?What is a Run-On Sentence? A run-on sentence is two or more independent clauses combined without ANY punctuation.
  24. 24. 01/30/15 LAVC Writing Center 24 ExampleExample (Run-On Sentence)(Run-On Sentence) • Joey thought that Jill was pretty Jill thought that Joey was handsome. What’s the problem with this sentence? We don’t know where one idea begins and the next ends! • How do we fix it?? Joey thought that Jill was pretty, and Jill thought that Joey was handsome. OrOr Joey thought that Jill was pretty; Jill thought that Joey was handsome.
  25. 25. 01/30/15 LAVC Writing Center 25 HOW DID WE FIX IT?HOW DID WE FIX IT? We used a coordinating conjunction (one of the FANBOYS), OR we used a semicolon to properly connect and separate the sentences.
  26. 26. 01/30/15 LAVC Writing Center 26 What is a Comma Splice?What is a Comma Splice? • A comma splice is two independent clauses connected with only a comma. The comma is not strong enough to properly end a sentence.
  27. 27. 01/30/15 LAVC Writing Center 27 Example (Comma Splice) It is really hot outside, drink plenty of water. •This sentence needs a “FANBOY” (conjunction) or a semi-colon ( ; ) to fix the comma splice. EXAMPLE : It is really hot outside, so drink plenty of water. Or
  28. 28. 01/30/15 LAVC Writing Center 28 WHY DO WE NEED TO USE THE SEMI-COLON OR FANBOY’S? • Punctuation is like a street sign on the road of writing; without these guides our written thoughts become confusing to our readers. • Commas and semi-colons are two types of street signs. • Run-on sentences are areas in need of signs.
  29. 29. 01/30/15 LAVC Writing Center 29 Is there a more simple way to fix aIs there a more simple way to fix a Comma Splice or Run-On Sentence?Comma Splice or Run-On Sentence? THE PERIOD .You can end one Independent Clause (complete sentence) and start another one by connecting them with a period. ExampleExample: I like toast for breakfast. It tastes great.
  30. 30. 01/30/15 LAVC Writing Center 30 CONCLUSIONCONCLUSION Comma Splices and Run-ons detract from our ability to clearly and effectively express our thoughts and ideas in writing. The comma, semi-colon, period, and conjunctions help us to organize our thoughts and guide our readers through our text, but only the semi-colon, the conjunctions, and period can properly end a sentence or independent clause.
  31. 31. 01/30/15 LAVC Writing Center 31 LIST OF WORKS USED TOLIST OF WORKS USED TO MAKE THIS PRESENTATIONMAKE THIS PRESENTATION Gibaldi, Joseph ed. MLA Handbook for Writers of Research Papers. New York: Modern Language Association, 1999.
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