Integrating quotes

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Integrating quotes

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Integrating quotes

  1. 1. Integrating Quotes using MLA format
  2. 2. Structure for Analysis Paragraph   The first sentence should introduce the title and author.     • The next few sentences should provide some general  information leading up to the quote. • Right before the quote, use a signal phrase: The  author explains, shows, states, argues, illustrates… •  Chose and insert a meaningful quote. • After the quote, provide a few sentences of  commentary. 
  3. 3. Step 1: Introduce the author, book, and general overview of work Never assume that your audience already knows the work that you referring to even if the audience is your professor. Instead, imagine your audience is anyone on campus who may come across your work. Title of Book: The Compadre Author: Dr. Jose Torres __________________________________________ In his book The Compadre, Dr. Torres explores the  complexities of relationships. 
  4. 4.  Step 1: Introduce the author and book Dr. Torres  explains in his article “Bad Dude Syndrome” that  ______________. Adapted from: Graff, Gerald And Cathy Birkenstein. They Say, I Say. New York: Norton and Company. 2006. Print. Add some variety to how you introduce the quotes! Writing in the journal Ethics & Society, Dr. Torres argues  that _____  In his book _______, X explores ____________.
  5. 5.  Step 2: Provide a few sentences of  background/context leading up to the  quote ________ tend to believe that____________ Society often thinks that ______________ Conventional wisdom has it that___________ __________ celebrates the fact that ___________emphasizes that
  6. 6.  Step 2: Provide a few sentences of  background/context leading up to the  quote In his book The Compadre, Dr. Torres explores the  complexities of relationships. Conventional wisdom  has it that friends are easy to maintain. However,  Dr. Torres emphasizes that friendships can be very  difficult to keep up, and one of the challenges can  be communication. 
  7. 7. Step Three: Chose a meaningful quote and introduce it by using a signal phrase A signal phrase is group of words that signals that a quote will be introduced Adapted from: Graff, Gerald And Cathy Birkenstein. They Say, I Say. New York: Norton and Company. 2006. Print. According to Dr. Torres, “____________________” (50). Dr. Torres states, “__________________________” (35). Dr. Torres complicates matters further when he writes that “__________” (56). The author demonstrates this concept “________” (4). Notice the format of the page number in parentheses following the quote with the period at the end.
  8. 8. Step Three: Introduce a quote by using a signal phrase In his book The Compadre, Dr. Torres explores the complexities of relationships. Conventional wisdom has it that friends are easy to maintain. However, Dr. Torres emphasizes that friendships can be very difficult to keep up, and one of the challenges can be communication. The author demonstrates this when he states “Communication often breaks down because of passive listening” (Torres 4).
  9. 9. Introducing the Author for MLA This is demonstrated when“Communication often breaks down because of passive listening” (Torres 4). Dr. Torres demonstrates this when he states “Communication often breaks down because of passive listening”(4). Either introduce the author’s last name in the sentence leading up to the quote or in the parentheses following the quote. Use a capital letter if the sentence is a complete sentence. Example one: Cite author at the end of the quote. Example two: Introduce author before the quote.
  10. 10. Choose different signal phrases to add variety
  11. 11. Step 4: Provide commentary/analysis after the quote Adapted from: Graff, Gerald And Cathy Birkenstein. They Say, I Say. New York: Norton and Company. 2006. Print. In other words, __________________ To put it another way,_________________ ____________ is important because_____________ Although ______________ may seem trivial, it is in fact crucial in terms of today’s concern over____________. Ultimately, what is at stake here is___________________
  12. 12. Step 4: Provide commentary/analysis after the quote In his book The Compadre, Dr. Torres emphasizes the complexities of relationships. Conventional wisdom has it that friends are easy to maintain. However, Dr. Torres emphasizes that friendships can be very difficult to keep up, and one of the challenges can be communication. This is demonstrated when“Communication often breaks down because of passive listening” (Torres 4). Ultimately what is at stake here is the relationship. When friends do not feel like they are being heard, friendships can be comprised. Rather than focusing on one’s own agenda, friends should engage in a genuine give and take style of communication where friends prioritize active listening.
  13. 13. Block Quotes If you choose a quote that is longer than four sentences, use the following format: Dr. Torres provides a keen observation about friendship: The best friends are the ones who can teach you and who you can teach them. This type of friendship has balance. The best friendships continually push one another to grow, to change, to evolve, learn, and to love. (112) Notice that the first sentence is a complete sentence that ends with a colon. The quote is indented 1 inch. There are no quotation marks. The quote ends with a period. The page number in parentheses follows next.
  14. 14. Ellipses: indicate that something has been omitted in the original quote Use a set of three periods with a space before and after each (. . .) If the material you are omitting occurs between sentences, add a fourth period to mark the end of the first sentence. In an essay on urban legends, Jan Harold Brunvand notes that "some individuals make a point of learning every recent rumor or tale . . . and in a short time a lively exchange of details occurs" (78). “It is widely acknowledged that today’s drivers do more than just drive. . . . [D]rivers have a wide array of nondriving tasks available to them at any given time” (Salvucci and Taatgen 67). Adapted from “MLA Formatting Quotations.” Purdue Online Writing Lab. October 25 2012. Web. Special Considerations
  15. 15. Quotations within a Quotation Use single quotation marks to enclose quotes within another quotation. The reporter told me, "When I interviewed the quarterback, he said they simply 'played a better game.'" Adapted from “MLA Formatting Quotations.” Purdue Online Writing Lab. October 25 2012. Web. Special Considerations
  16. 16. Brackets: indicate a small changes has been made so the quote fits grammatically with your sentence. [ ] found around changed part can change pronouns (he to him); tenses, pluralities; change capitalization  also enable you to add clarifying information Adapted from “MLA Formatting Quotations.” Purdue Online Writing Lab. October 25 2012. Web. Special Considerations Sic: If there is a grammatical error in the original quote, use the latin abbreviation sic which means “thus, so, just as that” to denote that you have copied the quote in its original format, and the grammatical mistake is not your own. In explaining his thoughts about motivation, the student explained “People needs [sic] to get their priorities straight” (5).
  17. 17. Commas: Use a comma to introduce a quotation after a standard dialogue tag or brief introductory phrase. The student said, "I am sure that I’m prepared for the test” (34). As Dr. Smith explains, ”Effective study habits are critical for student success” (45). Adapted from “MLA Formatting Quotations.” Purdue Online Writing Lab. October 25 2012. Web. Special Considerations Place colons and semicolons outside closed quotation marks. Jennings argued the results were “inconclusive and unsubstantial"; however, more data needed to be collected
  18. 18. Paraphrase vs. Direct Quote When we paraphrase we use an idea from an outside source but put the idea into our own words. We still have to give credit to the author and identify the page number. The character in Dr. Torre’s essay is full of anger and yells at his friend (4). When we use a direct quote, we copy word for from the source and use quotation marks. Dr. Torres demonstrates this when the character “Joe, in a fit of rage, screams at his friend Sue” (4).
  19. 19. Think of the parts of the sandwich! Bread on top Introduce quote Good stuff Quote in the middle Bread on Commentary on bottom quote
  20. 20. An “open-face” sandwich would be like starting a sentence with a quote or ending a quote without providing follow-up commentary. Neither is appropriate for academic writing. The conventions of academic writing can be confusing. “Students should avoid starting sentences with quotes” (Weigand 4). The conventions of academic writing can be confusing. The MLA guide as well as most composition instructors argue that “students should avoid starting sentences with quotes” (Weigand 4).
  21. 21. Avoid the following mistakes Failing to introduce the title of the work and the author. Starting a sentence or (paragraph) with a quote. Remember, you need to introduce the quote using a signal phrase. Ending a paragraph with a quote. Remember, you need to follow every quote with some of your own commentary or analysis. (This is the bottom piece of bread to your sandwich!)

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