Zend Framework Tutorial, ZendCon 2009
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  • Full Name Full Name Comment goes here.
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  • @baohx2000 - yes, I will be posting on my blog soon, and will also link to the archive here when I have.
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  • Will you be posting code for the 'Step X' slides?
    Great presentation (at least the slides since I couldn't go this year)
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  • Just a note: when you hit the slides that are marked 'Step X' -- you've hit about the 1 hour mark of a 3 hour tutorial. The remainder of the slides are placeholders, and simply indicate the next step in a hands-on demonstration where we built a pastebin application.
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Zend Framework Tutorial, ZendCon 2009 Presentation Transcript

  • 1. Zend Framework Tutorial Matthew Weier O'Phinney Project Lead Zend Framework ZendCon 2009 19 October 2009
  • 2. About me:
    • ZF Contributor since January 2006
    • 3. Assigned to the ZF team in July 2007
    • 4. Promoted to Software Architect in April 2008
    • 5. Project Lead since April 2009
    Photo © 2009, Chris Shiflett
  • 6. What we'll cover
  • 7.
    • What is Zend Framework?
    • 8. Getting and Installing Zend Framework
    • 9. Utilities and Patterns used throughout ZF
    • 10. Using ZF's MVC layer: Hands-on demonstration: Pastebin
  • 11. What is Zend Framework?
  • 12. Full Stack Framework?
  • 13. Component Library?
  • 14. Both.
  • 15.  
  • 16. Getting and Installing Zend Framework
  • 17. Always found at: http://framework.zend.com /download/latest
  • 18. Zend Server
  • 19. CDN Links
  • 20. Direct Links
  • 21.
    • Use CLI: % tar xzf ZendFramework-1.9.2-minimal.tar.gz % unzip ZendFramework-1.9.2-minimal.zip
    • 22. Or use a GUI file manager
    Unzip/Untar
  • 23. Add to your include_path ; UNIX: "/path1:/path2" include_path = ".:/home/matthew/zf/library"
  • 24. Add to your include_path # Goes in either a <VirtualHost>, # <Directory> or .htaccess: php_value include_path &quot;.:/home/matthew/zf/library&quot;
  • 25. Add to your include_path <?php set_include_path( implode (PATH_SEPARATOR, array ( '.' , '/home/matthew/zf/library' , get_include_path(), )));
  • 26. Utilities and Patterns Used throughout Zend Framework
  • 27. The Autoloader
  • 28.
    • Class names have a 1:1 relationship with the FileSystem: Zend_Db => Zend/Db.php
    • 29. The initial class prefix is called the “vendor” or “namespace” prefix: “Zend_”, “ZendX_”
    • 30. Register either namespace prefixes or actual autoloader callbacks with the ZF autoloader
    Rules
  • 31. Initialize the autoloader require_once 'Zend/Loader/Autoloader.php' ; Zend_Loader_Autoloader::getInstance();
  • 32. Register namespaces $al = Zend_Loader_Autoloader::getInstance(); $al ->registerNamespace( 'Foo_' ); $al ->registerNamespace( array ( 'Foo_' , 'Bar_' ));
  • 33. Register other autoloaders $al = Zend_Loader_Autoloader::getInstance(); $al ->registerNamespace( 'Doctrine' ); $al ->pushAutoloader( array ( 'Doctrine' , 'autoload' ), 'Doctrine_' );
  • 34.
    • Groups of resources with a common vendor prefix/namespace
    • 35. No 1:1 mapping between class name and filename
    • 36. Define arbitrary mappings, or use Zend_Application_Module_Autoloader for use with MVC modules
    Resource Autoloaders
  • 37. Create a resource autoloader // Initialize resource autoloader: $loader = new Zend_Loader_Autoloader_Resource( array ( 'namespace' => 'Foo' , 'basePath' => $path , )); // Map $path/forms/*.php to Foo_Form_*: $loader ->addResourceType( 'form' , 'forms' , 'Form' );
  • 38. Create a module autoloader /* * Maps: * - forms/ -> Foo_Form_* * - models/ -> Foo_Model_* * - models/DbTable -> Foo_Model_DbTable_* * - plugins -> Foo_Plugin_* * - services -> Foo_Service_* * - views/helpers -> Foo_View_Helper_* * - views/filters -> Foo_View_Filter_* */ $loader = new Zend_Application_Module_Autoloader( array ( 'namespace' => 'Foo' , 'basePath' => dirname (__FILE__), ));
  • 39. Plugins
  • 40.
    • For those times when 1:1 doesn't work (e.g., application code)
    • 41. Standard pattern: “all code in this location shares the same class prefix” (aka PrefixPath)
    • 42. Plugin loader is passed a “short name,” and attempts to resolve it to a known PrefixPath
    Rules
  • 43. Example $element ->addPrefixPath( 'Foo_Validate' , // PREFIX 'foo/plugins/validators/' , // PATH 'validate' ); foo/ |-- plugins/ | |-- validators/ | | |-- Even.php | | |-- Dozens.php | | |-- Int.php
  • 44. Invoking plugins $element ->addValidator( 'NotEmpty' ) ->addValidator( 'Int' ) ->addValidator( 'Even' ) ->addValidator( 'Dozens' ); New, custom validators Custom validator overriding existing validator
  • 45. Zend_Config
  • 46.
    • Zend Framework is configurationless, but often your applications are not
    • 47. Many common configuration formats: XML, INI, PHP
    • 48. Access to configuration values should not vary between backends
    • 49. Configuration inheritance is useful
    Why Zend_Config?
  • 50. Sample INI config [production] app.name = &quot;Foo!&quot; db.adapter = &quot;Pdo_Mysql&quot; db.params.username = &quot;foo&quot; db.params.password = &quot;bar&quot; db.params.dbname = &quot;foodb&quot; db.params.host = &quot;127.0.0.1&quot; [testing : production] db.adapter = &quot;Pdo_Sqlite&quot; db.params.dbname = APPLICATION_PATH &quot;/data/test.db&quot;
  • 51. Sample XML config <?xml version = &quot;1.0&quot; ?> <config> <production> <app><name> Foo! </name></app> <db> <adapter> Pdo_Mysql </adapter> <params username = &quot;foo&quot; password = &quot;bar&quot; dbname = &quot;foodb&quot; host = &quot;127.0.0.1&quot; /> </db> </production> <testing extends = &quot;production&quot; > <db> <adapter> Pdo_Sqlite </adapter> <params dbname = &quot;/data/test.db&quot; /> </db> </testing> </config>
  • 52. Sample PHP config $production = include 'production.conf.php' ; $config = array ( 'db' => array ( 'adapter' => 'Pdo_Sqlite' , 'params' => array ( 'dbname' => APP_PATH . '/../data/test.db' , ), ) ); $config = $production + $config ; return $config ;
  • 53. Instantiating a Config object // Load 'testing' section of INI configuration: $config = new Zend_Config_Ini( $fileName , 'testing' ); // Load 'testing' section of XML configuration: $config = new Zend_Config_Xml( $fileName , 'testing' ); // Load 'testing' configuration via PHP array: $config = include 'testing.conf.php' ; $config = new Zend_Config( $config );
  • 54. Using Config objects // Multiple levels: $appName = $config ->app->name; // Using config object as argument $db = Zend_Db::factory( $config ->db);
  • 55. Using Zend Framework's MVC Layer
  • 56.
    • Learn how to create a new ZF MVC project
    • 57. Learn how to use various MVC components:
      • Zend_Application, Zend_Controller_Front, Zend_Controller_Action, Zend_Controller_Router, Zend_Db_Table, Zend_View, Action Helpers, View Helpers, Zend_Form, Zend_Layout, etc.
    • Learn concepts related to separation of concerns
    Goals
  • 58.
    • Create “pastes” with optional expiry; allow listing pastes by username
    • 59. Single table is ideal for demonstrating simple component interactions
    • 60. Ask questions as you have them!
    The Application: Pastebin
  • 61.
    • A Paste consists of:
    Pastebin Specification code content (required) summary (optional) code_type content type (required, default to plain text) username (optional) timestamp (required; created on commit) expiry (optional) identifier (required; a unique hash)
  • 62.
    • Each paste will have a unique URL
    • 63. Pastes may optionally expire, in which case they won't be displayed
    • 64. Pastes may be listed by username
    Pastebin Specification
  • 65. Step 1: Create the project
  • 66.
    • In bin/zf.sh or bin/zf.bat of your ZF install (choose based on your OS)
    • 67. Place bin/ in your path, or create an alias on your path: alias zf=/path/to/bin/zf.sh
    • 68. Or use pear.zfcampus.org PEAR channel
    Locate the zf utility
  • 69. Create the project # Unix: % zf.sh create project quickstart # DOS/Windows: C:> zf.bat create project quickstart
  • 70. Add ZF to the project # Symlink: % cd library; ln -s path/to/ZendFramework/library/Zend . # Copy: % cd library; cp -r path/to/ZendFramework/library/Zend .
  • 71. Create a vhost <VirtualHost *: 80 > ServerAdmin you@atyour.tld DocumentRoot /abs/path/to/quickstart/public ServerName quickstart <Directory /abs/path/to/quickstart/public > DirectoryIndex index.php AllowOverride All Order allow,deny Allow from all </Directory> </VirtualHost>
  • 72. Add a hosts entry 127.0.0.1 quickstart
  • 73. Fire up your browser!
  • 74. Looking under the hood
  • 75. The directory tree quickstart |-- application | |-- Bootstrap.php | |-- configs | | `-- application.ini | |-- controllers | | |-- ErrorController.php | | ` -- IndexController.php | |-- models | `-- views | |-- helpers | ` -- scripts | |-- error | | `-- error.phtml | ` -- index | `-- index.phtml |-- library |-- public | ` -- index.php `-- tests |-- application | ` -- bootstrap.php |-- library | `-- bootstrap.php ` -- phpunit.xml 14 directories, 10 files
  • 76. The bootstrap <?php class Bootstrap extends Zend_Application_Bootstrap_Bootstrap { }
  • 77. Configuration [production] phpSettings.display_startup_errors = 0 phpSettings.display_errors = 0 includePaths.library = APPLICATION_PATH &quot;/../library&quot; bootstrap.path = APPLICATION_PATH &quot;/Bootstrap.php&quot; bootstrap.class = &quot;Bootstrap&quot; resources.frontController.controllerDirectory = APPLICATION_PATH &quot;/controllers&quot; [staging : production] [testing : production] phpSettings.display_startup_errors = 1 phpSettings.display_errors = 1 [development : production] phpSettings.display_startup_errors = 1 phpSettings.display_errors = 1
  • 78. Index (default) controller <?php class IndexController extends Zend_Controller_Action { public function init() { /* Initialize action controller here */ } public function indexAction() { // action body } }
  • 79. Error controller class ErrorController extends Zend_Controller_Action { public function errorAction() { $errors = $this ->_getParam( 'error_handler' ); switch ( $errors ->type) { case 'EXCEPTION_NO_CONTROLLER': case 'EXCEPTION_NO_ACTION': // 404 error -- controller or action not found $this ->getResponse()->setHttpResponseCode( 404 ); $this ->view->message = 'Page not found' ; break ; default: // application error $this ->getResponse()->setHttpResponseCode( 500 ); $this ->view->message = 'Application error' ; break ; } $this ->view->exception = $errors ->exception; $this ->view->request = $errors ->request; } }
  • 80. Index view (home page) <div id = &quot;welcome&quot; > <h1> Welcome to the <span id = &quot;zf-name&quot; > Zend Framework! </span> </h1> <h3> This is your project's main page </h3> <!-- and a little bit more markup --> </div>
  • 81. Error view <h1>An error occurred</h1> <h2><?php echo $this ->message ?></h2> <?php if ( 'development' == APPLICATION_ENV): ?> <h3>Exception information:</h3> <p> <b>Message:</b> <?php echo $this ->exception->getMessage() ?> </p> <h3>Stack trace:</h3> <pre> <?php echo $this ->exception->getTraceAsString() ?> </pre> <h3>Request Parameters:</h3> <pre> <?php var_dump ( $this ->request->getParams()) ?> </pre> <?php endif ?>
  • 82. .htaccess file SetEnv APPLICATION_ENV development RewriteEngine On RewriteCond %{REQUEST_FILENAME} -s [OR] RewriteCond %{REQUEST_FILENAME} -l [OR] RewriteCond %{REQUEST_FILENAME} -d RewriteRule ^.*$ - [NC,L] RewriteRule ^.*$ index.php [NC,L]
  • 83. index.php (environment) <?php // Define path to application directory defined ( 'APPLICATION_PATH' ) || define ( 'APPLICATION_PATH' , realpath ( dirname (__FILE__) . '/../application' )); // Define application environment defined ( 'APPLICATION_ENV' ) || define ( 'APPLICATION_ENV' , ( getenv ( 'APPLICATION_ENV' ) ? getenv ( 'APPLICATION_ENV' ) : 'production' )); // Ensure library/ is on include_path set_include_path( implode (PATH_SEPARATOR, array ( realpath (APPLICATION_PATH . '/../library' ), get_include_path(), )));
  • 84. index.php (application) /** Zend_Application */ require_once 'Zend/Application.php' ; // Create application, bootstrap, and run $application = new Zend_Application( APPLICATION_ENV, APPLICATION_PATH . '/configs/application.ini' ); $application ->bootstrap() ->run();
  • 85. Step 2: Create the model
  • 86. Step 3: Create a form
  • 87. Step 4: Create a controller
  • 88. Step 5: Create new routes
  • 89. Step 6: Create controller actions
  • 90. Step 7: Create views
  • 91. Step 8: Create a layout
  • 92. Step 9: Update the default view
  • 93. Step 10: Check it out!
  • 94. Further Steps
  • 95.
    • Add Dojo handling for code highlighting
    • 96. Add CSS for forms
    • 97. Add CSS for errors
    • 98. Add some layout specific styling and/or use dojo containers to improve layout
    • 99. Add Navigation elements to provide a menu/breadcrumbs
    • 100. Add caching (pastes may not be updated; cache forever)
    Make it prettier
  • 101. Summary or, “The fat guy sings”
  • 102.
    • What Zend Framework is
    • 103. Some common utilities/patterns used (autoloading, plugins, configuration)
    • 104. How to build a ZF MVC application
    We looked at:
  • 105. Questions? or, “Your turn!”
  • 106. Thank you. http://framework.zend.com/ http://twitter.com/weierophinney http://slideshare.net/weierophinney Feedback? http://joind.in/talk/view/878