Zend Framework Tutorial

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Introduction to Zend Framework, covering birds-eye overview of the project, how to download and install it, basic building blocks (autoloading, plugins, and configuration), and creating a sample …

Introduction to Zend Framework, covering birds-eye overview of the project, how to download and install it, basic building blocks (autoloading, plugins, and configuration), and creating a sample Pastebin application do demonstrate aspects of the ZF MVC layer.

Building the sample application is approximately the final 2 hours of the presentation, and is done as a hands-on tutorial. The sample application will be uploaded elsewhere for review.

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  • Note that it actually calls “dispatch()” on the action controller, which then attempts to call the appropriate action method.

Transcript

  • 1. Zend Framework Tutorial Matthew Weier O'Phinney Project Lead Zend Framework CodeWorks 2009 28 Sep – 4 Oct 2009 ATL, Miami, DC, NYC
  • 2. About me:
    • ZF Contributor since January 2006
    • 3. Assigned to the ZF team in July 2007
    • 4. Promoted to Software Architect in April 2008
    • 5. Project Lead since April 2009
    Photo © 2009, Chris Shiflett
  • 6. What we'll cover
  • 7.
    • What is Zend Framework?
    • 8. Getting and Installing Zend Framework
    • 9. Utilities and Patterns used throughout ZF
    • 10. Using ZF's MVC layer: Hands-on demonstration: Pastebin
  • 11. What is Zend Framework?
  • 12. Full Stack Framework?
  • 13. Component Library?
  • 14. Both.
  • 15.  
  • 16. Getting and Installing Zend Framework
  • 17. Always found at: http://framework.zend.com /download/latest
  • 18. CDN Links are at top
  • 19. Direct Links are below
  • 20.
    • Use CLI: % tar xzf ZendFramework-1.9.2-minimal.tar.gz % unzip ZendFramework-1.9.2-minimal.zip
    • 21. Or use a GUI file manager
    Unzip/Untar
  • 22. Add to your include_path ; UNIX: "/path1:/path2" include_path = ".:/home/matthew/zf/library"
  • 23. Add to your include_path # Goes in either a <VirtualHost>, # <Directory> or .htaccess: php_value include_path &quot;.:/home/matthew/zf/library&quot;
  • 24. Add to your include_path <?php set_include_path( implode (PATH_SEPARATOR, array ( '.' , '/home/matthew/zf/library' , get_include_path(), )));
  • 25. Utilities and Patterns Used throughout Zend Framework
  • 26. The Autoloader
  • 27.
    • Class names have a 1:1 relationship with the FileSystem: Zend_Db => Zend/Db.php
    • 28. The initial class prefix is called the “vendor” or “namespace” prefix: “Zend_”, “ZendX_”
    • 29. Register either namespace prefixes or actual autoloader callbacks with the ZF autoloader
    Rules
  • 30. Initialize the autoloader require_once 'Zend/Loader/Autoloader.php' ; Zend_Loader_Autoloader::getInstance();
  • 31. Register namespaces $al = Zend_Loader_Autoloader::getInstance(); $al ->registerNamespace( 'Foo_' ); $al ->registerNamespace( array ( 'Foo_' , 'Bar_' ));
  • 32. Register other autoloaders $al = Zend_Loader_Autoloader::getInstance(); $al ->registerNamespace( 'Doctrine' ); $al ->pushAutoloader( array ( 'Doctrine' , 'autoload' ), 'Doctrine_' );
  • 33.
    • Groups of resources with a common vendor prefix/namespace
    • 34. No 1:1 mapping between class name and filename
    • 35. Define arbitrary mappings, or use Zend_Application_Module_Autoloader for use with MVC modules
    Resource Autoloaders
  • 36. Create a resource autoloader // Initialize resource autoloader: $loader = new Zend_Loader_Autoloader_Resource( array ( 'namespace' => 'Foo' , 'basePath' => $path , )); // Map $path/forms/*.php to Foo_Form_*: $loader ->addResourceType( 'form' , 'forms' , 'Form' );
  • 37. Create a module autoloader /* * Maps: * - forms/ -> Foo_Form_* * - models/ -> Foo_Model_* * - models/DbTable -> Foo_Model_DbTable_* * - plugins -> Foo_Plugin_* * - services -> Foo_Service_* * - views/helpers -> Foo_View_Helper_* * - views/filters -> Foo_View_Filter_* */ $loader = new Zend_Application_Module_Autoloader( array ( 'namespace' => 'Foo' , 'basePath' => dirname (__FILE__), ));
  • 38. Plugins
  • 39.
    • For those times when 1:1 doesn't work (e.g., application code)
    • 40. Standard pattern: “all code in this location shares the same class prefix” (aka PrefixPath)
    • 41. Plugin loader is passed a “short name,” and attempts to resolve it to a known PrefixPath
    Rules
  • 42. Example $element ->addPrefixPath( 'Foo_Validate' , // PREFIX 'foo/plugins/validators/' , // PATH 'validate' ); foo/ |-- plugins/ | |-- validators/ | | |-- Even.php | | |-- Dozens.php | | |-- Int.php
  • 43. Invoking plugins $element ->addValidator( 'NotEmpty' ) ->addValidator( 'Int' ) ->addValidator( 'Even' ) ->addValidator( 'Dozens' ); New, custom validators Custom validator overriding existing validator
  • 44. Zend_Config
  • 45.
    • Zend Framework is configurationless, but often your applications are not
    • 46. Many common configuration formats: XML, INI, PHP
    • 47. Access to configuration values should not vary between backends
    • 48. Configuration inheritance is useful
    Why Zend_Config?
  • 49. Sample INI config [production] app.name = &quot;Foo!&quot; db.adapter = &quot;Pdo_Mysql&quot; db.params.username = &quot;foo&quot; db.params.password = &quot;bar&quot; db.params.dbname = &quot;foodb&quot; db.params.host = &quot;127.0.0.1&quot; [testing : production] db.adapter = &quot;Pdo_Sqlite&quot; db.params.dbname = APPLICATION_PATH &quot;/data/test.db&quot;
  • 50. Sample XML config <?xml version = &quot;1.0&quot; ?> <config> <production> <app><name> Foo! </name></app> <db> <adapter> Pdo_Mysql </adapter> <params username = &quot;foo&quot; password = &quot;bar&quot; dbname = &quot;foodb&quot; host = &quot;127.0.0.1&quot; /> </db> </production> <testing extends = &quot;production&quot; > <db> <adapter> Pdo_Sqlite </adapter> <params dbname = &quot;/data/test.db&quot; /> </db> </testing> </config>
  • 51. Sample PHP config $production = include 'production.conf.php' ; $config = array ( 'db' => array ( 'adapter' => 'Pdo_Sqlite' , 'params' => array ( 'dbname' => APP_PATH . '/../data/test.db' , ), ) ); $config = $production + $config ; return $config ;
  • 52. Instantiating a Config object // Load 'testing' section of INI configuration: $config = new Zend_Config_Ini( $fileName , 'testing' ); // Load 'testing' section of XML configuration: $config = new Zend_Config_Xml( $fileName , 'testing' ); // Load 'testing' configuration via PHP array: $config = include 'testing.conf.php' ; $config = new Zend_Config( $config );
  • 53. Using Config objects // Multiple levels: $appName = $config ->app->name; // Using config object as argument $db = Zend_Db::factory( $config ->db);
  • 54. Using Zend Framework's MVC Layer
  • 55.
    • Learn how to create a new ZF MVC project
    • 56. Learn how to use various MVC components:
      • Zend_Application, Zend_Controller_Front, Zend_Controller_Action, Zend_Controller_Router, Zend_Db_Table, Zend_View, Action Helpers, View Helpers, Zend_Form, Zend_Layout, etc.
    • Learn concepts related to separation of concerns
    Goals
  • 57.
    • Create “pastes” with optional expiry; allow listing pastes by username
    • 58. Single table is ideal for demonstrating simple component interactions
    • 59. Ask questions as you have them!
    The Application: Pastebin
  • 60.
    • A Paste consists of:
      • code: content (required)
      • 61. summary: (optional)
      • 62. code_type: content type (required, default to plain text)
      • 63. username: (optional)
      • 64. timestamp: (required; created on commit)
      • 65. expiry: (optional)
      • 66. identifier: (required; a unique hash)
    Pastebin Specification
  • 67.
    • Each paste will have a unique URL
    • 68. Pastes may optionally expire, in which case they won't be displayed
    • 69. Pastes may be listed by username
    Pastebin Specification
  • 70. Step 1: Create the project
  • 71.
    • In bin/zf.sh or bin/zf.bat of your ZF install (choose based on your OS)
    • 72. Place bin/ in your path, or create an alias on your path: alias zf=/path/to/bin/zf.sh
    • 73. Or use pear.zfcampus.org PEAR channel
    Locate the zf utility
  • 74. Create the project # Unix: % zf.sh create project quickstart # DOS/Windows: C:> zf.bat create project quickstart
  • 75. Add ZF to the project # Symlink: % cd library; ln -s path/to/ZendFramework/library/Zend . # Copy: % cd library; cp -r path/to/ZendFramework/library/Zend .
  • 76. Create a vhost <VirtualHost *: 80 > ServerAdmin you@atyour.tld DocumentRoot /abs/path/to/quickstart/public ServerName quickstart <Directory /abs/path/to/quickstart/public > DirectoryIndex index.php AllowOverride All Order allow,deny Allow from all </Directory> </VirtualHost>
  • 77. Add a hosts entry 127.0.0.1 quickstart
  • 78. Fire up your browser!
  • 79. Looking under the hood
  • 80. The directory tree quickstart |-- application | |-- Bootstrap.php | |-- configs | | `-- application.ini | |-- controllers | | |-- ErrorController.php | | ` -- IndexController.php | |-- models | `-- views | |-- helpers | ` -- scripts | |-- error | | `-- error.phtml | ` -- index | `-- index.phtml |-- library |-- public | ` -- index.php `-- tests |-- application | ` -- bootstrap.php |-- library | `-- bootstrap.php ` -- phpunit.xml 14 directories, 10 files
  • 81. The bootstrap <?php class Bootstrap extends Zend_Application_Bootstrap_Bootstrap { }
  • 82. Configuration [production] phpSettings.display_startup_errors = 0 phpSettings.display_errors = 0 includePaths.library = APPLICATION_PATH &quot;/../library&quot; bootstrap.path = APPLICATION_PATH &quot;/Bootstrap.php&quot; bootstrap.class = &quot;Bootstrap&quot; resources.frontController.controllerDirectory = APPLICATION_PATH &quot;/controllers&quot; [staging : production] [testing : production] phpSettings.display_startup_errors = 1 phpSettings.display_errors = 1 [development : production] phpSettings.display_startup_errors = 1 phpSettings.display_errors = 1
  • 83. Index (default) controller <?php class IndexController extends Zend_Controller_Action { public function init() { /* Initialize action controller here */ } public function indexAction() { // action body } }
  • 84. Error controller class ErrorController extends Zend_Controller_Action { public function errorAction() { $errors = $this ->_getParam( 'error_handler' ); switch ( $errors ->type) { case 'EXCEPTION_NO_CONTROLLER': case 'EXCEPTION_NO_ACTION': // 404 error -- controller or action not found $this ->getResponse()->setHttpResponseCode( 404 ); $this ->view->message = 'Page not found' ; break ; default: // application error $this ->getResponse()->setHttpResponseCode( 500 ); $this ->view->message = 'Application error' ; break ; } $this ->view->exception = $errors ->exception; $this ->view->request = $errors ->request; } }
  • 85. Index view (home page) <center> <div id = &quot;welcome&quot; > <h1> Welcome to the Zend Framework! </h1> <h3> This is your project's main page </h3> <!-- and a little bit more markup --> </div> </center>
  • 86. Error view <h1>An error occurred</h1> <h2><?php echo $this ->message ?></h2> <?php if ( 'development' == APPLICATION_ENV): ?> <h3>Exception information:</h3> <p> <b>Message:</b> <?php echo $this ->exception->getMessage() ?> </p> <h3>Stack trace:</h3> <pre> <?php echo $this ->exception->getTraceAsString() ?> </pre> <h3>Request Parameters:</h3> <pre> <?php var_dump ( $this ->request->getParams()) ?> </pre> <?php endif ?>
  • 87. .htaccess file SetEnv APPLICATION_ENV development RewriteEngine On RewriteCond %{REQUEST_FILENAME} -s [OR] RewriteCond %{REQUEST_FILENAME} -l [OR] RewriteCond %{REQUEST_FILENAME} -d RewriteRule ^.*$ - [NC,L] RewriteRule ^.*$ index.php [NC,L]
  • 88. index.php (environment) <?php // Define path to application directory defined ( 'APPLICATION_PATH' ) || define ( 'APPLICATION_PATH' , realpath ( dirname (__FILE__) . '/../application' )); // Define application environment defined ( 'APPLICATION_ENV' ) || define ( 'APPLICATION_ENV' , ( getenv ( 'APPLICATION_ENV' ) ? getenv ( 'APPLICATION_ENV' ) : 'production' )); // Ensure library/ is on include_path set_include_path( implode (PATH_SEPARATOR, array ( realpath (APPLICATION_PATH . '/../library' ), get_include_path(), )));
  • 89. index.php (application) /** Zend_Application */ require_once 'Zend/Application.php' ; // Create application, bootstrap, and run $application = new Zend_Application( APPLICATION_ENV, APPLICATION_PATH . '/configs/application.ini' ); $application ->bootstrap() ->run();
  • 90. Step 2: Create the model
  • 91. Step 3: Create a form
  • 92. Step 4: Create a controller
  • 93. Step 5: Create new routes
  • 94. Step 6: Create controller actions
  • 95. Step 7: Create views
  • 96. Step 8: Create a layout
  • 97. Step 9: Update the default view
  • 98. Step 10: Check it out!
  • 99. Further Steps
  • 100.
    • Add Dojo handling for code highlighting
    • 101. Add CSS for forms
    • 102. Add CSS for errors
    • 103. Add some layout specific styling and/or use dojo containers to improve layout
    • 104. Add Navigation elements to provide a menu/breadcrumbs
    • 105. Add caching (pastes may not be updated; cache forever)
    Make it prettier
  • 106. Summary or, “The fat guy sings”
  • 107.
    • What Zend Framework is
    • 108. Some common utilities/patterns used (autoloading, plugins, configuration)
    • 109. How to build a ZF MVC application
    We looked at:
  • 110. Questions? or, “Your turn!”
  • 111. Thank you. http://framework.zend.com/ http://twitter.com/weierophinney http://slideshare.net/weierophinney Feedback? http://joind.in/talk/view/864