Final Project: The Civil Rights Movement Integrated UnitCorine WegleyCI 410Introduction and Overview:Purpose and Rationale: This unit is designed for 7th grade students to learn about and explore theCivil Rights Movement in the United States with a goal of developing empathy for differentgroups. Civil rights is an ongoing issue that people should be aware about and have anunderstanding of the need for equality for all. The Civil Rights Movement is a great way forstudents to explore these rights and understand what groups of people went through to strive fortheir rights. The goal is that students will empathize with those who are marginalized and tounderstand their role in striving to end discrimination. After completing this unit, students willbe able to empathize more with the ongoing struggle for basic freedoms.Illinois State Standards:English Language Arts:STATE GOAL 1: Read with understanding and fluency. • C. Comprehend a broad range of reading materials. o 1.C.3c Compare, contrast and evaluate ideas and information from various sources and genres. o 1.C.3d Summarize and make generalizations from content and relate them to the purpose of the material.STATE GOAL 2: Read and understand literature representative of various societies, eras andideas. • B. Read and interpret a variety of literary works. o 2.B.3a Respond to literary material from personal, creative and critical points of view.STATE GOAL 3: Write to communicate for a variety of purposes. • A. Use correct grammar, spelling, punctuation, capitalization and structure. o 3.A.3 Write compositions that contain complete sentences and effective paragraphs using English conventions. • B. Compose well-organized and coherent writing for specific purposes and audiences. o 3.B.3a Produce documents that convey a clear understanding and interpretation of ideas and information and display focus, organization, elaboration and coherence. • C. Communicate ideas in writing to accomplish a variety of purposes. o 3.C.3b Using available technology, produce compositions and multimedia works for specified audiences.STATE GOAL 4: Listen and speak effectively in a variety of situations. • A. Listen effectively in formal and informal situations.
o 4.A.3a Demonstrate ways (e.g., ask probing questions, provide feedback to a speaker, summarize and paraphrase complex spoken messages) that listening attentively can improve comprehension. • B. Speak effectively using language appropriate to the situation and audience. o 4.B.3a Deliver planned oral presentations, using language and vocabulary appropriate to the purpose, message and audience; provide details and supporting information that clarify main ideas; and use visual aids and contemporary technology as support. o 4.B.3b Design and produce reports and multi-media compositions that represent group projects.STATE GOAL 5: Use the language arts to acquire, assess and communicate information. • A. Locate, organize, and use information from various sources to answer questions, solve problems and communicate ideas. o 5.A.3a Identify appropriate resources to solve problems or answer questions through research. • B. Analyze and evaluate information acquired from various sources. o 5.B.3a Choose and analyze information sources for individual, academic and functional purposes. o 5.B.3b Identify, evaluate and cite primary sources. • C. Apply acquired information, concepts and ideas to communicate in a variety of formats. o 5.C.3a Plan, compose, edit and revise documents that synthesize new meaning gleaned from multiple sources. o 5.C.3b Prepare and orally present original work (e.g., poems, monologues, reports, plays, stories) supported by research. o 5.C.3c Take notes, conduct interviews, organize and report information in oral, visual and electronic formats.Social Science:STATE GOAL 14: Understand political systems, with an emphasis on the United States. • C. Understand election processes and responsibilities of citizens. o 14.C.3 Compare historical issues involving rights, roles and status of individuals in relation to municipalities, states and the nation.STATE GOAL 16: Understand events, trends, individuals and movements shaping the history ofIllinois, the United States and other nations. • D. Understand Illinois, United States and world social history. o 16.D.3 (W) Identify the origins and analyze consequences of events that have shaped world social history including famines, migrations, plagues, slave trading.STATE GOAL 17: Understand world geography and the effects of geography on society, withan emphasis on the United States. • A. Locate, describe and explain places, regions and features on the Earth. o 17.A.3b Explain how to make and use geographic representations to provide and
enhance spatial information including maps, graphs, charts, models, aerial photographs, satellite images. o C. Understand relationships between geographic factors and society. o 17.C.3a Explain how human activity is affected by geographic factors.STATE GOAL 18: Understand social systems, with an emphasis on the United States. • C. Understand how social systems form and develop over time. o 18.C.3a Describe ways in which a diverse U.S. population has developed and maintained common beliefs (e.g., life, liberty and the pursuit of happiness; the Constitution and the Bill of Rights). o 18.C.3b Explain how diverse groups have contributed to U.S. social systems over time.Fine Arts:STATE GOAL 26: Through creating and performing, understand how works of art areproduced. • B. Apply skills and knowledge necessary to create and perform in one or more of the arts. o 26.B.3b Drama: Demonstrate storytelling, improvising and memorizing scripted material supported by simple aural and visual effects and personal background knowledge needed to create and perform in drama/theatre. o 26.B.3c Music: Sing or play with expression and accuracy a variety of music representing diverse cultures and styles. o 26.B.3d Visual Arts: Demonstrate knowledge and skills to create 2- and 3- dimensional works and time arts (e.g., film, animation, video) that are realistic, abstract, functional and decorative.Essential Outcomes: At the end of this unit, students will be able to: • Explain what the Civil Rights Movement is and its history. • Identify the cause and effect relationship of the Civil Rights Movement in the United States. • Draw conclusions about the consequences, outcomes and impacts of the Civil Rights Movement. • Explain what the responses and solutions were of the Civil Rights Movement. • Explain to and teach their classmates about their specific topic within the Civil Rights Movement. • Research a topic and communicate their findings. • Use a variety of learning techniques and multimedia activities to facilitate learning. • Explore their learning needs through a variety of experiences and opportunities.Concept Map:
About the Unit: The class will be divided into 8 groups of 3. Two groups will be assigned toeach subtopic, but they will work on the topic in their separate group of three; women’s rights,African American rights, American Indian rights, Mexican American rights. Each group of threewill choose three activities from each of the four categories. Students will explore each subtopicover the course of five days for one class period per day. The total unit will last for 4 weeks,with one additional week for the introductory activity. At the end of the unit, each group willpresent what they have learned to the class. The purpose of having two groups for each topic isthat groups will differ in their activity choices. Students will engage in a variety of multimediaactivities to facilitate learning. Students will engage in group collaboration with opportunitiesfor socialization as well as independent tasks to tackle on their own, with group support asneeded. Students will be able to explore their learning needs through a variety of learningexperiences and modes of learning.Activities for the Unit:
Introductory Activity: Students will be introduced to the unit by being introduced to diversityand the issue of civil rights for all. After being placed into groups, students will read a fictionbook relating to their topic area and about a character about their age experiencing it. • For Women’s Rights: o Maria Takes a Stand: The Battle for Women’s Rights by Norma Jean Lutz • For African American Rights: o A Tugging String: a Novel about Growing up during the Civil Rights Era by David Greenberg o Mississippi Bridge by Mildred D. Taylor (in addition, if time – only 62 pages) • For American Indian Rights: o Code Talker by Joseph Bruchac (a longer book than the others. If necessary, students can be asked to skip some of the middle chapters, as long as the first 3 and last 2 are read) • For Mexican American Rights: o Lupita Manana by Patricia Beatty, or o How the Garcia Girls Lost Their Accent by Julia Alvarez (longer, more challenging book)Students will engage in group discussion periodically while reading this book. Students mayhave one week to complete their book, and may discuss it during class time during the weekbefore the unit activities begin.About the Civil War Movement – Activities Include: • Create a timeline of the events of the Civil Rights Movement. Each group member will participate and collaborate. • Research about the discrimination of your topic and, as a group, create a list of the discrimination they experienced. Then each group member will write a report about the discrimination they experienced (about 2-3 pages long). • Create a poster about the Civil Rights Movement. Include: why it occurred, who it effected, and when it occurred. Each group member will be responsible for part of the poster. • Create a newspaper article reporting on a significant event related to your topic (legislation, protests, etc.). • Create a biography for a group/person that contributed significantly to your topic during the Civil Rights Movement. Include pictures, captions, relevant information, contributions, etc. Each group member will create their own, although it may be on the same group/person. • As a group, go on a Google Earth tour of significant places or landmarks where events for your topic leading to the Civil Rights Movement took place. Description of the event that occurred at that landmark will be described in a pop-up box on Google Earth.Causes of the Civil Rights Movement – Activities Include: • Create a poster outlining the causes of the Civil Rights Movement, including what led up to it. Include facts and research. Each group member will be responsible for part of the poster.
• Create a timeline of events leading up to the Civil Rights Movement. Each group member will participate and collaborate. • Create a skit with your group about the events leading up to/causing the Civil Rights Movement for your topic. (For example: events that directly led to the Civil Rights Movement for your topic). Each group member will participate. The skit should be at least 5 minutes long and include accurate information and characters. • Create a cause-and-effect graphic organizer about the Civil Rights Movement. This can include photographs and text boxes. The group will collaborate together. • Create a collage or creative artistic collection of words reflecting the discrimination that your topic felt that led them to participate in the Civil Rights Movement. Words can reflect the feelings your topic may have felt, the unfairness of the discrimination, why your topic felt the need to strive for their civil rights, etc. Each group member will create their own. Words must be legible and visible, as well as appropriate and well thought- out. Leave as little blank space on the page as possible.Consequences of the Civil Rights Movement – Activities Include: • Create a poster outlining how the Civil Rights Movement affected the people in your topic. Each group member should be responsible for part of the poster. • Create a collage of images and words relevant to the consequences of the Civil Rights Movement. They can incorporate the negative stereotypes and feelings of those discriminated against, and/or the positive feelings associated with the gains made by the Civil Rights Movement. Then, each group member will write a one-page paper explaining your collage. • Create a 1-2 page protest strategy that could have been used for your topic during the Civil Rights Movement. This should include a rationale for why you are protesting, who will be involved, what you are protesting, what protest strategy you will be using, and your rationale for using this strategy. Things to consider: physical vs. verbal strategies, violent vs. nonviolent, boycotting vs. protesting, stationary vs. marching, etc. Each group member should be in charge of at least one portion of the strategy. • Create a diary of a person in your topic that is your age going through the discrimination, protests, events, etc., of the Civil Rights Movement. Each group member should create their own character and create at least 6 diary entries of at least 1 page each. • Create a PowerPoint about the consequences of the Civil Rights Movement. Each group member should participate. The PowerPoint can include songs that reflect your group’s attitudes toward the Civil Rights Movement, pictures that reflect your topic in the Civil Rights Movement, etc. The PowerPoint should be at least 10 slides long with at least 3 sentences on each slide. • As a group, team up to rewrite the words of a song of your choice. Replace the words with lyrics that reflect and describe the consequences of the Civil Rights Movement. Each student will create a portion of the song. Lyrics may also reflect the feelings of the groups on the consequences. This can be performed for your peers and teachers in person, or recorded!
Responses/Solutions to the Civil Rights Movement – Activities Include: • Write to your local Congress representative to express your views on an issue you came across in your research that you feel still discriminates against your topic. Each group member will write his or her own 1-2 page letter. • Research the legislation that resulted as a consequence of the gains your topic made. In a Venn diagram or comparison chart, compare the new legislation and the rights it provided your topic with to the previous legislation and discrimination. • Create your own legislation for rights that your group believes everyone should be granted. This should be thorough and well thought-out; about 2 pages long with at least 3 rights explained. Each group member will be responsible for explaining a right. Have group members sign it to show their support. • Research about the responses/solutions of the discrimination of your topic and write a short report (2-3 pages). Each group member is responsible for writing his or her own report. • Get together with the other group assigned to your topic. Concerning a piece of legislation resulting from your topic, one group will be arguing for the legislation while the other group argues against the legislation. Each group will be given about 30 minutes to prepare their debates and will come prepared to debate in the next class period. The debate must take place for at least 15 minutes, and significant and valid points must be made, with each group member contributing and coming prepared with arguments. • As a group, team up to rewrite the words of a song of your choice. Replace the words with lyrics relevant to the responses and solutions that your topic experienced in their strive for civil rights. Lyrics may also reflect what your group feels about the need for equal/civil rights for everyone (maybe as the chorus of your song!). This can be performed for your peers and teachers in person, or recorded!Culminating Activity: At the conclusion of the unit, students from each group will share theirresearch, findings, and activities with the class. Each group of students will present and explaintheir activities to the class. Students in will demonstrate active listening and respect of theirpeers when groups are presenting, asking questions to clarify and providing constructivefeedback when necessary. Since there are two groups assigned to each topic, there should be abroad range of activities presented and a lot of information presented between the two groups.As a result of each group presenting on their topic, the class will learn about all the other topicsin addition to their own.Assessment: The assessment that will be used is alternative assessment. There are three rubricsthat will be used for formal assessment of this unit: the overall multimedia project assessment,collaborative work skills assessment, and research project planning assessment.
Civil Rights Movement Unit: Overall Multimedia Project Teacher Name: Corine Wegley Student Name: ____________________________________________________ CATEGORY 4 3 2 1Presentation Well-rehearsed with Rehearsed with fairly Delivery not smooth, but Delivery not smooth smooth delivery that holds smooth delivery that holds able to maintain interest of and audience attention audience attention. audience attention most of the audience most of the often lost. the time. time.Sources Source information Source information Source information Very little or no source collected for all graphics, collected for all graphics, collected for graphics, facts information was facts and quotes. All facts and quotes. Most and quotes, but not collected. documented in desired documented in desired documented in desired format. format. format.Requirements All requirements are met All requirements are met. One requirement was not More than one and exceeded. completely met. requirement was not completely met.Content Covers topic in-depth with Includes essential Includes essential Content is minimal OR details and examples. knowledge about the information about the there are several Subject knowledge is topic. Subject knowledge topic but there are 1-2 factual errors. excellent. appears to be good. factual errors.Mechanics No misspellings or Three or fewer Four misspellings and/or More than 4 errors in grammatical errors. misspellings and/or grammatical errors. spelling or grammar. mechanical errors.Originality Product shows a large Product shows some Uses other peoples ideas Uses other peoples amount of original original thought. Work (giving them credit), but ideas, but does not thought. Ideas are creative shows new ideas and there is little evidence of give them credit. and inventive. insights. original thinking.Attractiveness Makes excellent use of Makes good use of font, Makes use of font, color, Use of font, color, font, color, graphics, color, graphics, effects, graphics, effects, etc. but graphics, effects etc. effects, etc. to enhance the etc. to enhance to occasionally these detract but these often distract presentation. presentation. from the presentation from the presentation content. content.
Collaborative Work Skills: Civil Rights Movement Teacher Name: Corine Wegley Student Name: ____________________________________________________ CATEGORY 4 3 2 1Quality of Provides work of the Provides high quality Provides work that Provides work thatWork highest quality. work. occasionally needs to usually needs to be be checked/redone by checked/redone by other group members others to ensure to ensure quality. quality.Contributions Routinely provides Usually provides useful Sometimes provides Rarely provides useful useful ideas when ideas when useful ideas when ideas when participating in the participating in the participating in the participating in the group and in group and in group and in group and in classroom classroom discussion. classroom discussion. classroom discussion. discussion. May refuse A definite leader who A strong group A satisfactory group to participate. contributes a lot of member who tries member who does effort. hard! what is required.Time- Routinely uses time Usually uses time well Tends to procrastinate, Rarely gets things donemanagement well throughout the throughout the but always gets things by the deadlines AND project to ensure project, but may have done by the deadlines. group has to adjust things get done on procrastinated on one Group does not have deadlines or work time. Group does not thing. Group does not to adjust deadlines or responsibilities because have to adjust have to adjust work responsibilities of this persons deadlines or work deadlines or work because of this inadequate time responsibilities responsibilities persons management. because of this because of this procrastination. persons persons procrastination. procrastination.Focus on the Consistently stays Focuses on the task Focuses on the task Rarely focuses on thetask focused on the task and what needs to be and what needs to be task and what needs to and what needs to be done most of the time. done some of the be done. Lets others do done. Very self- Other group members time. Other group the work. directed. can count on this members must person. sometimes nag, prod, and remind to keep this person on-task.Preparedness Brings needed Almost always brings Almost always brings Often forgets needed materials to class and needed materials to needed materials but materials or is rarely is always ready to class and is ready to sometimes needs to ready to get to work. work. work. settle down and get to workWorking with Almost always listens Usually listens to, Often listens to, shares Rarely listens to, sharesOthers to, shares with, and shares, with, and with, and supports the with, and supports the supports the efforts of supports the efforts of efforts of others, but efforts of others. Often others. Tries to keep others. Does not cause sometimes is not a is not a good team people working well "waves" in the group. good team member. player. together.
Research Project – Group Planning: Civil Rights Movement Teacher Name: Corine Wegley Student Name: ____________________________________________________ CATEGORY 4 3 2 1Ideas/ Researchers independently Researchers Researchers identify, Researchers identify,Research identify at least 4 independently with some adult help, with considerable adultQuestions reasonable, insightful, identify at least 4 at least 4 reasonable help, 4 reasonable creative ideas/questions to reasonable ideas/questions to ideas/questions to pursue when doing the ideas/questions to pursue when doing the pursue when doing the research. pursue when doing research. research. the research.Plan for Students have developed a Students have Students have Students have no clearOrganizing clear plan for organizing the developed a clear developed a clear plan plan for organizing theInformation information as it is gathered plan for organizing for organizing the information AND/OR and in the final research the information in information as it is students in the group product. All students can the final research gathered. All students cannot explain their independently explain the product. All students can independently organizational plan. planned organization of the can independently explain most of this research findings. explain this plan. plan.Quality of Researchers independently Researchers Researchers, with Researchers, withSources locate at least 2 reliable, independently locate some adult help, locate extensive adult help, interesting information at least 2 reliable at least 2 reliable locate at least 2 reliable sources for EACH of their information sources information sources for information sources for ideas or questions. for EACH of their EACH of their ideas or EACH of their ideas or ideas or questions. questions. questions.Group Group independently Group independently Group independently Group needs adult helpTimeline develops a reasonable, develops a timeline develops a timeline to develop a timeline complete timeline describing when describing when most AND/OR several describing when different most parts of the parts of the work will students in the group parts of the work work will be done. All be done. Most cannot independently (e.g.,planning, research, first students in group can students can describe the high points draft, final draft) will be independently independently describe of the timeline. done. All students in group describe the high the high points of the can independently describe points of the timeline. the high points of the timeline. timeline.Delegation of Each student in the group Each student in the Each student in the One or more students inResponsibility can clearly explain what group can clearly group can, with the group cannot clearly information is needed by explain what minimal prompting explain what the group, what information information s/he is from peers, clearly information they are s/he is responsible for responsible for explain what responsible for locating. locating, and when the locating. information s/he is information is needed. responsible for locating.
Resources for Unit (Student Resources):Websites:Women’s Movement:Carlson, Julie. "Lesson Plan - Jane Addams." TeacherLINK @ Utah State University. Web. 30 July 2011. <http://teacherlink.ed.usu.edu/tlresources/units/Byrnes- famous/JANEADDA.html>. Information on Jane Hull with a connection to the fight for homeless (background information section)"Lessons - Women in World History Curriculum." Women In World History Curriculum. Web. 30 July 2011. <http://www.womeninworldhistory.com/lesson.html>. Multi-site resource on a host of Women’s movement information"NOW - Who We Are." National Organization for Women (NOW). Web. 30 July 2011. <http://www.now.org/history/history.html>. National Organization for Women (NOW) - historyMexican American Movement:Garcia, Monique. "Quinn Signs Law Providing Private Scholarships to Undocumented Immigrants - Chicagotribune.com." Chicago Tribune: Chicago Breaking News, Sports, Business, Entertainment, Weather and Traffic - Chicagotribune.com. The Chicago Tribune, 02 Aug. 2011. Web. 02 Aug. 2011. <http://www.chicagotribune.com/news/local/ct-met-quinn-dream- act-0802-20110802,0,6506304.story>. Chicago Tribune Article on undocumented college students"Quinn Signs Illinois DREAM Act - Chicago Tribune." Featured Articles from The Chicago Tribune. The Chicago Tribune, 01 Aug. 2011. Web. 01 Aug. 2011. <http://articles.chicagotribune.com/2011-08-01/news/chi-quinn-signs-illinois-dream- act-20110801_1_quinn-signs-pat-quinn-today-undocumented-immigrants>. Chicago Tribune Article on Quinn signing the Dream Act"Smithsonian Education - Hispanic Heritage Teaching Resources." Smithsonian Education. Web. 30 July 2011. <http://www.smithsonianeducation.org/educators/resource_library/hispanic_resources.ht ml>.
Smithsonian collection of Hispanic rights and struggles"The Universal Declaration of Human Rights." Welcome to the United Nations: Its Your World. The United Nations. Web. 30 July 2011. <http://www.un.org/en/documents/udhr/>. Universal declaration of human rightsAmerican Indian Movement:"Cherokee Letter Protesting the Treaty of New Echota." Africans in America. PBS: Public Broadcasting Service. Web. 30 July 2011. <http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/aia/part4/4h3083t.html>. Cherokee letter related to Indian Removal"Indian Removal." Africans in America. PBS Online. Web. 30 July 2011. <http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/aia/part4/4p2959.html>. Indian Removal site"Indian Removal Act." Digital History. Web. 30 July 2011. <http://www.digitalhistory.uh.edu/historyonline/lesson_plans_display.cfm?lessonID=26>. Chronology of events"Indian Removal Act of 1830." Studyworld: Study Guides, Research Papers, Book Reports, Essays. Oakwood Mgt. Web. 30 July 2011. <http://www.studyworld.com/indian_removal_act_of_1830.htm>. Historical overviewMitten, Lisa A. "Native American Home Pages." Lisa Mittens Native American Links. Global Thinking. Web. 30 July 2011. <http://www.nativeculturelinks.com/indians.html>. American Indian Library Association"Native Americans in the U.S." Education World: The Educators Best Friend. Education World. Web. 30 July 2011. <http://www.educationworld.com/a_lesson/TM/WS_nativeamerican_table.shtml>. Chart detailing the population of American Indians by yearTaylor, Cindy. "Principal Players in the Indian Removal Act: Whos Who?" Trail of Tears. Web. 30 July 2011. <http://www.catawba.k12.nc.us/techtrac/plus/taylor/whos%20who.htm>.
Game of the major players in the Indian Removal Act"Text of the Indian Removal Act, 1930." The Nomadic Spirit: Tracking Westward Expansion and the Trail of Tears. The Nomadic Spirit. Web. 30 July 2011. <http://www.synaptic.bc.ca/ejournal/jackson.htm>. Text of the Indian Removal Act"The Universal Declaration of Human Rights." Welcome to the United Nations: Its Your World. The United Nations. Web. 30 July 2011. <http://www.un.org/en/documents/udhr/>. Universal declaration of human rightsAfrican American Movement:"Civil Rights Movement Unit." Alabama Department of Archives and History, 26 Mar. 2010. Web. 30 July 2011. <http://www.archives.state.al.us/teacher/rights.html>. Collection of primary source documents from the “riding the bus” to “voting rights”"Documents Related to Brown v. Board of Education." National Archives and Records Administration. Web. 30 July 2011. <http://www.archives.gov/education/lessons/brown- v-board/>. Primary source documents detailing the integration of schools movement"Greensboro Sit-Ins: Launch of a Civil Rights Movement : Timeline." News-Record. Web. 30 July 2011. <http://www.sitins.com/timeline.shtml>. Timeline of events in the Civil Rights Movement dating from 1819"Jackie Robinson, Civil Rights Advocate." National Archives and Records Administration. Web. 30 July 2011. <http://www.archives.gov/education/lessons/jackie-robinson/>. Primary resources and National Archive Documents detailing Jackie Robinson’s role inthe quest for civil rights"We Shall Overcome: Historic Places of the Civil Rights Movement." National Park Service. Web. 30 July 2011. <http://www.cr.nps.gov/nr/travel/civilrights/>. Historic Places in the Civil Rights Movement"We Shall Overcome -- Selma-to-Montgomery March." U.S. National Park Service - Experience Your America. National Park Service. Web. 30 July 2011. <http://www.nps.gov/nr/travel/ civilrights/al4.htm>.
A website describing the Selma MarchLiterature:Alvarez, Julia. How the Garcia Girls Lost Their Accent. Algonquin Books, 1991. Print. Family that leaves the Dominican Republic and moves to New York. A very nice chapteron the learning of English and going to school in their new country is recommended for reading.Beatty, Patricia. Lupita Manana. New York, NY: Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, 2002. Print. Offers students both a view of contemporary immigration issues and an account ofundocumented immigration that is engaging and realistic. The economy of Mexico is quicklydeteriorating and many families are struggling desperately to make ends meet. After her father iskilled in a fishing accident, 14-year-old Lupita and her brother must cross the border fromMexico and find work to support their family back home. The two come to the U.S. with theexpectation that they will be able to live with their aunt in California. This aspect of the fictionalstory is based largely on the reality that many undocumented immigrants come to the U.S. withthe help of family and friends already established in this country. The novel offers a realisticportrayal of the risks and dangers of illegally crossing the border.Bruchac, Joseph. Code Talker: a Novel about the Navajo Marines of World War Two. New York: Speak, 2006. Print. A fiction novel based on events during World War II, about a Navajo boy who is sentaway from his tribe to a mission school, forced to learn the ways of white people. He is taughtthat he should be ashamed of his culture, and his school tries to take the identities of the Navajosaway. His name is changed and he is forced to speak English. Despite this poor treatment, heends up rising above it all and helping the U.S. win World War II.Greenberg, David. A Tugging String: a Novel about Growing up during the Civil Rights Era. New York, NY: Dutton Childrens, 2008. Print. A fictionalized accounts of the author’s childhood growing up in New York during thecivil rights struggles of the 1950s and 1960s, when African Americans were fighting for theirrights. The boy’s father, during this time, was a lawyer for the NAACP Legal Defense Fund.Lutz, Norma Jean. Maria Takes a Stand: the Battle for Womens Rights. Uhrichsville, OH: Barbour Pub., 2004. Print. Twelve-year-old Maria Schmidt finds a cause to support in 1914 despite all that is goingon with the war: women’s suffrage. This book uses real historical events to tell a fictional storyof a girl who has to overcome personal hardships to support a cause that is larger than herself.Taylor, Mildred D., and Max Ginsburg. Mississippi Bridge. New York: Puffin, 2000. Print.
Set in the 1930’s segregation in Mississippi. Deals with the issue of segregated buses atthat time. There is a bus accident, and the hero is one of the African American men that hadbeen kicked to the back of the bus.