Invasive plant management milton

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  • 1. Invasive plant management
    Mark Renz
    Extension Weed Scientist
    UW-Madison
    mjrenz@wisc.edu
  • 2. Pest Management Steps
    Pest identification = WHAT IS IT?
    Population size = HOW MUCH?
    Select appropriate control tactic = WHAT CAN I DO?
    Monitor and adapt management over time = WHAT CAN I DO BETTER?
  • 3. What is the goal of management?
    Compliance with NR40
    Eradication of populations
    Improve cover of desirable species
    Improve ecosystem services land
    Prevention of invasion
  • 4.                                                         
    Understand the biology of weeds!
    How do they reproduce and spread?
    Annuals
    Biennials
    Creeping Perennials
    Simple Perennials
  • 5. Field bindweedresults 1 month after treatment
    Mowing
    Sprayed with glyphosate
  • 6. Annual plant lifecycle
  • 7. Biennial lifecycle
  • 8. Perennial lifecycle
  • 9. Perennial weeds
    Many types, important to know if
    Creeping
    Ex Russian olive, Canada thistle
    Simple (root crown)
    Ex Multiflora rose, dandelions
  • 10. Tools
    Manipulation of the environment (e.g. Plant competition)
    Physical management (e.g. mowing)
    Herbicide
    Prevention
    Burning
    Biological control
    Grazing
    TECHNIQUES ARE SPECIES SPECIFIC
  • 11. Manipulation of the environment
    Competition/prevention in establishment
    Desirable plants compete with weeds.
    Established plants better competitors
  • 12. Manipulation of the environmentan example
    Increasing grass cover in fall can reduce germination of weeds
    Mowed to 8” in October = 75% light interception in spring
    = few to no weeds germinating
  • 13. Limit disturbance
    Most weed species need disturbance to establish
    Prescribed burn
    Promotes some competitive species
    If timed correctly can kill young plants/seedlings
    Manipulation of the environmentOther things you can do
  • 14. Mowing
    Can effectively reduce production of seeds
    Specific to weed species
    Annuals and Biennial:
    reduce population sizes if timed correctly and conducted for multiple years
    Perennials:
    typically need additional management to reduce populations
  • 15. Applications of herbicides
    Broadcast applications
    Pre-emergent (PRE)
    Post-emergent (POST)
    Directed methods
    Spot treatment
    Basal bark applications
    Cut stump
    Ropewick
    Timing specific
  • 16. Herbicide typesSelectivity
    Nonselective (Example glyphosate/Roundup)
    Will injure any plant it contacts
    Selective (2,4-D)
    Won’t harm grasses
    Won’t harm broadleaved species
    Random selectivity
  • 17. Herbicide typesPersistence
    • No residual (hours- 1 day)
    • 18. Example: Roundup (glyphosate)
    • 19. Short residual (days to weeks)
    • 20. Example: 2,4-D, Banvel, Garlon, Weedmaster
    • 21. Long lasting=soil sterilant (months – years)
    • 22. Example: Tordon (Picloram), Arsenal (Imazapyr)
  • Herbicide Use Tips
    Read and follow label directions on all chemicals.
    Use correct rates
    Calibrate your sprayer
    Be sure that chemicals are mixed thoroughly
    Never spray when it is windy
    Spray only the targeted area
    Be aware of properties of herbicides
    Some volatize when air temperatures are > 80F.
    Some persist in the soil for extended periods
    Some are selective herbicides others are not
    Some may leach into the water table
  • 23. Prevention
    Washing equipment to remove soil and plant parts from infested areas
    Use of weed free inputs:
    hay and straw
    free gravel, fill, top soil
    compost
    Keep adjacent areas weed free
  • 24. Cleaning procedures
    Remove plant parts, seeds, and dirt that may contain plant parts from anything transported off infested site
    Many types of equipment available:
    Pressure washers
    Pressurized air
    Brush
  • 25. Biological control of weeds
    Definition: the use of natural enemies to reduce the damage caused by a pest population
    GOAL: Reduce the populations (not eliminate)
    Introduced agents: Not native to area (REGULATED)
    Natural agents: native to area (NOT REGULATED)
  • 26. Grazing
    Can suppress growth of weeds if timed correctly
    Same timing and effectiveness as mowing except for palatability
    Palatability is dependant on stage of growth, animal
    BUT ANIMALS CAN BE TRAINED
    Promotes grasses to be more competitive
  • 27. Control information for WI
    http://fyi.uwex.edu/weedsci/category/invasive-plants-of-wisconsin/
    FACTSHEETS AVAILABLE
    Wild parsnip
    Japanese knotweed
    Japanese honeysuckle
    Bush honeysuckle
    Dame’s rocket
    Creeping bellflower
    Buckthorn
    Garlic mustard
    Spotted knapweed
    Black Swallow-wort
    Teasels
    Hedge-parsley
    Canada thistle
    Perennial pepperweed
    Poison hemlock
    Hill mustard
    OTHER MANAGEMENT INFO
    Brush management in WI
    Thistles in pastures and beyond
    Herbicide effectiveness table
  • 28. Management Plan Examples
  • 29. Steps to consider
    Goal for Target Area.
    Inventory your target area.
    What is there?
    What isn’t there?
    Decide on realistic goals based on inventory and understanding of vegetation and site characteristics.
    Set a timeline.
    Carry out plan.
    Reassess plan regularly.
  • 30. Prioritization
    Think long-term!
    Use goals/objective to drive management plan
    DON’T BEGIN AT THE CENTER
  • 31. Develop a management plan
    • Local park area in blue
    • 32. Yellow is garlic mustard presence
    • 33. Goal is to reduce invasive plant cover and prevent spread
    ROAD
  • 34. Garlic mustard biology
    Biennial
    Seedlings become rosettes
    Rosettes flower in year 2, then die
    Plants spread by seed only
    Equipment
    Shoes
    Animals
    Water
  • 35. Prioritize each area
    Small patches in NE manage aggressively to eradicate
    • GOAL: ERADICATION
    2. Large patch along
    roadside manage
    efficiently to prevent
    further spread
    Focus on leading edge (perimeter) and edge of road
    GOAL: Reduce area infested and reduce potential for further spread
  • 36. Garlic mustard control information
    Nonchemical: Hand-pulling before flowering is effective
  • 37. Garlic mustard control information
    Chemical: Foliar spot spraying in late fall or early spring is best
  • 38. An example plan for GM
    Small patches in Northeast
    Focus on flowering plants
    Most seedlings die; many rosettes die
    Monitor and hand-pull for 3 years in spring-summer before plants produce flowers
    Monitor un-infested areas for new populations
    Annually manage
    Hand pull 2nd year plants
  • 39. An example plan for GM cont.
    Large patch along roadside
    Edge of roadside
    Make sure roadside is mowed before seed production (reduce spread)
    Perimeter of patch
    Treat perimeter and working your way into the patch as much as feasible.
    Spray in spring in years 1 and 3 after seedlings emerge
    In year 2 hand-pull escaped flowering plants in years don’t treat
    Update plan after 3 yrs
    Remap infestation
    Assess management options
  • 40. Knowledge of the source of an infestation can be important
  • 41. Green Bay site was surrounded by garlic mustardLocation floods every year bringing in seed from nearby infestations that results in a uniform carpet of garlic mustard seedlings regardless of treatment
  • 42. Develop a management plan
    • Local park area in blue
    • 43. Yellow is buckthorn presence
    • 44. Goal is to reduce invasive plant cover and prevent spread
    ROAD
  • 45. Buckthorn Biology
    Perennial Woody shrub
    Male and female plants
    • Plants spread by seed from female plants
    Birds and other animals
    equipment
  • 46. Prioritize
    Keep un-infested areas free of buckthorn
    Begin management on south side of road and systematically manage north
    Target isolated patches first
    Focus effort on female plants
    Ignore dense patch unless have resources to manage
  • 47. Buckthorn control information
    Nonchemical: removal possible with small plants, larger plants need equipment
  • 48. Buckthorn Chemical control information
    Foliar: Effective when plants have “leafed out”
    Basal Bark: Effective year-round on small plants (<6”)
    Cut-Stump: Effective year round on all sizes
  • 49. An example plan for buckthorn
    Treat female isolated plants nearest the road moving north
    Small plants: use weed wrench to hand-pull
    Medium sized plants: Basal bark, cut stump, foliar
    Large plants: Foliar or cut stump
    After finish 1, treat isolated male plants as above.
    Monitor un-infested areas for new populations and manage if they are found
    Emphasize areas with lots of bird traffic
    Fenceposts, Hedgerows, powerlines
  • 50. An example plan for buckthorncontinued
    Large dense patch in NW
    Fundraise $$$ so can manage effectively
    Mow to remove dense canopy and plant material (Winter)
    Burn plant material (winter-spring)
    Treat resprouting plants with herbicide
    Cut stump after mowing
    Let resprout and foliarly treat
    Revegetate/restore if desirable plants don’t return
    Periodically re-visit plan and adjust as needed.
  • 51. Summary
    Invasive plant management is species specific.
    Develop a plan to manage invasive plants that fits with
    Land management objectives
    Biology of the species
    Expertise of the people working on the project
    Prioritize efforts to maximize effectiveness
    Consult an expert or factsheets about selecting an appropriate control option
    No one option will work under all situations, and often an integrated approach works the best.