Establishment costs and productivity ofEstablishment costs and productivity of
grass-based biofuels in SW Wisconsingrass-b...
Resources on switchgrassResources on switchgrass
MANY OTHER SOURCES:
•12 factsheets/guides available
•A new resource: eXte...
Switchgrass ResearchSwitchgrass Research
ObjectivesObjectives
1. Measure if weed management can improve
establishment and ...
•6 sites, 10 A/site
•Marginal cropland
•Annual cropping
systems
•Glyphosate
resistant-crops
•Treatment area = 2 A
Site Det...
Comparison of farmsComparison of farms
Farm Tillage Previous
crop
Planted Comments
Scott Light disk Soybeans 5/16 Giant ra...
Establishment treatmentsEstablishment treatments
# Crop Seed rate
(lbs/A)
Pre Post2
1 Switchgrass1 8 Glyphosate 1 lbs ae/A...
Cover of switchgrass inCover of switchgrass in
establishment yearestablishment year
B
A
AB
B
A
AB
P<0.05
High
establish
Low
establish
10 10Max yield in 2nd
year
Max yield in year 3
Failed establishment
Yield in establishment yearYield in establishment year
Year 1 Cost of establishmentYear 1 Cost of establishment
USDA-NAAS Custom rate guide 2007
TRT Planting Weeds Other Total
G...
11stst
year summary GHGyear summary GHG
• All sites were minor sources
for Nitrous oxide (N2O)
– No treatment differences
...
Year two managementYear two management
ESTABLISHMENT PLOTS NOT FERTILIZED
– N = Typical recommendations 0-100 lbs N/A
• In...
Switchgrass cover in 2nd
year
PercentCover(%)
0
10
20
30
40
50 September 2009
Big Bluestem
Indian Grass
Little Bluestem
Sideoats Grama
Switchgrass
Illin...
P<0.05
Yield in 2nd yearYield in 2nd year
Harvested from small plotsHarvested from small plots
DIVERSE
IMAZ+GLY
GLY
+ 2,4-...
Variability in YieldVariability in Yield
Does second year weed management
improve productivity?
Treatments:
1. Burning
2. Glyphosate 1.0 lbs ae/A
3. Journey 10.7 f...
Four weeks after treatmentFour weeks after treatment
Burn Glyphosate/Journey
Burn Untreated
Two months after treatmentTwo months after treatment
Untreated Glyphosate
Two months after treatmentTwo months after treatment
Year 2
Treatment
Low
Establishment
(<30%)
Tons/A
High
Establishment
(>30%)
Tons/A
Burn 1.6 3.5
Glyphosate 2.0 3.4
Journey ...
Switchgrass Yields 2009 - Grant County, WI
Nitrogen rate (lb/ac)
0 50 100 150 200
Yield(ton/ac)
0.0
0.5
1.0
1.5
2.0
2.5
3....
Comparison of GHG fluxes
FOE
Switchgrass
(est. 2008)
GLBRC
Switchgrass
(est. 2008)
GLBRC
Continuous
Corn
GLBRC Corn
(grain...
Year 2 Cost of establishmentYear 2 Cost of establishment
Fertility =0-$55/A
Management =0-$25/A
Harvest = $19/A
Assuming N...
Comparison of field-scale vs smallComparison of field-scale vs small
plot yield in 2plot yield in 2ndnd
yearyear
* Denotes...
• Costs
– Establishment: $130-140/A
– Future years: $19-$100/A (Driven by N)
• Successful establishment (% of fields):
• J...
2 year summary continued2 year summary continued
• NITROGEN RESPONSE
– N increases yield
• Reduced returns when >100 lbs N...
AcknowledgementsAcknowledgements
Yield ResultsYield Results
Herbicide Est. yr
(T dm/A)
2nd
yr
(T dm/A)
3rd
yr
(T dm/A)
PRE Pursuit 4 fl oz/A 0.83 * 4.6 * 3...
CH4Flux(mgC.m-2
.hr-1
)
-0.03
-0.02
-0.01
0.00
0.01
Jun15 July15 Aug11 Sept10 Oct10
•All sites were minor sinks for methan...
N2
OFlux(mgN.m-2
.hr-1
)
-0.01
0.00
0.01
0.02
Jun15 July15 Aug11 Sept10 Oct10
•All sites were minor sources of nitrous oxi...
CO2Flux(mgC.m-2
.hr-1
)
0
20
40
60
80
Jun15 July15 Aug11 Sept10 Oct10
•All sites were sources for carbon dioxide (CO2) at ...
FOE 2009 results
FOE 2009 results
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FOE 2009 results

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  • Madison to Platteville: 72 miles
    Madison to Lancaster: 82 miles
  • The following two figures show mean (s.e.) percent cover by switchgrass in
    Year 1 establishment treatments, estimated in 2009. (These data are from three farms: D. Schaefer, T. Schaerfer, and F&amp;R.)
    For JUNE: There was no difference in switchgrass % cover, among 1st-year establishment treatments (p=0.93).
  • These data are mean (s.e.) of the percent cover by each of the planted species in the diverse mixture, averaged across N=3 farms. Shown are data from the Year 1 Diverse establishment treatment, in the Year 2 “control” plots, from June and from September 2009.
  • This figure shows means (s.e.) of 2009 quadrat-based biomass yield in Year 1 Establishment treatments (untreated in 2009); means are of N=5-6 farms. Data were log-transformed prior to ANOVA; model p=0.0014; model F=6.40.
    Biomass was harvested from 3 replicate 0.5m2 quadrats in each switchgrass plot, and from 3 replicate 1.0m2 quadrats in each diverse plot.
  • CH4 flux, averaged across the 4 treatments (error bars = s.e. of N=4 treatments)
  • N2O flux, averaged across the 4 treatments (error bars = s.e. of N=4 treatments)
  • FOE 2009 results

    1. 1. Establishment costs and productivity ofEstablishment costs and productivity of grass-based biofuels in SW Wisconsingrass-based biofuels in SW Wisconsin •Steve Bertjens + Mike Lieurance: SWBRCD •Mark Renz, Randy Jackson, Jessica Miesel: UW-Madison Agronomy •Matt Ruark:UW-Madison Soil Science
    2. 2. Resources on switchgrassResources on switchgrass MANY OTHER SOURCES: •12 factsheets/guides available •A new resource: eXtension: http://www.extension.org/pages/Sw www.uwex.edu/ces/forage/pubs/switchgrass.pdf
    3. 3. Switchgrass ResearchSwitchgrass Research ObjectivesObjectives 1. Measure if weed management can improve establishment and productivity of switchgrass 2. Estimate the costs associated with establishment 3. Determine optimum N recommendations 4. Estimate the environmental costs and benefits switchgrass – Soil erosion, Greenhouse gas emission, Carbon sequestration
    4. 4. •6 sites, 10 A/site •Marginal cropland •Annual cropping systems •Glyphosate resistant-crops •Treatment area = 2 A Site DetailsSite Details
    5. 5. Comparison of farmsComparison of farms Farm Tillage Previous crop Planted Comments Scott Light disk Soybeans 5/16 Giant ragweed, Steep slopes (15-25%) F&R No-till Corn 5/15-16 Into unchopped stalks Dan _Sch No-till Ryegrass 5/28 Harvested and sprayed rye before planting Crapp Fall chisel/ spring finished Corn 5/15-16 Fall panicum, steep slopes (9-18%) Wolf No-till Corn 5/14 high crop residue T_Sch No-till Soybeans 5/22 Steep slopes (9-11%)
    6. 6. Establishment treatmentsEstablishment treatments # Crop Seed rate (lbs/A) Pre Post2 1 Switchgrass1 8 Glyphosate 1 lbs ae/A - 2 Switchgrass1 8 Glyphosate 1 lbs ae/A 2,4-D 3 Switchgrass+ oats1 8 + 1 bu/A Glyphosate 1 lbs ae/A - 4 Switchgrass1 8 Journey 10.7 fl oz/A - 5 DIVERSE 9 grass 1.4 forbs Journey 10.7 fl oz/A - 1 Cave in the rock variety 2 Treated 7/22/08 If weed cover created canopy over switchgrass, plots mowed in Aug
    7. 7. Cover of switchgrass inCover of switchgrass in establishment yearestablishment year B A AB B A AB P<0.05
    8. 8. High establish Low establish 10 10Max yield in 2nd year Max yield in year 3 Failed establishment
    9. 9. Yield in establishment yearYield in establishment year
    10. 10. Year 1 Cost of establishmentYear 1 Cost of establishment USDA-NAAS Custom rate guide 2007 TRT Planting Weeds Other Total Glyphosate $87 $27 $20 $134 Glyphosate + 2,4-D $89 $36 $15 $140 Glyphosate +oats $94 $26 $18 $138 Journey $89 $27 $15 $131 Diverse/ Journey $150 $18 $18 $192 MSU Publication $66 $33 $73 $171
    11. 11. 11stst year summary GHGyear summary GHG • All sites were minor sources for Nitrous oxide (N2O) – No treatment differences • All sites minor sinks for Methane (CH4) – No treatment differences • All sites sources for Carbon dioxide (CO2) – No treatment differences
    12. 12. Year two managementYear two management ESTABLISHMENT PLOTS NOT FERTILIZED – N = Typical recommendations 0-100 lbs N/A • In season: 20 lb N/acre/yr for each ton • After killing frost: 12 to 14 lb N acre/yr for each ton – P = If soil tests indicate low in P (<25 ppm) • add 10-40 lbs P2O5/Acre
    13. 13. Switchgrass cover in 2nd year
    14. 14. PercentCover(%) 0 10 20 30 40 50 September 2009 Big Bluestem Indian Grass Little Bluestem Sideoats Grama Switchgrass Illinois Bundleflower Milk Vetch Partridge Pea Yellow Coneflower Cover ofCover of diverse plotsdiverse plots in 2in 2ndnd yearyear
    15. 15. P<0.05 Yield in 2nd yearYield in 2nd year Harvested from small plotsHarvested from small plots DIVERSE IMAZ+GLY GLY + 2,4-D GLY GLY + OATS IMAZ+GLY Yield in 2009 DryMassYield(g/m 2 ) 0 200 400 600 800 1000 aab bc abc c DryMassYield(lb/ac) 0 2000 4000 6000 8000
    16. 16. Variability in YieldVariability in Yield
    17. 17. Does second year weed management improve productivity? Treatments: 1. Burning 2. Glyphosate 1.0 lbs ae/A 3. Journey 10.7 fl oz/A 4. Untreated control Timing: Mid may, switchgrass 2” tall
    18. 18. Four weeks after treatmentFour weeks after treatment Burn Glyphosate/Journey
    19. 19. Burn Untreated Two months after treatmentTwo months after treatment
    20. 20. Untreated Glyphosate Two months after treatmentTwo months after treatment
    21. 21. Year 2 Treatment Low Establishment (<30%) Tons/A High Establishment (>30%) Tons/A Burn 1.6 3.5 Glyphosate 2.0 3.4 Journey 1.8 3.4 Nothing 1.7 3.2 Yield of SwitchgrassYield of Switchgrass No difference between treatmentsNo difference between treatments BURN JOURN GLY UTC
    22. 22. Switchgrass Yields 2009 - Grant County, WI Nitrogen rate (lb/ac) 0 50 100 150 200 Yield(ton/ac) 0.0 0.5 1.0 1.5 2.0 2.5 3.0 3.5 4.0 4.5 Glyphosate Glyphosate w/ oats Diverse grass mixture R 2 =0.96 R 2 =0.95 Nitrogen responseNitrogen response
    23. 23. Comparison of GHG fluxes FOE Switchgrass (est. 2008) GLBRC Switchgrass (est. 2008) GLBRC Continuous Corn GLBRC Corn (grain rotation) CO2 63.19 (1.85) 46.24 (8.24) 42.66 (7.50) 46.43 (5.63) CH4 -0.010 (0.001) -0.006 (0.004) -0.008 (0.005) -0.005 (0.004) N2O 0.002 (0.001) 0.010 (0.016) 0.091 (0.079) 0.242 (0.164) C and N fluxes are given in mg. m-2 .hr-1 23 CO2 = 1 CH4 296 CO = 1 N O
    24. 24. Year 2 Cost of establishmentYear 2 Cost of establishment Fertility =0-$55/A Management =0-$25/A Harvest = $19/A Assuming N = $0.40/lbsAssuming N = $0.40/lbs 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 0 25 50 75 100 Lbs N added Cost/A($/A) untreated burn gly journey
    25. 25. Comparison of field-scale vs smallComparison of field-scale vs small plot yield in 2plot yield in 2ndnd yearyear * Denotes significance P<0.05 4.0 T/A 2.0 T/A 1.0 T/A
    26. 26. • Costs – Establishment: $130-140/A – Future years: $19-$100/A (Driven by N) • Successful establishment (% of fields): • Journey 100% • Glyphosate+2,4-D 50% • Glyphosate + Oats 40% • Glyphosate 17% • Productivity in Year 2 without N (1-4 tons/A) – gly+2,4-D and Journey 3.5 tons/A (2-4) – Other treatments 2 tons/A (1-3) 2 year summary2 year summary
    27. 27. 2 year summary continued2 year summary continued • NITROGEN RESPONSE – N increases yield • Reduced returns when >100 lbs N/A observed • Next year should have more of a N response • ECOSYSTEM SERVICES – Greenhouse gases: • All sites were minor sources of nitrous oxide (N2O) • All sites were minor sinks for methane (CH4) • All sites were sources for carbon dioxide (CO2) – Carbon Sequestration: • Still processing, but found no differences in soil organic matter between treatments – Soil Erosion: • determining differences with RUSL2
    28. 28. AcknowledgementsAcknowledgements
    29. 29. Yield ResultsYield Results Herbicide Est. yr (T dm/A) 2nd yr (T dm/A) 3rd yr (T dm/A) PRE Pursuit 4 fl oz/A 0.83 * 4.6 * 3.8 POST Pursuit 4 fl oz/A 0.25 2.8 * 3.7 PRE Journey 11 fl oz/A 0.4 4.2 * 4.6 * POST Plateau 4 fl oz/A 0.6 2.8 3.0 PRE Drive 8 oz/A 0.4 3.0 3.3 POST Drive 8 oz/A 0.3 2.8 3.5 POST Ally 0.1 oz/A 0.6 4.3 * 4.0 * POST 2,4-D 2 pt/A 0.9 3.3 * 3.2 PRE glyphosate 0.75 lbs ae/A 0.3 1.8 2.8 UTC 0.3 2.0 3.0
    30. 30. CH4Flux(mgC.m-2 .hr-1 ) -0.03 -0.02 -0.01 0.00 0.01 Jun15 July15 Aug11 Sept10 Oct10 •All sites were minor sinks for methane (CH4) at all sampling periods • No differences among treatments • Converted to CO2 equivalents = sink of <1.0% of CO2 flux
    31. 31. N2 OFlux(mgN.m-2 .hr-1 ) -0.01 0.00 0.01 0.02 Jun15 July15 Aug11 Sept10 Oct10 •All sites were minor sources of nitrous oxide (N2O) at most sampling periods • No differences among treatments • Converted to CO2 equivalents = approx. 7% of CO2 flux
    32. 32. CO2Flux(mgC.m-2 .hr-1 ) 0 20 40 60 80 Jun15 July15 Aug11 Sept10 Oct10 •All sites were sources for carbon dioxide (CO2) at all sampling periods • No differences among treatments

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