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FOE 2009 results

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  • Madison to Platteville: 72 miles Madison to Lancaster: 82 miles
  • The following two figures show mean (s.e.) percent cover by switchgrass in Year 1 establishment treatments, estimated in 2009. (These data are from three farms: D. Schaefer, T. Schaerfer, and F&R.) For JUNE: There was no difference in switchgrass % cover, among 1st-year establishment treatments (p=0.93).
  • These data are mean (s.e.) of the percent cover by each of the planted species in the diverse mixture, averaged across N=3 farms. Shown are data from the Year 1 Diverse establishment treatment, in the Year 2 “control” plots, from June and from September 2009.
  • This figure shows means (s.e.) of 2009 quadrat-based biomass yield in Year 1 Establishment treatments (untreated in 2009); means are of N=5-6 farms. Data were log-transformed prior to ANOVA; model p=0.0014; model F=6.40. Biomass was harvested from 3 replicate 0.5m2 quadrats in each switchgrass plot, and from 3 replicate 1.0m2 quadrats in each diverse plot.
  • CH4 flux, averaged across the 4 treatments (error bars = s.e. of N=4 treatments)
  • N2O flux, averaged across the 4 treatments (error bars = s.e. of N=4 treatments)

FOE 2009 results FOE 2009 results Presentation Transcript

  • Establishment costs and productivity of grass-based biofuels in SW Wisconsin
    • Steve Bertjens + Mike Lieurance: SWBRCD
    • Mark Renz, Randy Jackson, Jessica Miesel: UW-Madison Agronomy
    • Matt Ruark:UW-Madison Soil Science
  • Resources on switchgrass
    • MANY OTHER SOURCES:
    • 12 factsheets/guides available
    • A new resource: eXtension: http://www.extension.org/pages/Switchgrass_for_Biofuel_Production
    www.uwex.edu/ces/forage/pubs/switchgrass.pdf
  • Switchgrass Research Objectives
    • Measure if weed management can improve establishment and productivity of switchgrass
    • Estimate the costs associated with establishment
    • Determine optimum N recommendations
    • Estimate the environmental costs and benefits switchgrass
      • Soil erosion, Greenhouse gas emission, Carbon sequestration
    • 6 sites, 10 A/site
    • Marginal cropland
    • Annual cropping systems
      • Glyphosate resistant-crops
    • Treatment area = 2 A
    Site Details
  • Comparison of farms 5/22 5/14 5/15-16 5/28 5/15-16 5/16 Planted Steep slopes (9-11%) high crop residue Fall panicum, steep slopes (9-18%) Harvested and sprayed rye before planting Into unchopped stalks Giant ragweed, Steep slopes (15-25%) Comments Ryegrass No-till Dan _Sch Corn No-till F&R Soybeans Light disk Scott Soybeans No-till T_Sch Corn No-till Wolf Corn Fall chisel/ spring finished Crapp Previous crop Tillage Farm
  • Establishment treatments 1 Cave in the rock variety 2 Treated 7/22/08 If weed cover created canopy over switchgrass, plots mowed in Aug DIVERSE Switchgrass 1 Switchgrass+ oats 1 Switchgrass 1 Switchgrass 1 Crop 9 grass 1.4 forbs 8 8 + 1 bu/A 8 8 Seed rate (lbs/A) - Glyphosate 1 lbs ae/A 3 2,4-D Glyphosate 1 lbs ae/A 2 - Journey 10.7 fl oz/A 5 - Journey 10.7 fl oz/A 4 - Glyphosate 1 lbs ae/A 1 Post 2 Pre #
  • Cover of switchgrass in establishment year B A AB B A AB P<0.05
  • Max yield in 2 nd year Max yield in year 3 Failed establishment 10 10 Low establish High establish
  • Yield in establishment year
  • Year 1 Cost of establishment
      • USDA-NAAS Custom rate guide 2007
    MSU Publication $66 $33 $73 $171 $192 $18 $18 $150 Diverse/ Journey $131 $15 $27 $89 Journey $138 $18 $26 $94 Glyphosate +oats $140 $15 $36 $89 Glyphosate + 2,4-D $134 $20 $27 $87 Glyphosate Total Other Weeds Planting TRT
  • 1 st year summary GHG
    • All sites were minor sources for Nitrous oxide (N 2 O)
      • No treatment differences
    • All sites minor sinks for Methane (CH 4 )
      • No treatment differences
    • All sites sources for Carbon dioxide (CO 2 )
      • No treatment differences
  • Year two management
    • ESTABLISHMENT PLOTS NOT FERTILIZED
      • N = Typical recommendations 0-100 lbs N/A
        • In season: 20 lb N/acre/yr for each ton
        • After killing frost: 12 to 14 lb N acre/yr for each ton
      • P = If soil tests indicate low in P (<25 ppm)
        • add 10-40 lbs P 2 O 5 /Acre
  •  
  • Switchgrass cover in 2 nd year
  • Cover of diverse plots in 2 nd year
  • P<0.05 Yield in 2nd year Harvested from small plots
  • Variability in Yield
  •  
  • Does second year weed management improve productivity?
    • Treatments:
      • Burning
      • Glyphosate 1.0 lbs ae/A
      • Journey 10.7 fl oz/A
      • Untreated control
    • Timing: Mid may, switchgrass 2” tall
  • Four weeks after treatment Burn Glyphosate/Journey
  • Burn Untreated Two months after treatment
  • Untreated Glyphosate Two months after treatment
  • Yield of Switchgrass No difference between treatments BURN JOURN GLY UTC Year 2 Treatment Low Establishment (<30%) Tons/A High Establishment (>30%) Tons/A Burn 1.6 3.5 Glyphosate 2.0 3.4 Journey 1.8 3.4 Nothing 1.7 3.2
  • Nitrogen response
  • Comparison of GHG fluxes C and N fluxes are given in mg. m -2 .hr -1 23 CO 2 = 1 CH 4 296 CO 2 = 1 N 2 O FOE Switchgrass (est. 2008) GLBRC Switchgrass (est. 2008) GLBRC Continuous Corn GLBRC Corn (grain rotation) CO 2 63.19 (1.85) 46.24  (8.24) 42.66  (7.50) 46.43  (5.63) CH 4 -0.010 (0.001) -0.006 (0.004) -0.008 (0.005) -0.005 (0.004) N 2 O 0.002 (0.001) 0.010 (0.016) 0.091 (0.079) 0.242 (0.164)
  • Year 2 Cost of establishment Fertility =0-$55/A Management =0-$25/A Harvest = $19/A Assuming N = $0.40/lbs
  • Comparison of field-scale vs small plot yield in 2 nd year * Denotes significance P<0.05 4.0 T/A 2.0 T/A 1.0 T/A
    • Costs
      • Establishment: $130-140/A
      • Future years: $19-$100/A (Driven by N)
    • Successful establishment (% of fields):
        • Journey 100%
        • Glyphosate+2,4-D 50%
        • Glyphosate + Oats 40%
        • Glyphosate 17%
    • Productivity in Year 2 without N (1-4 tons/A)
      • gly+2,4-D and Journey 3.5 tons/A (2-4)
      • Other treatments 2 tons/A (1-3)
    2 year summary
  • 2 year summary continued
    • NITROGEN RESPONSE
      • N increases yield
        • Reduced returns when >100 lbs N/A observed
        • Next year should have more of a N response
    • ECOSYSTEM SERVICES
      • Greenhouse gases:
        • All sites were minor sources of nitrous oxide (N2O)
        • All sites were minor sinks for methane (CH4)
        • All sites were sources for carbon dioxide (CO2)
      • Carbon Sequestration:
        • Still processing, but found no differences in soil organic matter between treatments
      • Soil Erosion:
        • determining differences with RUSL2
  • Acknowledgements
  • Yield Results * 4.0 * 4.3 0.6 POST Ally 0.1 oz/A 2.0 1.8 3.3 2.8 3.0 2.8 4.2 2.8 4.6 2 nd yr (T dm/A) * * * * * 3.0 2.8 3.2 3.5 3.3 3.0 4.6 3.7 3.8 3 rd yr (T dm/A) 0.3 0.3 0.9 0.3 0.4 0.6 0.4 0.25 0.83 Est. yr (T dm/A) * POST 2,4-D 2 pt/A POST Drive 8 oz/A UTC Herbicide PRE Pursuit 4 fl oz/A PRE glyphosate 0.75 lbs ae/A PRE Drive 8 oz/A POST Plateau 4 fl oz/A PRE Journey 11 fl oz/A POST Pursuit 4 fl oz/A
    • All sites were minor sinks for methane (CH 4 ) at all sampling periods
      • No differences among treatments
      • Converted to CO 2 equivalents = sink of <1.0% of CO 2 flux
    • All sites were minor sources of nitrous oxide (N 2 O) at most sampling periods
      • No differences among treatments
      • Converted to CO 2 equivalents = approx. 7% of CO 2 flux
    • All sites were sources for carbon dioxide (CO2) at all sampling periods
      • No differences among treatments