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FOE 2009 results

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  • Madison to Platteville: 72 miles
    Madison to Lancaster: 82 miles
  • The following two figures show mean (s.e.) percent cover by switchgrass in
    Year 1 establishment treatments, estimated in 2009. (These data are from three farms: D. Schaefer, T. Schaerfer, and F&R.)
    For JUNE: There was no difference in switchgrass % cover, among 1st-year establishment treatments (p=0.93).
  • These data are mean (s.e.) of the percent cover by each of the planted species in the diverse mixture, averaged across N=3 farms. Shown are data from the Year 1 Diverse establishment treatment, in the Year 2 “control” plots, from June and from September 2009.
  • This figure shows means (s.e.) of 2009 quadrat-based biomass yield in Year 1 Establishment treatments (untreated in 2009); means are of N=5-6 farms. Data were log-transformed prior to ANOVA; model p=0.0014; model F=6.40.
    Biomass was harvested from 3 replicate 0.5m2 quadrats in each switchgrass plot, and from 3 replicate 1.0m2 quadrats in each diverse plot.
  • CH4 flux, averaged across the 4 treatments (error bars = s.e. of N=4 treatments)
  • N2O flux, averaged across the 4 treatments (error bars = s.e. of N=4 treatments)
  • Transcript

    • 1. Establishment costs and productivity ofEstablishment costs and productivity of grass-based biofuels in SW Wisconsingrass-based biofuels in SW Wisconsin •Steve Bertjens + Mike Lieurance: SWBRCD •Mark Renz, Randy Jackson, Jessica Miesel: UW-Madison Agronomy •Matt Ruark:UW-Madison Soil Science
    • 2. Resources on switchgrassResources on switchgrass MANY OTHER SOURCES: •12 factsheets/guides available •A new resource: eXtension: http://www.extension.org/pages/Sw www.uwex.edu/ces/forage/pubs/switchgrass.pdf
    • 3. Switchgrass ResearchSwitchgrass Research ObjectivesObjectives 1. Measure if weed management can improve establishment and productivity of switchgrass 2. Estimate the costs associated with establishment 3. Determine optimum N recommendations 4. Estimate the environmental costs and benefits switchgrass – Soil erosion, Greenhouse gas emission, Carbon sequestration
    • 4. •6 sites, 10 A/site •Marginal cropland •Annual cropping systems •Glyphosate resistant-crops •Treatment area = 2 A Site DetailsSite Details
    • 5. Comparison of farmsComparison of farms Farm Tillage Previous crop Planted Comments Scott Light disk Soybeans 5/16 Giant ragweed, Steep slopes (15-25%) F&R No-till Corn 5/15-16 Into unchopped stalks Dan _Sch No-till Ryegrass 5/28 Harvested and sprayed rye before planting Crapp Fall chisel/ spring finished Corn 5/15-16 Fall panicum, steep slopes (9-18%) Wolf No-till Corn 5/14 high crop residue T_Sch No-till Soybeans 5/22 Steep slopes (9-11%)
    • 6. Establishment treatmentsEstablishment treatments # Crop Seed rate (lbs/A) Pre Post2 1 Switchgrass1 8 Glyphosate 1 lbs ae/A - 2 Switchgrass1 8 Glyphosate 1 lbs ae/A 2,4-D 3 Switchgrass+ oats1 8 + 1 bu/A Glyphosate 1 lbs ae/A - 4 Switchgrass1 8 Journey 10.7 fl oz/A - 5 DIVERSE 9 grass 1.4 forbs Journey 10.7 fl oz/A - 1 Cave in the rock variety 2 Treated 7/22/08 If weed cover created canopy over switchgrass, plots mowed in Aug
    • 7. Cover of switchgrass inCover of switchgrass in establishment yearestablishment year B A AB B A AB P<0.05
    • 8. High establish Low establish 10 10Max yield in 2nd year Max yield in year 3 Failed establishment
    • 9. Yield in establishment yearYield in establishment year
    • 10. Year 1 Cost of establishmentYear 1 Cost of establishment USDA-NAAS Custom rate guide 2007 TRT Planting Weeds Other Total Glyphosate $87 $27 $20 $134 Glyphosate + 2,4-D $89 $36 $15 $140 Glyphosate +oats $94 $26 $18 $138 Journey $89 $27 $15 $131 Diverse/ Journey $150 $18 $18 $192 MSU Publication $66 $33 $73 $171
    • 11. 11stst year summary GHGyear summary GHG • All sites were minor sources for Nitrous oxide (N2O) – No treatment differences • All sites minor sinks for Methane (CH4) – No treatment differences • All sites sources for Carbon dioxide (CO2) – No treatment differences
    • 12. Year two managementYear two management ESTABLISHMENT PLOTS NOT FERTILIZED – N = Typical recommendations 0-100 lbs N/A • In season: 20 lb N/acre/yr for each ton • After killing frost: 12 to 14 lb N acre/yr for each ton – P = If soil tests indicate low in P (<25 ppm) • add 10-40 lbs P2O5/Acre
    • 13. Switchgrass cover in 2nd year
    • 14. PercentCover(%) 0 10 20 30 40 50 September 2009 Big Bluestem Indian Grass Little Bluestem Sideoats Grama Switchgrass Illinois Bundleflower Milk Vetch Partridge Pea Yellow Coneflower Cover ofCover of diverse plotsdiverse plots in 2in 2ndnd yearyear
    • 15. P<0.05 Yield in 2nd yearYield in 2nd year Harvested from small plotsHarvested from small plots DIVERSE IMAZ+GLY GLY + 2,4-D GLY GLY + OATS IMAZ+GLY Yield in 2009 DryMassYield(g/m 2 ) 0 200 400 600 800 1000 aab bc abc c DryMassYield(lb/ac) 0 2000 4000 6000 8000
    • 16. Variability in YieldVariability in Yield
    • 17. Does second year weed management improve productivity? Treatments: 1. Burning 2. Glyphosate 1.0 lbs ae/A 3. Journey 10.7 fl oz/A 4. Untreated control Timing: Mid may, switchgrass 2” tall
    • 18. Four weeks after treatmentFour weeks after treatment Burn Glyphosate/Journey
    • 19. Burn Untreated Two months after treatmentTwo months after treatment
    • 20. Untreated Glyphosate Two months after treatmentTwo months after treatment
    • 21. Year 2 Treatment Low Establishment (<30%) Tons/A High Establishment (>30%) Tons/A Burn 1.6 3.5 Glyphosate 2.0 3.4 Journey 1.8 3.4 Nothing 1.7 3.2 Yield of SwitchgrassYield of Switchgrass No difference between treatmentsNo difference between treatments BURN JOURN GLY UTC
    • 22. Switchgrass Yields 2009 - Grant County, WI Nitrogen rate (lb/ac) 0 50 100 150 200 Yield(ton/ac) 0.0 0.5 1.0 1.5 2.0 2.5 3.0 3.5 4.0 4.5 Glyphosate Glyphosate w/ oats Diverse grass mixture R 2 =0.96 R 2 =0.95 Nitrogen responseNitrogen response
    • 23. Comparison of GHG fluxes FOE Switchgrass (est. 2008) GLBRC Switchgrass (est. 2008) GLBRC Continuous Corn GLBRC Corn (grain rotation) CO2 63.19 (1.85) 46.24 (8.24) 42.66 (7.50) 46.43 (5.63) CH4 -0.010 (0.001) -0.006 (0.004) -0.008 (0.005) -0.005 (0.004) N2O 0.002 (0.001) 0.010 (0.016) 0.091 (0.079) 0.242 (0.164) C and N fluxes are given in mg. m-2 .hr-1 23 CO2 = 1 CH4 296 CO = 1 N O
    • 24. Year 2 Cost of establishmentYear 2 Cost of establishment Fertility =0-$55/A Management =0-$25/A Harvest = $19/A Assuming N = $0.40/lbsAssuming N = $0.40/lbs 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 0 25 50 75 100 Lbs N added Cost/A($/A) untreated burn gly journey
    • 25. Comparison of field-scale vs smallComparison of field-scale vs small plot yield in 2plot yield in 2ndnd yearyear * Denotes significance P<0.05 4.0 T/A 2.0 T/A 1.0 T/A
    • 26. • Costs – Establishment: $130-140/A – Future years: $19-$100/A (Driven by N) • Successful establishment (% of fields): • Journey 100% • Glyphosate+2,4-D 50% • Glyphosate + Oats 40% • Glyphosate 17% • Productivity in Year 2 without N (1-4 tons/A) – gly+2,4-D and Journey 3.5 tons/A (2-4) – Other treatments 2 tons/A (1-3) 2 year summary2 year summary
    • 27. 2 year summary continued2 year summary continued • NITROGEN RESPONSE – N increases yield • Reduced returns when >100 lbs N/A observed • Next year should have more of a N response • ECOSYSTEM SERVICES – Greenhouse gases: • All sites were minor sources of nitrous oxide (N2O) • All sites were minor sinks for methane (CH4) • All sites were sources for carbon dioxide (CO2) – Carbon Sequestration: • Still processing, but found no differences in soil organic matter between treatments – Soil Erosion: • determining differences with RUSL2
    • 28. AcknowledgementsAcknowledgements
    • 29. Yield ResultsYield Results Herbicide Est. yr (T dm/A) 2nd yr (T dm/A) 3rd yr (T dm/A) PRE Pursuit 4 fl oz/A 0.83 * 4.6 * 3.8 POST Pursuit 4 fl oz/A 0.25 2.8 * 3.7 PRE Journey 11 fl oz/A 0.4 4.2 * 4.6 * POST Plateau 4 fl oz/A 0.6 2.8 3.0 PRE Drive 8 oz/A 0.4 3.0 3.3 POST Drive 8 oz/A 0.3 2.8 3.5 POST Ally 0.1 oz/A 0.6 4.3 * 4.0 * POST 2,4-D 2 pt/A 0.9 3.3 * 3.2 PRE glyphosate 0.75 lbs ae/A 0.3 1.8 2.8 UTC 0.3 2.0 3.0
    • 30. CH4Flux(mgC.m-2 .hr-1 ) -0.03 -0.02 -0.01 0.00 0.01 Jun15 July15 Aug11 Sept10 Oct10 •All sites were minor sinks for methane (CH4) at all sampling periods • No differences among treatments • Converted to CO2 equivalents = sink of <1.0% of CO2 flux
    • 31. N2 OFlux(mgN.m-2 .hr-1 ) -0.01 0.00 0.01 0.02 Jun15 July15 Aug11 Sept10 Oct10 •All sites were minor sources of nitrous oxide (N2O) at most sampling periods • No differences among treatments • Converted to CO2 equivalents = approx. 7% of CO2 flux
    • 32. CO2Flux(mgC.m-2 .hr-1 ) 0 20 40 60 80 Jun15 July15 Aug11 Sept10 Oct10 •All sites were sources for carbon dioxide (CO2) at all sampling periods • No differences among treatments