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FOE 2009 results
FOE 2009 results
FOE 2009 results
FOE 2009 results
FOE 2009 results
FOE 2009 results
FOE 2009 results
FOE 2009 results
FOE 2009 results
FOE 2009 results
FOE 2009 results
FOE 2009 results
FOE 2009 results
FOE 2009 results
FOE 2009 results
FOE 2009 results
FOE 2009 results
FOE 2009 results
FOE 2009 results
FOE 2009 results
FOE 2009 results
FOE 2009 results
FOE 2009 results
FOE 2009 results
FOE 2009 results
FOE 2009 results
FOE 2009 results
FOE 2009 results
FOE 2009 results
FOE 2009 results
FOE 2009 results
FOE 2009 results
FOE 2009 results
FOE 2009 results
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FOE 2009 results

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  • Madison to Platteville: 72 miles
    Madison to Lancaster: 82 miles
  • The following two figures show mean (s.e.) percent cover by switchgrass in
    Year 1 establishment treatments, estimated in 2009. (These data are from three farms: D. Schaefer, T. Schaerfer, and F&R.)
    For JUNE: There was no difference in switchgrass % cover, among 1st-year establishment treatments (p=0.93).
  • These data are mean (s.e.) of the percent cover by each of the planted species in the diverse mixture, averaged across N=3 farms. Shown are data from the Year 1 Diverse establishment treatment, in the Year 2 “control” plots, from June and from September 2009.
  • This figure shows means (s.e.) of 2009 quadrat-based biomass yield in Year 1 Establishment treatments (untreated in 2009); means are of N=5-6 farms. Data were log-transformed prior to ANOVA; model p=0.0014; model F=6.40.
    Biomass was harvested from 3 replicate 0.5m2 quadrats in each switchgrass plot, and from 3 replicate 1.0m2 quadrats in each diverse plot.
  • CH4 flux, averaged across the 4 treatments (error bars = s.e. of N=4 treatments)
  • N2O flux, averaged across the 4 treatments (error bars = s.e. of N=4 treatments)
  • Transcript

    • 1. Establishment costs and productivity ofEstablishment costs and productivity of grass-based biofuels in SW Wisconsingrass-based biofuels in SW Wisconsin •Steve Bertjens + Mike Lieurance: SWBRCD •Mark Renz, Randy Jackson, Jessica Miesel: UW-Madison Agronomy •Matt Ruark:UW-Madison Soil Science
    • 2. Resources on switchgrassResources on switchgrass MANY OTHER SOURCES: •12 factsheets/guides available •A new resource: eXtension: http://www.extension.org/pages/Sw www.uwex.edu/ces/forage/pubs/switchgrass.pdf
    • 3. Switchgrass ResearchSwitchgrass Research ObjectivesObjectives 1. Measure if weed management can improve establishment and productivity of switchgrass 2. Estimate the costs associated with establishment 3. Determine optimum N recommendations 4. Estimate the environmental costs and benefits switchgrass – Soil erosion, Greenhouse gas emission, Carbon sequestration
    • 4. •6 sites, 10 A/site •Marginal cropland •Annual cropping systems •Glyphosate resistant-crops •Treatment area = 2 A Site DetailsSite Details
    • 5. Comparison of farmsComparison of farms Farm Tillage Previous crop Planted Comments Scott Light disk Soybeans 5/16 Giant ragweed, Steep slopes (15-25%) F&R No-till Corn 5/15-16 Into unchopped stalks Dan _Sch No-till Ryegrass 5/28 Harvested and sprayed rye before planting Crapp Fall chisel/ spring finished Corn 5/15-16 Fall panicum, steep slopes (9-18%) Wolf No-till Corn 5/14 high crop residue T_Sch No-till Soybeans 5/22 Steep slopes (9-11%)
    • 6. Establishment treatmentsEstablishment treatments # Crop Seed rate (lbs/A) Pre Post2 1 Switchgrass1 8 Glyphosate 1 lbs ae/A - 2 Switchgrass1 8 Glyphosate 1 lbs ae/A 2,4-D 3 Switchgrass+ oats1 8 + 1 bu/A Glyphosate 1 lbs ae/A - 4 Switchgrass1 8 Journey 10.7 fl oz/A - 5 DIVERSE 9 grass 1.4 forbs Journey 10.7 fl oz/A - 1 Cave in the rock variety 2 Treated 7/22/08 If weed cover created canopy over switchgrass, plots mowed in Aug
    • 7. Cover of switchgrass inCover of switchgrass in establishment yearestablishment year B A AB B A AB P<0.05
    • 8. High establish Low establish 10 10Max yield in 2nd year Max yield in year 3 Failed establishment
    • 9. Yield in establishment yearYield in establishment year
    • 10. Year 1 Cost of establishmentYear 1 Cost of establishment USDA-NAAS Custom rate guide 2007 TRT Planting Weeds Other Total Glyphosate $87 $27 $20 $134 Glyphosate + 2,4-D $89 $36 $15 $140 Glyphosate +oats $94 $26 $18 $138 Journey $89 $27 $15 $131 Diverse/ Journey $150 $18 $18 $192 MSU Publication $66 $33 $73 $171
    • 11. 11stst year summary GHGyear summary GHG • All sites were minor sources for Nitrous oxide (N2O) – No treatment differences • All sites minor sinks for Methane (CH4) – No treatment differences • All sites sources for Carbon dioxide (CO2) – No treatment differences
    • 12. Year two managementYear two management ESTABLISHMENT PLOTS NOT FERTILIZED – N = Typical recommendations 0-100 lbs N/A • In season: 20 lb N/acre/yr for each ton • After killing frost: 12 to 14 lb N acre/yr for each ton – P = If soil tests indicate low in P (<25 ppm) • add 10-40 lbs P2O5/Acre
    • 13. Switchgrass cover in 2nd year
    • 14. PercentCover(%) 0 10 20 30 40 50 September 2009 Big Bluestem Indian Grass Little Bluestem Sideoats Grama Switchgrass Illinois Bundleflower Milk Vetch Partridge Pea Yellow Coneflower Cover ofCover of diverse plotsdiverse plots in 2in 2ndnd yearyear
    • 15. P<0.05 Yield in 2nd yearYield in 2nd year Harvested from small plotsHarvested from small plots DIVERSE IMAZ+GLY GLY + 2,4-D GLY GLY + OATS IMAZ+GLY Yield in 2009 DryMassYield(g/m 2 ) 0 200 400 600 800 1000 aab bc abc c DryMassYield(lb/ac) 0 2000 4000 6000 8000
    • 16. Variability in YieldVariability in Yield
    • 17. Does second year weed management improve productivity? Treatments: 1. Burning 2. Glyphosate 1.0 lbs ae/A 3. Journey 10.7 fl oz/A 4. Untreated control Timing: Mid may, switchgrass 2” tall
    • 18. Four weeks after treatmentFour weeks after treatment Burn Glyphosate/Journey
    • 19. Burn Untreated Two months after treatmentTwo months after treatment
    • 20. Untreated Glyphosate Two months after treatmentTwo months after treatment
    • 21. Year 2 Treatment Low Establishment (<30%) Tons/A High Establishment (>30%) Tons/A Burn 1.6 3.5 Glyphosate 2.0 3.4 Journey 1.8 3.4 Nothing 1.7 3.2 Yield of SwitchgrassYield of Switchgrass No difference between treatmentsNo difference between treatments BURN JOURN GLY UTC
    • 22. Switchgrass Yields 2009 - Grant County, WI Nitrogen rate (lb/ac) 0 50 100 150 200 Yield(ton/ac) 0.0 0.5 1.0 1.5 2.0 2.5 3.0 3.5 4.0 4.5 Glyphosate Glyphosate w/ oats Diverse grass mixture R 2 =0.96 R 2 =0.95 Nitrogen responseNitrogen response
    • 23. Comparison of GHG fluxes FOE Switchgrass (est. 2008) GLBRC Switchgrass (est. 2008) GLBRC Continuous Corn GLBRC Corn (grain rotation) CO2 63.19 (1.85) 46.24 (8.24) 42.66 (7.50) 46.43 (5.63) CH4 -0.010 (0.001) -0.006 (0.004) -0.008 (0.005) -0.005 (0.004) N2O 0.002 (0.001) 0.010 (0.016) 0.091 (0.079) 0.242 (0.164) C and N fluxes are given in mg. m-2 .hr-1 23 CO2 = 1 CH4 296 CO = 1 N O
    • 24. Year 2 Cost of establishmentYear 2 Cost of establishment Fertility =0-$55/A Management =0-$25/A Harvest = $19/A Assuming N = $0.40/lbsAssuming N = $0.40/lbs 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 0 25 50 75 100 Lbs N added Cost/A($/A) untreated burn gly journey
    • 25. Comparison of field-scale vs smallComparison of field-scale vs small plot yield in 2plot yield in 2ndnd yearyear * Denotes significance P<0.05 4.0 T/A 2.0 T/A 1.0 T/A
    • 26. • Costs – Establishment: $130-140/A – Future years: $19-$100/A (Driven by N) • Successful establishment (% of fields): • Journey 100% • Glyphosate+2,4-D 50% • Glyphosate + Oats 40% • Glyphosate 17% • Productivity in Year 2 without N (1-4 tons/A) – gly+2,4-D and Journey 3.5 tons/A (2-4) – Other treatments 2 tons/A (1-3) 2 year summary2 year summary
    • 27. 2 year summary continued2 year summary continued • NITROGEN RESPONSE – N increases yield • Reduced returns when >100 lbs N/A observed • Next year should have more of a N response • ECOSYSTEM SERVICES – Greenhouse gases: • All sites were minor sources of nitrous oxide (N2O) • All sites were minor sinks for methane (CH4) • All sites were sources for carbon dioxide (CO2) – Carbon Sequestration: • Still processing, but found no differences in soil organic matter between treatments – Soil Erosion: • determining differences with RUSL2
    • 28. AcknowledgementsAcknowledgements
    • 29. Yield ResultsYield Results Herbicide Est. yr (T dm/A) 2nd yr (T dm/A) 3rd yr (T dm/A) PRE Pursuit 4 fl oz/A 0.83 * 4.6 * 3.8 POST Pursuit 4 fl oz/A 0.25 2.8 * 3.7 PRE Journey 11 fl oz/A 0.4 4.2 * 4.6 * POST Plateau 4 fl oz/A 0.6 2.8 3.0 PRE Drive 8 oz/A 0.4 3.0 3.3 POST Drive 8 oz/A 0.3 2.8 3.5 POST Ally 0.1 oz/A 0.6 4.3 * 4.0 * POST 2,4-D 2 pt/A 0.9 3.3 * 3.2 PRE glyphosate 0.75 lbs ae/A 0.3 1.8 2.8 UTC 0.3 2.0 3.0
    • 30. CH4Flux(mgC.m-2 .hr-1 ) -0.03 -0.02 -0.01 0.00 0.01 Jun15 July15 Aug11 Sept10 Oct10 •All sites were minor sinks for methane (CH4) at all sampling periods • No differences among treatments • Converted to CO2 equivalents = sink of <1.0% of CO2 flux
    • 31. N2 OFlux(mgN.m-2 .hr-1 ) -0.01 0.00 0.01 0.02 Jun15 July15 Aug11 Sept10 Oct10 •All sites were minor sources of nitrous oxide (N2O) at most sampling periods • No differences among treatments • Converted to CO2 equivalents = approx. 7% of CO2 flux
    • 32. CO2Flux(mgC.m-2 .hr-1 ) 0 20 40 60 80 Jun15 July15 Aug11 Sept10 Oct10 •All sites were sources for carbon dioxide (CO2) at all sampling periods • No differences among treatments

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