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Reemerging Weed Problem in Wisconsin
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Reemerging Weed Problem in Wisconsin

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  • 1. Reemerging Weed Problem in Wisconsin -or-What was Old is New Again
    Tim Trower, Mark Renz, Bryan Jensen and Larry Binning
    University of Wisconsin
  • 2. The Culprits
  • 3. Why the Resurgence?
    Both weeds are perennials
    Shift to reduced and no-till tillage systems favors both weeds
    Changes in herbicide programs may favor survival
    Glyphosate not always the most efficacious program
    Application timing may not be optimum
  • 4. Dandelion- Taraxacum officinale“Built to Last”
    Deep-rooted perennial
    Tap root can reach six feet in length
    Early riser in the spring
    Are some of the first weeds to green-up in the spring
    Early seed production
    Begins in late April or early spring at the Arlington Research station
    Seeds are viable and can germinate the same year
  • 5. Dandelions“Application timing, what is best?”
    Weed biology can make optimum application timing difficult
    Fall applications traditionally are the most efficacious
    Translocating herbicides such as glyphosate and the synthetic auxins move into the tap root
    But application timing is limited by harvest and weather
  • 6. Dandelions“Application timing, what is best?”
    Spring applications have been less effective
    Application timing can be delayed by weather and planting interval
    Trials conducted at the Arlington Research Station in 2009 and 2010 to determine dandelion control with fall and spring applications
    Application information:
    RCB, four replicates, 10’ X 25’ plots
    20 GPA, XR8003 tips, 23 PSI, 3 MPH
  • 7. Dandelion ControlFall compared to Spring Applications
  • 8. Percent Dandelion ControlFall Compared to Spring
  • 9. Dandelion ControlFall applied and evaluated the following spring
    Canopy EX @ 1.1 oz/a +
    2,4-D @ 16 fl oz +
    PowerMax @ 21 fl oz
    2,4-D @ 32 fl oz +
    PowerMax @ 21 fl oz
    Synchrony @ 0.375 oz/a +
    2,4-D @ 16 fl oz +
    PowerMax @ 21 fl oz
    Enlite @ 2.8 oz/a +
    PowerMax @ 21 fl oz
  • 10. Conclusions
    Fall-applied Canopy EX, Synchrony and Enlite tank mixes all provided better dandelion control at spring green-up that 2,4-D/glyphosate.
    All fall-applied treatments gave better early-season dandelion control which coincides with normal corn planting.
    Conversely, spring-applied 2,4-D/glyphosate, Synchrony and Enlite tank mixes provided better late-season dandelion control which coincides with normal soybean planting.
  • 11. Conclusions
    Fall-applied Canopy EX followed by an in-season glyphosate application provided 93% dandelion control at harvest.
    Dandelion growth stage is important
    Seedlings much easier to control than mature plants
    Spring applications of contact herbicides generally do a good job on the seedlings
    No yield differences were observed.
  • 12. Percent Dandelion Control:Fall-applied treatments
  • 13. Conclusions
    Autumn, Canopy EX, Synchrony, Express and Sharpen tank mixes all provided 90% or greater dandelion control at spring green-up.
    Dandelion control decreased with most treatments at the mid and late evaluations.
    The Canopy EX tank mix was the best overall treatment, followed by Autumn and Express tank mix.
    No yield differences were observed.
  • 14. Field Horsetail- Equisetum arvensePlant Biology
    Perennial
    Spreads by rhizomes and spores
    Tan-colored stalks are the first to emerge in the early spring-
    Followed by the
    vegetative stage-
  • 15. Field Horsetail
    Competitive plant that can cause yield reductions.
    Generally starts at the edge of the field and slowly spreads.
    Favors low spots
    Three trials were conducted in 2009 and 2010 in grower fields.
    Application information:
    RCB, four replicates, 10’ X 25’ plots
    20 GPA, XR8003 tips, 23 PSI, 3 MPH
  • 16. Field HorsetailAddition Information
    With the exception of two treatments, Dual II Magnum plus atrazine was applied preemergence to reduce competition from non-target weeds.
    Postemergence herbicide treatments were targeted for corn at the V3 growth stage.
    Plots were hand-harvested in 2009 and machine harvested in 2010.
  • 17. 2009 Monroe County Percent Ground Cover
    Means followed by same letter do not significantly differ (P=.05)
  • 18. 2009 Columbia County Percent Ground Cover
    Means followed by same letter do not significantly differ (P=.05)
  • 19. 2010 Sauk County Percent Ground Cover
    Means followed by same letter do not significantly differ (P=.05)
  • 20. ConclusionsField Horsetail
    Results between years and locations were variable.
    Steadfast/Status applied postemergence provided the best field horsetail control in two studies.
    Steadfast/Hornet applied postemergence was effective in one study.
    Soil-applied programs provide varying degrees of suppression but were generally ineffective after mid-season.
    Python applied preemergence provided acceptable control in only one trial.
    Significant yield decrease in one study.
  • 21. Summary
    Both weed species are favored by reduced tillage.
    Both species require a system approach to provide best results:
    Scout fields often, don’t let the weed increase in the “background”
    Crop rotation
    Sequential herbicide applications
    Application timings
    Fall compared to spring
    Tillage?
    May be required under severe weed pressure

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