Wedding pastry cakes & cookies

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Wedding Pastry presents fantasy Wedding Cake by Cakes,Cups and Pops.. Fantasy Wedding Ideas. Fairy, Disney, Fairytale Weddings. Ideas and Inspirations Wedding Visit at …

Wedding Pastry presents fantasy Wedding Cake by Cakes,Cups and Pops.. Fantasy Wedding Ideas. Fairy, Disney, Fairytale Weddings. Ideas and Inspirations Wedding Visit at http://www.weddingpastry.com/about/

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  • Cakes are classified according to whether or not they contain fat.
    Chiffon: has fat in the form of oil and egg yolk
  • BULLET 1 – A cake made with fat. Remember this type of cake by the name, “shortened”. The fat “shortens” the gluten strands.Shortened cakes are usually leavened with baking powder or baking soda, although steam generated from the liquid ingredients and air incorporated during the mixing process also contributes to the leavening. Pound cake is a compact, shortened cake leavened only by air and steam.BULLET 2 – A cake made without added fat.Angel food cakes are made with beaten egg whites. This is one reason why angel food cake can be categorized as a low fat food. It does not contain the whole egg and has no added fat. There is very little fat found in the white of an egg, however, there is about 4-5 grams of fat in the yolk of an egg. Angel food cakes have a weak structure, therefore requires tube pan to help batter pull itself up to achieve maximum volume during baking. -Egg white coagulates contributing to the structure of the cake.-The majority of leavening is due to steam produced by the evaporation of liquid from egg whites.-Consists primarily of egg white foam (NOT WHOLE EGG), sugar & cake flour.-Very low fat and cholesterol secondary to no fat in the recipe.-Ingredients must be thoroughly blended, while avoiding overmanipulation, which would reduce tenderness and volume due to the overcoagulation of protein and the release of the leavening agent. (Please see next slide for visual.)
  • Conventional: Creaming fat and sugar together to incorporate air… fine-grained texture
    Sponge: (meringue method) some of sugar beaten into fat, some into the egg whites and then folded in
    Pastry: flour cut into fat
    Quick mix: one bowl
  • BULLET 1 –Both baking powder and baking soda can be used in cakes, however baking powder is often the preferred ingredient as some cakes do not have an acid (such as vanilla) used that would activate the baking soda.-Too little leavening ingredient creates a compact cake-Too much leavening ingredient creates a coarse texture & gummy crumb.-Please note that less baking powder is needed when air is incorporated into cakes by means of creaming a fat-sugar mixture or beating egg whites (as they provide a leavening agent).-Both cakes and cookies are leavened with gas produced by either baking soda, baking powder, air, and/or steam.-Shortened cake batters must go through the creaming process. To see how adequate creaming affects the volume of a cake refer to the next slide.BULLET 2 - Interferes with gluten development (by attracting and holding water that would otherwise be absorbed by protein)-Delays gelatinization (swelling of the starch granules) of the starch. (When trying to understand gelatinization, visualize dry noodles, heating them in water, and the noodles becoming larger. The starch granules have gelatinized. We will take a more in-depth look at gelatinization in later lessons.)-Raises the temperature at which starch gelatinizes.-Causes a decrease in the viscosity of the batter.REMEMBER, GELATINIZATION IS THE SWELLING AND CONSEQUENT THICKENING OF STARCH GRANULES WHEN HEATED IN H20.(Very similar to process of coagulation except this is with starch and not protein.)-If there is too much sugar without increased stirring the cake will fall & have coarse texture.BULLET 3 – Vegetable oils do not intrap air during the creaming process.
  • BULLET 5 - Hydrating ingredientBULLET 6 – Cakes have a higher proportion of sugar, milk, and fat to flour than do breads. Flour provides structure to cakes when its proteins form gluten and when the starch gelatinizes.
  • BULLET 1 -Usually has weak structure therefore requires tube pan (as shown above) to help batter rise up to achieve maximum volume during baking.-Egg white coagulates contributing to the structure of the cake.-The majority of leavening is due to steam produced by the evaporation of liquid from egg whites.-Consists primarily of egg white foam (NOT WHOLE EGG), sugar & cake flour.-Ingredients must be thoroughly blended, while avoiding overmanipulation, which would reduce tenderness and volume due to the overcoagulation of protein and the release of the leavening agent. (Please see next slide for visual.)BULLET 2 - Foam cakes are comprised of egg yolk foam and egg white foam.-Uses small amount of cake flour, water, lemon & sugar-Usually baked in tube pan.
  • -Prepared by folding whipped egg whites into a mixture of cake flour, sugar, beaten egg yolks, and oil.-Has greatest volume-Finer in texture. It is a transition between shortened & foam cakes.
  • BULLET 2- This depends on the type of cookie being made. The more fat in a cookie, the less greasing needed as the grease(fat) in the cookie will keep it from sticking to the pan. Cookie baking sheets are preferred for all cookies except bar cookies. Their low or nonexistent sides allow hot air to circulate and bake the cookies evenly.BULLET 3 –Cookies bake better if the pan is placed in the middle or top rack in the oven with at least 2 inches between the pan and the oven wall. -Uniform size & shape of the cookie dough is important for even baking-Too low oven temperature will make cookies have an increased spread-Too high temperature will produce burnt edgesBULLET 4 – Cookies are done when the browning is complete and the centers are cooked. The easiest way to determine doneness is to split a sample cookie open and do a taste test (which is never a problem for me). Cookies should have a crisp or chewy texture, a uniform shape, even browning, and good flavor.BULLET 5 - Move to wire rack for cooling.**Most cookies are ideal for freezing because their relatively low moisture content means fewer ice crystals will form.
  • CRISPNESS - AFFECTED by:-decreased moisture and stiff dough-increased fat and sugar content-increased baking time-small & thin cookieSOFTNESS - AFFECTED by:-increased moisture & decreased fat/sugar (think of more flour)-honey, molasses or corn syrup added gives increased softness-(Hygroscopic - readily absorbed moisture from air)-decreased baking time-large and thick doughCHEWINESS - AFFECTED by:-Increased sugar & moisture and lower fat-Increased use of eggs-Strong flour increased gluten developmentSPREAD - (Factors influencing) Refer to next slide
  • CHEWINESS - AFFECTED by:-Increased sugar & moisture and lower fat-Increased use of eggs-Strong flour increased gluten development
  • SOFTNESS - AFFECTED by:-increased moisture & decreased fat/sugar (think of more flour)-honey, molasses or corn syrup added gives increased softness-(Hygroscopic - readily absorbed moisture from air)-decreased baking time-large and thick dough
  • (fine sugar decreases spread/coarse sugar increases spread)
  • BULLET 1 - All-purpose flour is most commonly used. Sometimes cake flour can be used for some soft velvety crumb cookies. The flour provides gluten for structure.BULLET 2 – The most common type of fat used is plastic fat like margarine or shortening. Of course cookies taste very flavorful and one of the primary reasons for this is the amount of fat the cookie contains. In addition, the fat interferes with gluten development, thus creating a tender cookie.In addition, fat aids in the creaming process which is the combination of sugar and fat to make the batter or dough smooth and creamy. This process also incorporates air into the batter.BULLET 3 - Both brown sugar and white sugar are often used in cookie recipes.These ingredients contribute to flavor & tenderness. Sugar also aids in the creaming process.BULLET 4 – Eggs contribute structure, emulsifies the fat, contributes color, flavor, and nutritive value including protein and B vitamins. How do you think eggs contribute to the structure? Scroll down for the answer.CRISPNESS - AFFECTED by:-decreased moisture and stiff dough-increased fat and sugar content-increased baking time-small & thin cookieSOFTNESS - AFFECTED by:-increased moisture & decreased fat/sugar (think of more flour)-honey, molasses or corn syrup added gives increased softness-(Hygroscopic - readily absorbed moisture from air)-decreased baking time-large and thick doughCHEWINESS - AFFECTED by:-Increased sugar & moisture and lower fat-Increased use of eggs-Strong flour increased gluten developmentSPREAD - (Factors influencing) Refer to next slide
  • Sweeteners can be placed into three major groups based on their different chemical structures, which influence their functions in foods and beverages:
    Sugars
    Syrups
    Sugar alcohols
    The many kinds of sugars differ in their individual characteristics and functions in food. The sugars discussed now include:
    Sucrose is table sugar and is derived from either sugar cane or sugar beets.
    Glucose, also known as dextrose, is the basic building block of most carbohydrates and is the major sugar found in the blood.
    Fructose, also called levulose or fruit sugar, is found naturally in fruits and honey, and is the sweetest of all granulated sugars.
    Lactose a disaccharide, is the least sweet of all sugars and is extracted from whey
    Maltose, also called malt sugar, lends certain milk shakes and candies their characteristic malt taste
    Sugar alcohols are not carbohydrates, but the alcohol counterparts of specific carbohydrates.
    They are found naturally in fruits and vegetables or are synthesized by hydrogenating certain sugars.
    Sugar alcohol compounds include:Sorbitol,Mannitol,Xylitol ,Maltitol ,Isomalt,Lactitol ,Erythritol
    - Sugar Alcohols - -Not available for home use
    -Used in excess, they may have a laxative effect
    -Contributes 4kcal/gm and does not promote tooth decay
  • Sweeteners have been used for food since prehistoric times, probably beginning with the discovery of honey. From drawings in Egyptian tombs (2600 BC) beekeeping was practiced for honey production. These were only available to the rich and powerful.
    Granulated sugar - Made from sugar cane or sugar beets. Cubed sugar is granulated sugar that has syrup drizzled over the cube that helps keep its form.
    Powdered sugar – Also known as confectioners sugar.
    This is granulated sugar that has been pulverized into powder. Sucrose and cornstarch are added to prevent powdered sugar from lumping.
    Raw sugar - Less refined and so is browner in color.
    Brown sugar - Obtained from cane sugar during the late stages of refining.
    -Clumps of sucrose crystals coated with a film of molasses.
    Molasses -By-product of the sugar production process. It is the liquid remaining after most of the sugar crystals have been separated from it.
    Maple Syrup - Sap from maple trees. Synthetic maple syrup is pancake syrup.
    Corn Syrup - Made from hydrolyzed cornstarch. Enzymes are added to starch of corn. These enzymes break the starch down into sugar.
    (hydrolyzed = chemical reaction in which molecular linkages are broken down & a molecule of water is utilized.)
    Honey - Produced by bees using nectar from flowering plants. Combination of fructose + glucose + maltose + sucrose.
    Honey and sugar can not be substituted for each other because of the consistency and sweetness of the honey.
    Fructose- Comes in granulated form and is sweeter than table sugar.
  • Only five alternative sweeteners are currently approved by the FDA for use in the United States: (above)
    These compounds are also known as intense sweeteners, defined as those that are substantially sweeter than sucrose (by weight).
    The food industry came out with sugar substitutes because of excess calorie consumption and tooth decay. Sugar substitutes are categorized as either nutritive sweeteners (provides some kcalories) or nonnutritive sweeteners (provides no kcalories). For those of you who like to experiment with lower kcalorie recipes, knowing which sugar substitutes can be used in the baking process is a key in making high quality lower kcalorie products products
    Take a look on the label of your gum package that states it doesn’t promote tooth decay. You will probably find one of these nutritive sweeteners.
    - Saccharin
    - Non-carbohydrate sweetener that is used by food industry,
    -Heat stable therefore can be used in baked goods (heat stable means that the sweetener does not lose its sweetness/flavor when heated)
    -Does not contain kcalories.
    -Tastes about 300 times sweeter than sucrose
    -In the 1970s, research indicated that very large doses of saccharin were associated with increased bladder cancer in lab animals. Products that contain saccharin are required to bear warning label about saccharin and cancer risk in animals.
    -Saccharin is a component of the non-nutritive sweetener Sweet-n-Low (found in the pink packets).
    - Aspartame (Nutrisweet)
    -Approved in 1981 by FDA
    -Not heat stable so should not be used in baked goods
    -The registered trade name is Nutra-Sweet which is found in Equal (blue packets)
    - Acesulfame K
    - Not metabolized by body so contributes no kcalories
    -Approved by FDA in1988
    - Heat stable
    -200 times sweeter than table sugar
    -Marketed under the brand name Sunette
    -Often used in gum, powdered beverage mixes, gelatins
    – Sucralose (Splenda)
    -600 times sweeter than sugar
    -Heat stable
    -Approved for use in US in 1998
    -Found in Diet RC, Diet Rite, baked goods, frozen dairy desserts and many other food products.
    -Provides no kcalories
  • Particularly useful in candy making
  • Caramelization: A process in which dry sugar, or sugar solution with most of its water evaporated, is heated until it melts into a clear, viscous liquid and, as heating continues, turns into a smooth, brown mixture.
    Hygroscopic: The ability to attract and retain moisture.
    The degree to which sugars draw moisture from the air differs depending on the sugar.
    The texture of many processed or prepared foods relies on sweeteners, especially sucrose.
    Many alcoholic beverages and quite a few other foods around the world rely on the ability of carbohydrates to be fermented.
    High concentrations of sugar can act as a preservative by inhibiting the growth of microorganisms.
  • Maillard: browning caused by reaction between sugar and a protein
    Caramelization: dry sugar, heated, melts, and browns

Transcript

  • 1. Wedding Pastry - Cookies & Cakes Sweeteners http://www.weddingpastry.com/
  • 2. Classes of Cakes Cakes Shortened Unshortened Chiffon Conventional made with butter or shortening Sponge or foam cake made with no added fat Hybrid of shortened and unshortened
  • 3. Examples of Types of Cakes  Shortened cake:   White (such as wedding cake), yellow, chocolate, and spice cake Unshortened cake:    Angel food cake Sponge cakes Chiffon cake:  Lemon chiffon cake
  • 4. Mixing methods  Conventional  Conventional sponge  Pastry-blend (Biscuit mixing method)  Single-stage (quick-mix)  Muffin mix methods
  • 5. Preparation of Cakes   Ingredients Cakes have a higher proportion of sugar, milk, and fat to flour than do breads, and the flour used is usually cake flour. Both flour and eggs contain the proteins that contribute strength and structure to cakes.  Fat and sugar have the opposite effect, softening the cake’s structure by providing moisture and tenderness.
  • 6. Shortened Cake Ingredients  Leavening  Ingredient Contributes volume  Baking powder  Sugar  Sweetness  Aids in creaming - Texture & volume  Fat  Usually shortening air incorporation
  • 7. Shortened cakes cont.  Egg   Milk   Emulsifies fat, contributes to the structure, adds color, contributes nutritive value Hydrates Flour Cake flour preferred  Starch gelatinizes to give structure  Proteins coagulate 
  • 8. Unshortened & Foam  Angel food (foam) Egg white foam used for structure No fat or baking powder used  Sponge cake Egg yolk & egg white foam
  • 9. Chiffon Cake Uses oil and baking powder  More tender than angel food and sponge cakes because use oil 
  • 10. Preparation of Cakes   In addition to ingredients and mixing methods, four other factors to consider when baking cakes are:  Type of pans to use and their treatment  Timing  Temperature  Testing for doneness These factors vary depending on whether the cake is shortened or unshortened.
  • 11. Preparation of Cakes  The timing of pouring the cake batter and getting it into a properly heated oven is another important factor in cake quality.
  • 12. Preparation of Cakes   When cakes are nearing doneness, they start to “wrinkle” at the pan edges. They should be removed from the oven before a gap forms between the cake and the pan.
  • 13. Preparation of Cakes   Once the cake is done, it should be removed gently from the oven and allowed to cool on a rack for 5 or 10 minutes. The rack allows even air circulation under the cake; this prevents condensation and sogginess.
  • 14. Types of Cookies  The fluidity of the batter or dough determines which of the following six categories cookies fall into:  Bar  Dropped  Pressed  Molded  Rolled  Icebox/refrigerator
  • 15. Preparation of Cookies Mixing Methods  The type of cookie to be prepared determines the mixing method, but for most types the conventional cake method is used.  Once the ingredients are chosen based on whether a flat or puffy cookie is desired, they are usually just barely mixed together until moistened.  Overmixing will cause the cookies to be hard and tough due to the addition of too much air.
  • 16. Preparation of cookies     Type of Pan & prep Baking Test for doneness Removal from pan
  • 17. Crispness  decreased moisture and stiff dough  -increased fat and sugar content  -increased baking time  -small & thin cookie
  • 18. Chewiness  -Increased sugar & moisture and lower fat  Increased use of eggs  Strong flour increased gluten development
  • 19. Soft cookies  increased moisture & decreased fat/sugar (think of more flour)  -honey, molasses or corn syrup added gives increased softness  (Hygroscopic - readily absorbed moisture from air) decreased baking time  -large and thick dough 
  • 20. Factors that increase Spread SUGAR- Increased sugar  LEAVENING - Increased soda  CREAMING - Increased creaming  TEMPERATURE - Decreased temp of oven (cookie sets early in hot oven) lower temp of oven gives more time for cookie to spread  LIQUID- Increased liquid  FLOUR - decreased flour (gluten development)  PAN GREASE - Increased greasing 
  • 21. Natural Sweeteners Natural Sweeteners Sugars Syrups Sugar Alcohols Sucrose Glucose Fructose Lactose Maltose Corn syrup High fructose corn syrup Honey Molasses Maple syrup Invert sugar Sorbitol Maltitol Mannitol Xylitol
  • 22. Types of Sugars Granulated  Powdered  Raw  Brown  Sanding  Molasses  Maple syrup  Corn syrup  Honey  Fructose  High Fructose Corn Syrup 
  • 23. Alternative Sweeteners Alternative Sweeteners Saccharin Aspartame Acesulfame -K Sucralose Neotame Pending sweeteners Cyclamates Others Alitame
  • 24. Functions of Sugar in Foods
  • 25. Functions of Sugars in Foods  Caramelization :  browning  Hygroscopic:  attracts moisture  Preservative  Texture  Fermentation
  • 26. Sugar’s Function in Foods Functions in Foods Sweetness Solubility Crystallization Hygroscopicity Texture Fermentation Preservation Browning Maillard Caramelization
  • 27. Thank you Wedding Pastry http://www.weddingpastry.com/