analog Of, relating to, or being a device in which data are represented by continuously variable, measurable, physical quantities, such as length, width, voltage, or pressure. Or a circuit or device having an output that is proportional to the input; &quot;analogue device&quot; Digital-Of or relating to a device that can read, write, or store information that is represented in numerical form
Resting potential- the cell is polarized in a way in which the cell is negative inside and positive outside. When the polarized cell receives a stimulus, depolarization takes place. This stimulus causes the cell membrane to suddenly become permeable to Na+ ions and they rush into the cell in an attempt to lessen their concentration gradient. In the area immediately affected by the impulse the cell becomes more positively charged. The switching of sodium ions continues all along the surface of the neuron, causing a change in net electrical charge which moves along the length of the cell. Volume conduction of electrical events in the body. The tissues of the body can and do conduct electricity. The body and its parts are 3-dimensional structures and therefore have volume. Electrical currents spread (are conducted) throughout this volume, thus it is correct to speak of &quot;volume conduction&quot; of electricity in tissue. Because of the conductivity of tissue, at rest the volume conductor formed by the body is of equal potential (isopotential) at all points. When a dipole is formed, current flows until isopotentiality is reached.
The tissue lying between the generating cells and the recording electrode through which electrical current must flow forms an electrical volume conductor. The volume conductor greatly modifies the amplitude and morphology of the cortical signal before it reaches the recording electrodes. The epidermis is the thin outer layer of the skin. The epidermis itself is made up of three sub-layers: status corneum (horny layer) This layer contains continually shedding, dead keratinocytes (the primary cell type of the epidermis). The keratin, a protein formed from the dead cells, protects the skin from harmful substances. keratinocytes (squamous cells) This layer contains living keratinocytes (squamous cells), which help provide the skin with what it needs to protect the rest of the body. basal layer The basal layer is the inner layer of the epidermis, containing basal cells. Basal cells continually divide, forming new keratinocytes and replacing the old ones that are shed from the skin's surface. The epidermis also contains melanocytes, which are cells that produce melanin (skin pigment).
In polysomnography we measure voltages of waveforms and therefore calibration becomes necessary. We use a known voltage e.g. 50uV and derive a desired output. Inputting a voltage creates a square wave of which the output is modified by settings e.g. Gain and filter. Another setting that relates to output is the sensitivity setting. This relates amplifier output voltage to pen deflection. For example a common sensitivity setting is 7uV/mm. This is to say for every 7uV we should see a 1mm deflection. If I use a 50uV cal signal I therefore get a deflection of 7.14mm 50 / 7=7.14 We also use calibration to verify the integrity of each channel by showing that like channels amplify and filter the same signal in the same way. Digital systems use cursors which give you the voltage eliminating the need for the calculations. In order to verify that such as system is working correctly though you would use an external signal generator and verify output to input is correct. Calibrations should be performed at the beginning and end of the study.
Discrimination is the ability of the amplifier to reveal differences in electrical potential between amplifier electrode inputs 1 & 2 while rejecting potentials which are common to the inputs.
The reason we use differential amplifiers is to eliminate potentials from sources other that the bio-electrical potentials and transduced signals that we are trying to record. The environment we record in often contains voltage interference from various sources also our bodies produce signals that we do not wish to record. When both inputs receive these signals they are rejected and are not a problem. They are rejected as common mode signal. Another type of amplifier that may be in your system is the single ended amplifier. This is an amplifier that is used merely to further increase the voltage of the signals recorded. They do not have filters or discrimination. A differential amplifier is used to amplify only the difference between two selected inputs. CMRR is the process of two like signals canceling each other out. If you reference an electrode to itself you would get no signal this happens when one has a salt bridge.
So the polarity of the output depends on the polarity of the input signal and to which terminal it is applied.
In polysomnography we use the terms “AC” and “DC” to describe the characteristics of various recorded voltages. We also use the terms “AC” and “DC” to describe the type of amplifier used to record these two types of signals.
An AC amp. Can not do a linear scale because it has a time constant and always goes back to baseline.
If I where to solve the above equation I must know my deflection and the voltage. where I is the current in amperes , V is the potential difference between two points of interest in volts , and R is a circuit parameter, measured in ohms (which is equivalent to volts per ampere), and is called the resistance . where I is the current in amperes , V is the potential difference between two points of interest in volts , and R is a circuit parameter, measured in ohms (which is equivalent to volts per ampere), and is called the resistance . I=E/R Ohm’s Law Current is directly proportional to applied voltage and inversely proportional to resistance. The basic unit of current (I) is the ampere (A). Movement of electrons The basic unit of electromotive force (E) is the volt (V). The basic unit of resistance is the ohm (R). I = E/R D= V/S (polysomnography) Voltage (E) = Input voltage (V) Resistance (R) = Sensitivity (S) Current (I) = Pen Deflection (D) Sensitivity = Voltage/Deflection
If I would rather solve for voltage I would again determine my deflection and multiply by the sensitivity.
For those of you math challenged there is a simple way of remembering how to solve for a variable. Draw a circle divide the circle in half horizontally. Then divide the lower half vertically. Now put a V in the top half of the circle. In lower half put a D in the first section and S in the other. Now when solving for a variable cover that letter. Then solve by multiplying values on the same level or dividing values on diff. levels upper over lower. V over D & S Sensitivity is the input voltage ( µ V) required to produce a 1 millimeter (mm) of pen deflection at the output.
Electromotive force (EMF) measured in volts (V) is the strength of the interaction of positive and negative electrical charges and reflects the potential or tendency for charges to attract or repel. Voltage by definition is the maximum work that can be extracted as one unit of positive charge moves from one point to another. A potential difference between two points of one volt will require one joule of work to move a positive charge of one coulomb from the point of lower potential to the point of higher potential. Current is the movement of electrons through a conductor connected to two points when there is a potential difference of charge between the two points. Resistance is the opposite of conductance, resistance reflects the forces working against current flow. Resistance to AC current is called “impedance” whereas the term “resistance” is for DC current, although a resistor reduces the flow equally in DC or AC current and is not affected by the frequency of alternating current.
Delta 0.5 – 2 Hz duration
Time constant = inductance / resistance Inductance is the ability of a conductor to induce voltage in itself, measured in henrys (H) Resistance is the opposition to current flow, measured in ohms; resistance = volts / current
It is important to know what causes the 60 Hz so leaving on the notch filter is counter to a good study. Poorly applied leads-high impedance Pt. or machine or building not grounded Ungrounded equipment near the recording equipment.
This is determined by the Nyquist Theorem which gives us the Nyquist Rate. The Nyquist Rate is 2 times the high frequency filter. We wish to sample at a rate higher then the Nyquist Rate because we will get a more accurate display of waveform morphology. Sampling rate does effect data storage the higher the rate the more data collected. So setting each channels sample rate rather than using the highest high frequency filter within the system may be more practical.
Each bit is a power of two
The range of voltages that the channel can display. This may be changed by changing the sensitivity setting. If you are going beyond the dynamic range you would need to lower the sensitivity by increasing the sensitivity setting. Say from 10 uV/mm to 20 uV/mm.
Back to Basics Electronics & Filters In PSG Systems Will Eckhardt , BS,RPSGT, CRT
We record various physiological signals what means of processing do we utilize ?
What are the analog components of signal processing?
What are the digital components of signal processing?
An understanding some basic underlying principles of the technology by looking at the analog signal output.
Pyramidal Neuron EEG is derived from thousands of synchronized pyramidal cell postsynaptic potentials. Volume Conduction is the process of current flow through the tissues between the electrical generator and the electrode.