Gareth Walton, Regen South West

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Gareth Walton, Regen South West

  1. 1. Onsite renewable energyIdentifying the opportunitiesGareth WaltonSW Microgeneration Co-ordinatorRegen SW/Energy Saving TrustWest of England Carbon Challenge25 March 2011
  2. 2. Current policy drivers for onsite renewables• Legally binding targets to reduce CO2 emissions at least 34% on 1990 levels by 2020 & at least 80% by 2050• 15% of total UK energy from renewables by 2020• All new buildings to be zero carbon within a decade – dwellings from 2016, public sector from 2018 & commercial from 2019• Reducing emissions from existing buildings • Emissions from existing buildings approaching zero by 2050 • Reduce emissions from homes by 29% on 2008 levels by 2020
  3. 3. The size of the challenge 15% of total energy from renewables 10 5 0 2009 2020
  4. 4. Feed-in Tariffs (FITs)• Government financial incentive for renewable electricity up to 5MW - started 1 April 2010• Open to everyone – individuals, businesses, organisations & public sector• Generation tariff rather than a grant towards the capital cost• Paid for all electricity generated & not just that exported to the grid• 3p/kWh extra for electricity exported to the grid• Varying tariffs depending on type & scale of technology• Designed to give a 5-8% return on investment – ie you make a profit• Guaranteed income for 10-25 years depending on type & scale of technology – index linked (& tax free for individuals)• Government currently proposing to reduce the tariff rates for solar PV above 50kW & to increase them for farm-scale ADwww.decc.gov.uk/en/content/cms/what_we_do/uk_supply/energy_mix/renewable/feedin_tariff/feedin_tariff.aspx
  5. 5. Tariff level for new installations in period (p/kWh) Tariff Technology Scale Year 2: 1/4/11- Year 3: 1/4/12- lifetime Year 1: 1/4/10- 31/3/12 31/3/13 (years) 31/3/11 (RPI adjusted) (Not RPI adjusted) Anaerobic =500kW 11.5 12.1 11.5Feed- digestion >500kW 9 9.4 9 20 in =15 kW 19.9 20.9 19.9 >15-100 kW 17.8 18.7 17.8Tariffs Hydro >100 kW-2 MW 11 11.5 11 202010- >2 MW – 5 MW 4.5 4.7 4.5 MicroCHP pilot =2 kW 10 10.5 10 10 2013 =4 kW (new build) 36.1 37.8 33 =4 kW (retrofit) 41.3 43.3 37.8 >4-10 kW 36.1 37.8 33 PV 25 >10-100 kW 31.4 32.9 28.7 >100kW-5MW 29.3 30.7 26.8 Stand alone system 29.3 30.7 26.8 =1.5kW 34.5 36.2 32.6 >1.5-15kW 26.7 28 25.5 >15-100kW 24.1 25.3 23 Wind 20 >100-500kW 18.8 19.7 18.8 >500kW-1.5MW 9.4 9.9 9.4 >1.5MW-5MW 4.5 4.7 4.5 As Export tariff N/A 3 3.1 3 technology Comprehensive FITs Review looking at changes to tariffs from April 2012 intended to be completed by the end of 2011. “Installations already accredited for FITS will not be affected”.
  6. 6. Tariff level for new installations in period (p/kWh) Tariff Technology Scale Year 2: 1/4/11- Year 3: 1/4/12- lifetime Year 1: 1/4/10- 31/3/12 31/3/13 (years) 31/3/11 (RPI adjusted) (Not RPI adjusted) Anaerobic =500kW 11.5 12.1 11.5Feed- digestion >500kW 9 9.4 9 20 in =15 kW 19.9 20.9 19.9 >15-100 kW 17.8 18.7 17.8Tariffs Hydro >100 kW-2 MW 11 11.5 11 202010- >2 MW – 5 MW 4.5 4.7 4.5 MicroCHP pilot =2 kW 10 10.5 10 10 2013 =4 kW (new build) 36.1 37.8 33 =4 kW (retrofit) 41.3 43.3 37.8 >4-10 kW 36.1 37.8 33 PV 25 >10-100 kW 31.4 32.9 28.7 >100kW-5MW 29.3 30.7 26.8 Stand alone system 29.3 30.7 26.8 =1.5kW 34.5 36.2 32.6 >1.5-15kW 26.7 28 25.5 >15-100kW 24.1 25.3 23 Wind 20 >100-500kW 18.8 19.7 18.8 >500kW-1.5MW 9.4 9.9 9.4 >1.5MW-5MW 4.5 4.7 4.5 As Export tariff N/A 3 3.1 3 technology Comprehensive FITs Review looking at changes to tariffs from April 2012 intended to be completed by the end of 2011. “Installations already accredited for FITS will not be affected”.
  7. 7. Tariff level for new installations in period (p/kWh) Tariff Technology Scale Year 2: 1/4/11- Year 3: 1/4/12- lifetime Year 1: 1/4/10- 31/3/12 31/3/13 (years) 31/3/11 (RPI adjusted) (Not RPI adjusted) Anaerobic =500kW 11.5 12.1 11.5Feed- digestion >500kW 9 9.4 9 20 in =15 kW 19.9 20.9 19.9 >15-100 kW 17.8 18.7 17.8Tariffs Hydro >100 kW-2 MW 11 11.5 11 202010- >2 MW – 5 MW 4.5 4.7 4.5 MicroCHP pilot =2 kW 10 10.5 10 10 2013 =4 kW (new build) 36.1 37.8 33 =4 kW (retrofit) 41.3 43.3 37.8 >4-10 kW 36.1 37.8 33 PV 25 >10-100 kW 31.4 32.9 28.7 >100kW-5MW 29.3 30.7 26.8 Stand alone system 29.3 30.7 26.8 =1.5kW 34.5 36.2 32.6 >1.5-15kW 26.7 28 25.5 >15-100kW 24.1 25.3 23 Wind 20 >100-500kW 18.8 19.7 18.8 >500kW-1.5MW 9.4 9.9 9.4 >1.5MW-5MW 4.5 4.7 4.5 As Export tariff N/A 3 3.1 3 technology Comprehensive FITs Review looking at changes to tariffs from April 2012 intended to be completed by the end of 2011. “Installations already accredited for FITS will not be affected”.
  8. 8. Tariff level for new installations in period (p/kWh) Tariff Technology Scale Year 2: 1/4/11- Year 3: 1/4/12- lifetime Year 1: 1/4/10- 31/3/12 31/3/13 (years) 31/3/11 (RPI adjusted) (Not RPI adjusted) Anaerobic =500kW 11.5 12.1 11.5Feed- digestion >500kW 9 9.4 9 20 in =15 kW 19.9 20.9 19.9 >15-100 kW 17.8 18.7 17.8Tariffs Hydro >100 kW-2 MW 11 11.5 11 202010- >2 MW – 5 MW 4.5 4.7 4.5 MicroCHP pilot =2 kW 10 10.5 10 10 2013 =4 kW (new build) 36.1 37.8 33 =4 kW (retrofit) 41.3 43.3 37.8 >4-10 kW 36.1 37.8 33 PV 25 >10-100 kW 31.4 32.9 28.7 >100kW-5MW 29.3 30.7 26.8 Stand alone system 29.3 30.7 26.8 =1.5kW 34.5 36.2 32.6 >1.5-15kW 26.7 28 25.5 >15-100kW 24.1 25.3 23 Wind 20 >100-500kW 18.8 19.7 18.8 >500kW-1.5MW 9.4 9.9 9.4 >1.5MW-5MW 4.5 4.7 4.5 As Export tariff N/A 3 3.1 3 technology Comprehensive FITs Review looking at changes to tariffs from April 2012 intended to be completed by the end of 2011. “Installations already accredited for FITS will not be affected”.
  9. 9. Proposed changes to Feed-in Tariffs for PV above 50kW & AD up to 500 kW from FITs Fast Track Review Tariff level for new installations in period (p/kWh) Tariff Technology Scale Proposed tariff lifetime Tariff level from Year 3: 1/4/12- level from 1/8/11- (years) 1/4/11 31/3/13 31/3/12 32.9 (>50 - ≤100 kW) >50 - ≤150 kW 19.0 ? 30.7 (>100 - ≤150 kW) PV >150 - ≤250 kW 15.0 ? 25 >250kW - ≤5MW 30.7 ? 8.5 Stand alone system ? No changes proposed for PV up to 50kW from tariffs shown in previous slides Tariff level for new installations in period (p/kWh) Tariff Technology Scale Proposed tariff lifetime Tariff level from Year 3: 1/4/12- level from ASAP - (years) 1/4/11 31/3/13 31/3/12 Anaerobic ≤250 kW 14.0 ? 11.5 25 digestion ≤250 kW - ≤500 kW 13.0 ? No changes proposed for AD above 500kW from tariffs shown in previous slides www.decc.gov.uk/en/content/cms/consultations/fit_review/fit_review.aspx
  10. 10. How the Feed-in Tariff works Use 20,269kWh £1,520 saved No export 22.5kWp solar PVGenerates 20,269kWh Income £6,668TOTAL ANNUAL BENEFIT In this & almost all cases, you will still need to buy electricity from the grid = £8,188
  11. 11. Financial benefits over 25 year FITs lifetime Fuel bill savings £38,000 No export Generation tariff £166,700 Total income = £166,700 System cost = £70,000 PROFIT = £96,700 In this & almost all cases, you will stillFuel bill savings = £38,000 need to buy electricity from the gridTOTAL BENEFIT = £134,700 The total income & total benefit is likely to be greater than those shown here because FITs is index-linked & energy costs are likely to increase
  12. 12. Renewable Heat Incentive (RHI)• New Government financial incentive for renewable heat• £860m from 2011 to 2014 - directly funded by Government• Like the FIT a generation tariff rather than a grant towards the capital cost• Different approaches for the domestic & non-domestic sectors• Non-domestic RHI tariffs available sometime after July 2011• Domestic RHI tariffs not available until October 2012• No details of domestic tariffs have been published – a consultation document will be published later this year (post-May)• From July 2011 to October 2012 one-off direct payments (called RHI Premium Payments) available for domestic installations only• Further details on RHI Premium Payments to be published in May 2011• Note: a single renewable heating installation serving multiple residential dwellings, such as district heating, counts as a non-domestic installationwww.decc.gov.uk/en/content/cms/what_we_do/uk_supply/energy_mix/renewable/policy/incentive/incentive.aspx
  13. 13. RHI tariff levels for non-domestic installations only TariffTechnology Scale Tariff rate (p/kWh) lifetime (years) <200kWth 7.6 (Tier 1) 1.9 (Tier 2) 200-1000kWth 4.7 (Tier 1)Solid biomass & municipal solid waste 20 1000kWth & above 2.6Ground source & water source heat <100kWth 4.3 20pumps & deep geothermal 100kWth & above 3Solar thermal <200kWth 8.5 20 Biomethane - allBiomethane injection & biogas scales 6.5 20combustion, except from landfill gas Biogas <200kWthPayments for biomass installations up to 1000kWth are split into two tiers – the Tier 1 higher rates are paid for the first 1,300kWh of heat generated each year with the lower Tier 2 rates paid for heat generated beyond that.
  14. 14. Selecting & installing renewable energy1. Know how much energy (electricity & heating) you use2. Reduce your energy demand through energy efficiency measures such as increased insulation, low energy lightbulbs, efficient appliances, better heating controls etc – this reduces the size & cost of any renewable energy system needed & is usually very cost effective3. Identify any opportunities &/or constraints to renewable energy on your site or property4. Check with your local planning authority whether there are any planning issues5. Select appropriate renewable energy technology or technologies6. Get quotes from 3 installers (MCS if up to 50kW for FITs & 45kW for RHI)
  15. 15. Renewable energy technologies Heat ElectricityWater heating Space heating
  16. 16. Solar photovoltaics (PV)• Generates electricity from daylight, although they produce most in direct sunlight• The SW receives the highest levels of solar irradiation in the UK & is well suited to solar PV• Can be supplied as panels or tiles & can be built into the fabric of a building, bolted on afterwards or built on a frame on the ground• 3 main types of PV panel varying in cost & efficiency• Must be correctly angled & orientated for best performance, with the ideal position facing South at an angle of 30 degrees• Variation from this will result in reduced performance, but facing between SE & SW at an angle of between 30 to 40 degrees is generally OK• Shading dramatically reduces performance & should be avoided• Building’s roof must be able to take the weight of the panels
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  18. 18. PV for free?
  19. 19. Solar PV performance• Must be correctly angled & orientated for best performance, with the ideal position facing South at an angle of 30 degrees• Variation from this will result in reduced performance, but facing between SE & SW & at an angle of up to 40/50 degrees is generally OK• Shading dramatically reduces performance & should be avoided
  20. 20. Civic Hall, Totnes14kW PV arrayProvides approx 1/3 of the building’s electricityCost approx £50,000 (2010)Total FITs income & energy bill savings approx £135,000
  21. 21. Vassall Centre, Bristol12.6kW PV arrayCost approx £55,000 (2009)Total FITs income approx £94,000 + energy bill savings
  22. 22. Worthy Farm, Pilton near Glastonbury200kW PV arrayCost approx £550,000 (2010)Total FITs income & energy bill savings approx £135,000 Michael Eavis barn roof picsTotal FITs income approx £1.4m + energy bill savings
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  24. 24. Title
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  26. 26. AS Malmesbury array pic
  27. 27. PV for free?• Various companies offering PV for free or reduced cost• Range of different offers – often target different property types• Issues to consider: - How much of the electricity generated will you use? - Who pays? (for all the equipment) - Who owns it? - Who gets the FITs? - Who gets the electricity & is it free? - Maintenance & repairs? - Insurance? - Moving property before 25 years is up? See www.energysavingtrust.org.uk for a full list of questions
  28. 28. Wind• Generates electricity from the wind• Can be stand-alone or building mounted (for small-scale)• Require a good average wind speed - A small difference in wind speed will make a large difference to the amount of electricity generated• Advisable to monitor wind speeds at the site before deciding whether to install• Local topography can significantly affect the wind speed – features such as trees & buildings can dramatically reduce windspeed• Need to be carefully sited, especially in built-up areas, to be effective• Noise & visual impact may need to be considered• Generally speaking building-mounted turbines have considerably lower outputs than stand-alone turbines, due to turbulence from the building• Building structure should be checked to see if it can cope with the additional stresses & vibration generated by the turbine• Annual service needed
  29. 29. Portland Marina, DorsetThree 20kW wind turbines
  30. 30. Okehampton Rural Business Centre6kW wind turbine, biomass boiler & PVBREEAM Excellent & up to 80% CO2 reductionWind turbine cost approx £28,000 (2008)Payback of less than 10 years pre-FITs
  31. 31. Yeovil Innovation Centre15kW wind turbineCost approx £56,000 (2009)Total FITs income approx £160,000 + energy bill savings
  32. 32. Hydro• Generates electricity from running water• Highly site specific• Require a good year-round flow of water & preferably a good height difference, known as ‘the head’, between the top of the scheme & the turbine unless run-of-river scheme• May require some civil works• Licences & approval from the Environment Agency are required• Mitigating measures such as a mesh screen & a fish ladder may need to be installed• Noise may be an issue• Annual service needed
  33. 33. Forest of Dean Stone Ltd12kW hydroProvides 1/3 of the company’s electricityCost approx £70,000 (2010)Total FITs income & energy bill savings approx £305,000
  34. 34. Biomass• Biomass stoves can provide space heating for individual rooms & water heating if they have a back boiler connected• Biomass boilers provide space & water heating for whole buildings or a group of buildings• Suitable for ‘new build’ or existing buildings• Main fuels are woodchips, pellets, or logs• Almost CO2 neutral• CO2 & cost savings will depend on the fuel being replaced• In general, work best with fairly constant heating demand• Biomass boilers in particular most efficient when operating close to full load• Sufficient space for the stove/boiler & for fuel storage is needed plus good access to the fuelstore for deliveries• Smoke control zones• Require ash removal, although in general very small amounts produced
  35. 35. KEVICC School, Totnes18kW PV array400kW biomass boilerTotal FITs income approx £133,000 + energy bill savings
  36. 36. Devon County Council HQ, Exeter840kW biomass boiler
  37. 37. South Petherton HospitalTwo 100kW biomass boilersProvide 50% of the hospital’s heatrequirements Large biomass pics
  38. 38. Solar thermal• Provides hot water from the sun• Supplementary heat source such as a boiler or an immersion heater usually needed when output is low eg in the winter• 2 main types - flat plate & evacuated tubes. Evacuated tubes are more efficient, but also more expensive.• Must be correctly angled & orientated for best performance - can face between SE & SW at an angle of between 30 to 50 degrees• Shading reduces performance & should be avoided• Building’s roof must be able to take the weight of the panels• The heating system, particularly the hot water tank & boiler, needs to be compatible• Should last for approx 25 years & require very little maintenance
  39. 39. South Gloucestershire Council’s offices, Yate30kW solar thermal array400kW biomass boiler
  40. 40. Clifton Lido solar thermal pics Clifton Lido, Bristol 30kW solar thermal array
  41. 41. Heat pumps• Use similar technology to fridges to extract heat from the air, ground or water• Can provide space & water heating• Require electricity to run & the CO2 & financial cost of this needs to be considered• The more efficient the heat pump is running, & the higher the CO2 savings & the lower the running costs• Provide a low-temperature heat output - best suited to meeting a low heat demand eg well insulated properties with underfloor heating• If providing water heating, best to use it to pre-heat the water & then use another heat source to get the water to the necessary temperature• Ground source heat pumps (GSHPs) require either horizontal trenches or vertical boreholes to be dug• Air source heat pumps (ASHPs) & water source heat pumps (WSHPs) require less space than GSHPs but have lower CoPs• Noise may be an issue for ASHPs• WSHPs may require approval from the Environment Agency
  42. 42. The Hub, BristolVertical borehole ground source heat pump
  43. 43. Cotswold Water Park, Cirencester300kW water source heat pump Water source heat pump pics Cotswold water park
  44. 44. !! Important !!• To be eligible for the Feed-in Tariff (FITs) or RHI installations of 50kW & 45kW respectively must be installed by a Microgeneration Certification Scheme (MCS) approved installer using a MCS approved product• Can search for nearest installer by postcode on www.microgenerationcertification.org/mcs- consumer/installer-search.php• Can search for installers for larger-scale installations on Regen SW’s company directory www.regensw.co.uk/directory/
  45. 45. Detailed FITs case studies Friends of the Earth/Arup FIT for the Future report including a number of detailed FITs case studies including costswww.foe.co.uk/resource/reports/fit_for_future.pdf
  46. 46. EST FITs calculators www.energysavingtrust.org.uk/Generate-your-own-energy/Cashback-Calculatorwww.energysavingtrust.org.uk/business/Business/Local-Authorities/Funding/Feed-in-Tariffs
  47. 47. RHI biomass calculatorwww.biomassenergycentre.org.uk/portal/page?_pageid=77,363178&_dad=portal&_schema=PORTAL
  48. 48. Thank you Gareth WaltonSW Microgeneration Co-ordinator gwalton@regensw.co.uk 01392 474329 07886 672577 www.regensw.co.uk www.energysavingtrust.org.uk

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