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77232345 cours-ip-mobile Presentation Transcript

  • 1. Mobilité IP 1
  • 2. Plan• Introduction – Qu’est-ce que la mobilité IP ?• Architecture Mobile IP• Mécanismes de mobilité IP – Découverte d’agent – Enregistrement – Tunnelage• Fonctionnalités avancées• Micro-mobilité• Support de mobilité fourni par IPv6• Mobile IP & 3G• Conclusion 2
  • 3. Différents types de mobilité 3
  • 4. Différents types de mobilité• Nomadisme (DHCP)• Ordinateurs mobiles (Mobile IP, IEEE 802.11)• Réseaux mobiles (réseaux Ad-hoc)• Besoin de protocoles fournissant un service de localisation 4
  • 5. Mobilité IP ≠ LANs sans fil (WLAN)• LANs sans fil aujourd’hui : – IEEE 802.11, Bluetooth … – AP IEEE 802.11 AP = pont entre le réseau fixe et le réseau sans fil• handoffs de niveau 2 supportés mais PAS la mobilité IP (les handoffs sont supportés au sein d’un même sous-réseau IP)• Mobilité IP ≠ Interface sans fil 5
  • 6. Mobilité IP ≠ LANs sans fil (WLAN) 6
  • 7. Différents types de mobilité•Terminal Mobility - Wireless connection between a terminal and access point (base station) or between several terminals(ad hoc network) - Keeps registration/call between customer and network while in motion - Enabling fonctions: handover, paging•Personal Mobility - Enables a customer to be identifiable regardless of the terminal, the terminal type, the operator/provider domain, and the type of network he is currently registered with - User profiles are available across terminal/network/operator boundaries - Number portability•Service Mobility - Enables usage of tailored and personalized services even if the customer is roaming to foreign networks - Includes service portability•Session Mobility - Allows to interrupt sessions and to resume them later, possibility from another terminal or another network 7
  • 8. Différents types de mobilité 8
  • 9. Mobilité 9
  • 10. Introduction Mobile IP (1)• Sillage des réseaux GSM – Mobilité = nécessité pour les utilisateurs d’un système de communication – Tous les réseaux existants se donnent pour mission de proposer ce service• Standard TCP/IP : réseau le + étendu au monde – Principe Anywhere, Any Time, Network Access – Réseau IP : l’une des principales sources d’information 10
  • 11. Introduction Mobile IP (2)• Échelle planétaire : – Quasi-totalité des réseaux fournissent une entrée au réseau Internet – Avec mobilité : garantie d’un accès universel, simple d’emploi et pratique• Groupe de travail de l’IETF : proposition IP Mobile – Proposer une localisation planétaire par l’adresse IP (à l’instar du roaming du GSM)• IP préexiste au concept nomade – GSM doté dès l’origine de telles fonctions – IP : « bricolage » de solutions pour ajouter la mobilité 11
  • 12. Cahier des charges pour l’architecture de mobilité IP• Two major requirements arise when considering IP mobility: – Application transparency : Dealing with a mobile configuration should not necessitate a mobile-aware application. This is needed in order to avoid application replacement on all Internet hosts! – Seamless roaming : When a user goes out of his corporate network and roams around in the Internet, the requirement is to assure a seamless Internet communication between this user and his correspondents whateverthe access network used by the mobile roaming user• Dealing with mobility at the IP layer provides a way to answer the above requirements 12
  • 13. Problématique de la mobilité dans IP• Difficultés pour intégrer à IP de nouvellesfonctions devant offrir la mobilité 13
  • 14. Why isn’t IP mobility simple? (1)• The complexity comes from the current use of IP addresses.• An IP address is used to – identify a particular end-system. In this respect, IP addresses are equivalent to FQDNs (Fully Qualified Domain Names) and the equivalence is maintained in a DNS, Domain Name Server – identify a particular TCP session in an IP host since a TCP socket consists of a (destination IP address, destination port number) couple – determine a route to a destination IP host.• The first two uses come into contradiction with the third usewhen mobility is considered 14
  • 15. IP mobility: routing 15
  • 16. Why isn’t IP mobility simple? (2)• The first use supposes that a host’s IP address should never change since the DNS should always point to the same IP address• The second use supposes that a host’s IP address should never change during a TCP session otherwise the session would be lost• The third use supposes that when the host is roaming outside its home network (the network which has the prefix of the host’s IP address), it should change its address (and take an address with a prefix given by the visited network) in order to receive the datagrams destined to it 16
  • 17. Why isn’t IP mobility simple? (3)• A possible answer to the third constraint would be to use a DHCP (Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol) server in order to obtain an address on the visited network• This however poses a problem with the first two constraints – First, the IP address of a host having changed, the DNS in the home network should be updated by the mobile host on the visited network. This may be very dangerous on a security standpoint! – Second, this solution can not provide a seamless continuous mobility capability since when the mobile host’s IP address is changed, all TCP sessions involving this host should be dropped and reinitialized with the new IP address 17
  • 18. Mobile IP standardization process• The standardization of Mobile IP is being mainly carried out at the IETF (Internet Engineering Task Force)• The IP Routing for Wireless/Mobile Hosts (MobileIP) WorkingGroup is in charge of defining and specifying the Mobile IParchitecture and protocols• The major architecture components are already in the standardstrack (Request For Comments, RFCs 2002-2006)• Some very interesting enhanced functionalities are stillconsidered as work in progress and specified in Internet Drafts• These documents and other related information may be found atthe mobileip WG home page on the Web :http://www.ietf.org/html.charters/mobileip-charter.html 18
  • 19. PLAN• Introduction– Qu’est-ce que la mobilité IP ?• Architecture Mobile IP• Mécanismes de mobilité IP– Découverte d’agent– Enregistrement– Tunnelage• Fonctionnalités avancées• Micro-mobilité• Support de mobilité fourni par IPv6• Mobile IP & 3G• Conclusion 19
  • 20. Overview of the IP mobility architecture 20
  • 21. Functional entities• Mobile node : A host or a router that roams from onenetwork or subnetwork to another outside its home networkwithout changing its long term IP address (the home address)• Home agent : This is typically a router on a mobile node’shome network which delivers datagrams to departed mobilenodes, and maintains current location information for each• Foreign agent : This is typically a router on a mobile node’svisited network that collaborates with the Home agent tocomplete the delivery of datagrams to the mobile node whileit is away from home 21
  • 22. The Mobile IP basic conceptThe Mobile IP basic concept The Mobile IP basic concept• The Mobile IP architecture resolves the above contradictionby using 2 IP addresses for a mobile host :– The Home address is a permanent address used toidentify uniquely the IP host on the Internet (answers thetwo first IP addresses constraints)– The Care-of address is a temporary address used toroute the datagrams destined to the mobile host to thecurrent attachment point of this host (answers the last IPaddresses constraint) 22
  • 23. Plan• Introduction– Qu’est-ce que la mobilité IP ?• Architecture Mobile IP• Mécanismes de mobilité IP– Découverte d’agent– Enregistrement– Tunnelage• Fonctionnalités avancées• Micro-mobilité• Support de mobilité fourni par IPv6• Mobile IP & 3G• Conclusion 23
  • 24. Main Functions• Agent Discovery :– Home Agents & Foreign Agents send advertisementson thelink. A mobile can ask for advertisements to be sent.• Registration :– When a mobile is away, it registers its temporaryaddresswith its home agent• Tunneling :– The packets for the mobile are intercepted by the HAandtunnelled to the mobile 24
  • 25. Mobile IP 25
  • 26. Protocol overview1. Home Agent & Foreign Agent broadcast or multicastagent advertisements on their respective links.2. Mobile nodes listen to Agent Advertisements. Theyexamine the contents of these advertisements todetermine whether they are on the home or on avisited network3. A mobile node on a visited network acquires atemporary address (care of address) 26
  • 27. Protocol overview4. The mobile registers its COA with its home agent5. The Home Agent sends ARP on the Home Network(IP@ <-> MAC@). The packets for the mobile areintercepted and sent to the current position of themobile6. The packets arrive to the COA and are decapsulatedinorder to extract the original packet7. The packets from the mobile are sent directly to thecorrespondents 27
  • 28. IP mobility mechanisms Agent discovery Registration Tunneling 28
  • 29. Agent Discovery• Process by which the mobile detects where it isattached(home or visited network)• Allows the mobile to determine a COA when themobile is on avisited network• Based on 2 types of messages:– Agent Advertisement : broadcast or multicast by theagents– Agent Solicitation : sent by a mobile which does notwant towait for an AA• Message authentication 29
  • 30. Agent Solicitation Message 30
  • 31. Mobile Agent Discovery• An extension, called the Mobility Agent extension, isappended to ICMP Router Advertisement to constitute theAgent Advertisement message• A Foreign Agent uses the Agent Advertisement message in orderto indicate the Care-of Address to a Mobile Node• A Home Agent uses the Agent Advertisement message so that aMobile Node knows when it has returned to its HomeNetwork• A Mobile Node is allowed to send ICMP Router Solicitationmessages in order to elicit a Mobility Agent Advertisement 31
  • 32. Mobile Agent Discovery Getting a COA• A Care-of Address may be obtained from the Foreign Agent byan Agent Advertisement.– It may also be obtained from a RAS (Remote Access Server)implementing PPP or from a DHCP server on a foreign LAN.– In this case the Care-of Address is said to be collocatedsince it is directly assigned to the Mobile Node interface andnot to a Mobile Node through a Foreign Agent.• For a collocated Care-of Address, the tunnel terminates at theMobile Node interface 32
  • 33. Agent Advertisement Message 33
  • 34. Mobile Agent Discovery• It is based upon an extension of the ICMP(InternetControl Message Protocol) Router Discoveryprotocol• A router periodically broadcasts ICMP RouterAdvertisement messages on the differentdirectlyattached subnetworks• This allows the hosts on these subnets todiscover therouter 34
  • 35. Mobile Agent Discovery Mobility Agent Advertisement Extension• Flags:– R=Registration required at the Foreign Agent– B=Busy– H=Home Agent– F=Foreign Agent– M,G,V indicate the encapsulation type• Type identifies the Mobility Agent Advertisement extension• Length is the total length of this extension which depends on the numberof Care-of Addresses• Lifetime specifies the duration of the Care-of Address support on theForeign Agent• For a Home Agent, Zero Care-of Address is advertised• For a Foreign Agent, typically one Care-of Address is advertised• Sequence Number is incremented at each Advertisement 35
  • 36. Registration• Functionnalities– Ask for routing functionnalities of the FA– Tell the HA the new location of the mobile– Update a binding which is about to expire– De-register the mobile when it is back on its home network• Triggered as soon as the mobile detects it changed its point ofattachement• Use of the information obtained by agent discovery to determinethetype of registration to be done• Two registration procedures– With the«ForeignAgent»– With the temporary address of the mobile 36
  • 37. Registration• Once the Mobile Node receives a Care-of Address, it shouldregister its (Home Address, Care-ofAddress) binding athis Home Agent• This is done using 2 messages :– Registration Request– Registration Reply• They both use a UDP/IP service 37
  • 38. Registration 38
  • 39. Registration request 39
  • 40. Registration 40
  • 41. Registration Registration Request • Flags : – S=Simultaneous Registrations (multiple Care-of Adresses) – B=Broadcast – D=Care-of Address collocated with the Mobile Node – M,G,V indicate the encapsulation type • Type identifies the Registration message • Lifetime specifies the duration of the mobility addresses binding • Home Address is bound to the Care-of Address • Home Agent identifies the Home Agent that should register the binding• Identification is used to protect against replay attacks and allows tocorrelate a Registration Request with a Registration Reply message• The Mobile-Home authentication extension is used to authenticate the Mobile Node at the Home Agent 41
  • 42. Registration Reply • Registering with the FA – The FA receives the message and may reject it: • Invalid authentication • The lifetime value exceeds what may be accepted by the FA• The mobile wishes to use a tunneling type not supported by the FA • The FA has not enough resources – Otherwise, it forwards the request to the HA • Registering with the HA– The HA also checks the registration should be accepted (same conditions) – If it is accepted, the HA • Updates its binding table • Sends a proxy ARP message on the local link 42
  • 43. Registration Registration Reply • Type identifies the Registration message • Lifetime specifies the duration of the mobility addresses binding• Home Address identifies the Mobile Node to which this message is related • Home Agent identifies the Home Agent having registered the binding• Identification is used to protect against replay attacks and allows tocorrelate a Registration Request with a Registration Reply message• The Mobile-Home authentication extension is used to authenticate the Home Agent at the Mobile Node • Code gives the result of the registration – 0 : registration accepted – 66, 69, 70... : registration denied by the Foreign Agent – 130, 131, 133... : registration denied by the Home Agent 43
  • 44. Registration Reply • The FA receives a registration reply– If the RR is invalid, the agent sends a Registration Reply describing the reason why the registration was rejected – Otherwise, theagent • Updates its binding table • Forwards the message to the mobile • Starts to handle the messages for the mobile • Reception of the RR by the mobile– If the registration was rejected, the mobile tries to change its registration procedure – Otherwise the mobile updates its routing table 44
  • 45. Registration Reply 45
  • 46. Registration Reply 46
  • 47. Registration• Via le Foreign Agent : 47
  • 48. Exemple • Adresse home du mobile node =129.34.78.5 • HA du mobile node = 129.34.78.254 • FA address = 137.0.0.11 • FA care of address = 9.2.20.11 • Home node source port = 434 • Mobile node source port = 1094 • FA source port = 1105• Care-of-address registration lifetime = 60000 s • HA granted lifetime = 35000 s 48
  • 49. Exemple 49
  • 50. Exemple 50
  • 51. ExempleAnnuler l’enregistrement (au retour auréseau home) : 51
  • 52. Exemple 52
  • 53. De-registration 53
  • 54. Discovering the HAs address • Manual configuration on the mobile • Automatically– By broadcasting a registration request 54
  • 55. Learning the HA address 55
  • 56. Learning the HA address 56
  • 57. Learning the HA address 57
  • 58. Movement detection • Using the lifetime field – If the lifetimeexpires, the mobile supposes it has attachedto a new link or the agent has failed. It waits for an Agent Advertisement or sends an Agent Sollicitation • Detection using the network prefix 58
  • 59. Routing • To the home network – The packets for a mobile are always sent to its home network – No specific routing –conventional routing– If the mobile sends data, it behaves as any other node on the Internet • To a visitednetwork – A router on the local link broadcasts an ARP request to inform the packets for the mobile should be sent to it. – The packets are intercepted by the HA and tunnelled to the mobiles COA(s) – At the end of the tunnel, they are decapsulated and delivered to the mobile 59
  • 60. Interception by the HA • 2 possibilities – Accessibility advertisement :only on HA routers with several interfaces – Using the proxy ARP Mobiles IP@ <-> HAs MAC@ Updated by the HA and by the mobile node when it returns on its home network 60
  • 61. Packet interception by the HA 61
  • 62. Home Network configurations 62
  • 63. Proxy and Gratuitous ARP Proxy• In the cases A and B above, the Home Agent should intercept the datagrams intended to Mobile Nodes using a Proxy ARP mechanism • In the case C, all datagrams intended to Mobile nodes will be naturally intercepted by the Home Agent. Here, all the hosts are outside their Home Network which become a Virtual Network • Gratuitous ARP should be used by the Home Agent in order to change the ARP cache entry for a roaming Mobile node’s Home Address on the Home Network• When the Mobile Node gets back to its Home Network, Gratuitous ARP should again be used by the Mobile Node itself to restore the ARP cache entry 63
  • 64. Security aspects (1) • The security issue is fundamental for registration messages otherwise impersonation and session hijacking attacks would be trivial • Authentication should be applied to these messages• The Mobile IP architecture specifies its own security mechanisms for use with IPv4 since IPsec, the new standardized security architecture, is not mandatory with IPv4 • An authentication extension is thus appended to each of the above messages • The default authentication algorithm is a keyed-MD5 in prefix + suffix mode • The result of the authentication is thus a 128 bit message digest transmitted in the authentication extension 64
  • 65. Security aspects (2)• Type identifies the authentication extension (Mobile-Home, HomeAgent-Foreign Agent,...)• SPI specifies the authentication context (algorithm, mode, key...)• The Authenticator is calculated over the entire message + thisauthenticationextension 65
  • 66. Firewalls and packet filtering problems (1) 66
  • 67. Firewalls and packet filtering problems (2) • Ingress filtering is often applied in the border gateway of a corporate network playing the role of a firewall• This prevents Mobile Node generated datagrams to reach the Internet coming from the Visited Network • Solutions– Send datagrams with Source Address=Care-of Address this is a loosing proposition because it runs counter to the architecture – Send datagrams encapsulated in an outer IP header with Source Address=Care-of Address this is a better proposition but the Correspondent Nodes are not required to be able to do the decapsulation Encapsulated datagrams may be sent to the Home Agent which sends them back to the Correspondent Node this is a suboptimal solution on the routing standpoint 67
  • 68. Firewalls and packet filtering problems (3) • Correlated problem : the firewall on the Home Network side should also filter all datagrams coming from the Internet with a Source Address corresponding to an inner address (with the same prefix as the Home Network) • Solutions : – If the Home Agent is collocated with the Gateway/Firewall, the firewall will know when such datagrams should be accepted – Otherwise, a protocol between the Home Agent and the Firewall may be necessary– Finally, a solution may consist in tunneling all such datagrams to the Home Agent which should play the role of a bastion host and be attached to a DMZ for safety 68
  • 69. Datagram Tunneling• A Correspondent Node sends datagrams to a Mobile Node withthe Destination Address field containing the Mobile Node’s Home Address• Based on the destination address, these datagrams reach the Home Network • There, the Home Agent intercepts the datagrams and encapsulates them into an outer IP header that tunnels the initial datagrams to the Foreign Agent or directly to the Mobile Node (in the case of a collocated Care-of Address) • Multiple encapsulation schemes may be used including : – IP-within-IP encapsulation – Minimal encapsulation • The datagrams sent by the Mobile Node reach directly the Correspondent Node 69
  • 70. Reminder : IPv4 header format 70
  • 71. IP-within-IP encapsulation• The original IP header remains unchanged when transmitted inthe tunnel (the TTL field is decremented)– Source Address : Correspondent Node Address– Destination Address : Mobile Node’s Home Address• The new IP header has :– Source Address : Home Agent Address– Destination Address : Care-of Address• When fragmentation is needed, it should be done at the inner IPdatagram level otherwise the fragments won’t transport the MobileNode’s Home Address used at the Foreign Agent to send thedecapsulated datagram on the right data link 71
  • 72. Minimal encapsulation• S indicates the presence of the Original Source Address field• Minimal encapsulation limits the number of supplementarybytes necessary for tunneling• It prevents however from performing fragmentation 72
  • 73. Soft Tunnel State • It is interesting to maintain at the Home Agent level (the entry point of the tunnel) a number of parameters on the state of each established tunnel.• These parameters constitute the Soft Tunnel State and include : – The Path MTU on this tunnel for fragmentation purposes – The state of the tunnel (broken or not) – The Correspondent Node using the tunnel • The Home Agent may then relay ICMP error messages to the Correspondent Node source of the tunneled datagrams • Typically, ICMP host unreachable messages are sent back to the Correspondent Node when the datagrams are not delivered through the tunnel 73
  • 74. Plan• Introduction– Qu’est-ce que la mobilité IP ?• Architecture Mobile IP• Mécanismes de mobilité IP– Découverte d’agent– Enregistrement– Tunnelage• Fonctionnalités avancées• Micro-mobilité• Support de mobilité fourni par IPv6• Mobile IP & 3G• Conclusion 74
  • 75. Enhanced functionnalities • Optimisation du routage • Smooth handoff 75
  • 76. Routing optimisation • Goal : Avoid triangle routing • Idea: – Tell the correspondents the current position of the mobile node • Problem:– Change the correspondents IP stack 76
  • 77. Triangle Routing 77
  • 78. Route optimization (1) • The basic Mobile IP mechanisms create a Triangle Routing between the Correspondent Node, the Home Agent and the Mobile Node.• This Triangle Routing is far from being optimal especially in the case of a Correspondent Node very close to the Mobile Node • Route optimization consists of eliminating this problem• This is done by updating the Correspondent Node giving it the mobility binding (Home Address, Care-of Address) of the Mobile Node • For security purposes, it is the responsibility of the Home Agent to send the mobility binding to the Correspondent Nodes that need them 78
  • 79. Route optimization (2) Correspondent Node 79
  • 80. Route optimization (3) • Binding updates are authenticated by a route optimization authentication extension (same as for the Mobile- Home authentication extension)• Route optimization offers an efficient routing technique but supposes that the Correspondent Nodes are able to implement the route optimization protocol• This may be the main reason why this mechanism has not yet been definitively adopted as an RFC 80
  • 81. Foreign Agent - Smooth Handoff • When a mobile moves, it registers with a new FA• Goal: Tell the old FA the current position so that the packets in transit are redirected to the mobile (avoid losses and retransmissions) • Protocol: – The mobile registers with the new FA and tells the address of its old FA – The new FA sends a BU to the old FA so that it forwards the packets to the new location of the mobile 81
  • 82. Smooth Handoff (1)Correspondent Node 82
  • 83. Smooth Handoff (2) • During the handoff, it is important that the datagrams intended to the Mobile Node and received by the previous Foreign Agent not be lost • A smooth handoff may be obtained if the previous Foreign Agent receives a binding update with the new Care-of Address of the Mobile Node allowing it to relay the datagrams to the new Foreign Agent • This is best achieved if it remains a local mechanism between the Mobile Node and both the current and previous Foreign Agents (the Home Agent is too far to perform this binding update)• This poses however a security problem since it is highly improbable, in the current state of Internet security, that an authentication security association be established between the Mobile Node and the Foreign Agents 83
  • 84. Smooth Handoff (3) Correspondent Node 84
  • 85. Smooth Handoff (4) • If the previous Foreign Agent does not hold the new mobility binding for the Mobile Node, it may send back the decapsulated datagram to the Home Agent.• This may create routing loops if the Foreign Agent has lost the trace of the Mobile Node and the Mobile Node is not connected elsewhere • The Foreign Agent should re-encapsulate the decapsulated datagram into a Special Tunnel getting it back to the Home Agent with the Care-of Address as the source address of the outer header • This allows the Home Agent to compare the current registration with the returned Care-of Address and decide whether it should tunnel the datagram or not thus avoiding routing loops 85
  • 86. Plan • Introduction – Qu’est-ce que la mobilité IP ? • Architecture Mobile IP • Mécanismes de mobilité IP – Découverte d’agent – Enregistrement – Tunnelage • Fonctionnalités avancées • Micro-mobilité• Support de mobilité fourni par IPv6 • Mobile IP & 3G • Conclusion 86
  • 87. Micro mobility: Différents types de mobilité 87
  • 88. Micro mobility• A mobile has to register with its HA every time it moves – Macro mobility (Mobile IP) – Micro Mobility (Hawaii, Cellular IP …)• Smaller cells + more mobiles => need to ditinguish micro/macro mobility• The mobile registers with the HA when it moves to a new mciro mobility domain 88
  • 89. Micro mobility IP • Fonctionnement en mode paquet – Différence par rapport aux autres réseaux cellulaires publics – GSM, UMTS, CDMA 2000 : interfaces radio majoritairement en mode circuit • Universalité du protocole IP – Infrastructures répandues dans le monde entier • Micromobilité : va devenir une donnée primordiale des réseaux • Protocole de micro mobilité = complémentaire dIP mobile– Macromobilité : possibilité pour un utilisateur de quitter son réseau dabonnement pour se rendre dans un autre domaine du réseau IP • Adresse temporaire dans le nouveau domaine • Enregistrement auprès de lagent local de sa zone dabonnement • Génération dun temps de latence – Échange de nombreux messages de signalisation – Micro mobilité : mobilité locale • Transparente pour le réseau dabonnement de lutilisateur mobile 89
  • 90. Micro mobility 90
  • 91. Macro / Micro mobility 91
  • 92. Solutions de micro mobilité • Enregistrements régionaux HMIP • Cellular IP • Hawaii 92
  • 93. Regionalized registration (1) 93
  • 94. Regionalized registration (2) • Regionalized registration is a solution to the reduction of the registration traffic between a Home and a Visited Network over the Internet in order to update the mobility binding of the Mobile Nodes • The idea is to construct a hierarchy of Foreign Agents, each FA registering a Care-of Address for the Mobile Node at its father FA level • Multiple successive tunnels are thus constructed to reach the Mobile Node from the Home Agent• When a Mobile Node moves from the region of FA7 to FA8, a registration should only be sent to FA4 and the tunnel FA4FA7 would be replaced by a tunnel FA4FA8• When a Mobile Node moves from the region of FA7 to FA9, a registration should be sent to FA1 (and not to the Home Agent) and the tunnels would be replaced accordingly 94
  • 95. Solutions de micro mobilité • Enregistrements régionaux • HMIP • Cellular IP • Hawaii 95
  • 96. HMIP: Hierarchical Mobile IP• Problem: a mobileregisters with its HA every time it moves • Goal: reduce registration time by using regional registrations 96
  • 97. HMIP: Registration(1) 97
  • 98. HMIP: Registration(2) 98
  • 99. HMIP: Routing 99
  • 100. HMIP: Ericsson(1) • Several levels in the hierarchy• FA sends advertisements @FA7,@FA3,@FA1@GF A (pour FA7)@FA6,@FA4,@FA2,@GF A (pour FA6) • The MN registers the GFA@ with its HA • IP tunnels are set up between the FAs 100
  • 101. HMIP: Ericsson(2) • When it moves, the mobile checks the routes to determine if it is in the same hierarchy @FA7,@FA3,@FA1@GFA (for FA7)@FA6,@FA4,@FA2,@GFA (for FA6) • Fast handoffs : a mobile may register with several FAs • The packets are bicasted by the GFA 101
  • 102. Solutions de micro mobilité • Enregistrements régionaux HMIP • Cellular IP • Hawaii 102
  • 103. Mobile / IP cellulaire • IP cellulaire nintervient que sur le réseau daccès– Aucun routeur du réseau de cœur na conscience de lexistence dIP cellulaire – Système peu coûteux à linstallation car pas de modification pour les routeurs • Fonctionnement simple – Définition dune passerelle ou GW (Gateway) • Accès au réseau Internet • Située à la racine du domaine : joue le rôle dagent étranger • Possède une adresse IP qui sert de COA (Care-Of Address) à tous les visiteurs du domaine • À la réception de paquets encapsulées, la GW ôte len-tête additionnel • IP cellulaire met en œuvre des techniques qui lui sont propres pour transférer le paquet vers le mobile adéquat – Grâce aux adresses IP permanentes 103
  • 104. Cellular IP:principes • Caches distribués – Position des mobiles – Information de routage 104
  • 105. IP cellulaire • Base Stations – Wireless Access Points – IP routing replaced by Cellular IP routing • Gateways – Mobile IP support – Mobile Nodes use the GW@ as COA • Mobile Node– Inside the Cellular IP network, mobile nodes are identified with their home address 105
  • 106. Architecture IP cellulaire 106
  • 107. Architecture IP cellulaire • Réseau daccès contient des stations de base – Couverture de microcellules (id GSM) – Couverture de picocellules, desservies par de petites antennes dans des espaces privatifs • Souplesse de fonctionnement grâce à IP– Méthode de transmission sur linterface radio indépendante des opérations liées au routage et à la gestion de la mobilité • Détection du passage dune cellule à une autre – Diffusion périodique dune signature de chaque station de base : voie balise– Signal pilote servant à mesurer la puissance du signal radio émis par chaque station de base • Stations de base câblées de manière hiérarchique – Sommet = racine du domaine = passerelle 107
  • 108. Architecture IP cellulaire 108
  • 109. Opérations dans le réseau • 3 opérations principales – Paging • Localisation dun utilisateur lors de larrivée de paquets à destination – Routage • Acheminement des paquets vers lutilisateurs à travers les principaux éléments du réseau daccès – Handoff • Gestion des déplacements de lutilisateur via le réseau daccès • IP cellulaire se comporte comme un système sans fil– Les terminaux choisissent toujours la station de base qui diffuse le signal pilote le plus puissant – Handoff : changement de station de base – Mise à jour de tous les RC lorsque la route est nouvelle 109
  • 110. Objectifs de Cellular IP • Migration facile • Bonne connectivité • Support du soft handoff• Passage à l’échelle avec une complexité minimale 110
  • 111. Cellular IP • Réseau distribué • Les noeuds ne connaissent pas la topologie• Pas de base de données centralisée • Bon passage à l’échelle 111
  • 112. Cellular IP• Cellular IP nodes do not know the exact location of a mobile • Hop by hop routing • IP addresses are mapped to ports on Cellular IP nodes • Soft state mappings 112
  • 113. Mappings• Paging cache/Routing Cache 113
  • 114. État de lutilisateur • État actif – Utilisateur en train denvoyer ou de recevoir des paquets – Initialisé à la suite dun paging ou dune demande démission – Position du terminal déterminée à la cellule près • État oisif (ou idle) – Permet de réduire la signalisation sur le lien radio– Lutilisateur peut rester attaché au réseau daccès tout en étant inactif – Localisé dans un groupement de cellules • Permet daccueillir un grand nombre de visiteurs dans un même domaine • Pas denregistrement à chaque passage dans chaque cellule – Si un utilisateur oisif reçoit des paquets, on sappuie sur un paging • À linitiative du nœud cherchant à localiser lutilisateur 114
  • 115. Localisation d’un utilisateur • 2 exigences pour la réussite dune localisation – Laisser toute la liberté à un terminal oisif • Ne pas le contraindre à se signaler – Mettre en œuvre un mécanisme optimal pour atteindre le terminal oisif à un coût moindre lorsquil devient actif• 2 procédures employées pour répondre à ces besoins– Enregistrement de la localisation de temps à autre en cas dactivité • Cache de routage ou RC (Routing Cache) – Emploi de paging en cas doisiveté • Cache de paging ou PC (Paging Cache) 115
  • 116. Caches de paging • Liberté de mouvement pour les utilisateurs – Ne facilite pas leur localisation – Il faut retrouver un mobile oisif pour lui transmettre un paquet • Surplus de signalisation • Caches installés dans certains nœuds ou stations de base – Connaissance partielle de la localisation des mobiles – Complétée par le paging • Mise à jour des Paging Caches– Par lenvoi vers la racine dun paquet vide : paging-update – Paging-update transmis de manière périodique 116
  • 117. Identification dun terminal oisif 117
  • 118. Caches de paging 118
  • 119. Cache de routage • Permet dacheminer le flux de paquets vers lutilisateur – Routage saut par saut (hop by hop) – Enregistrement du chemin à linitiative de lutilisateur• Lorsquil envoie un paquet vers la racine, tous les nœuds intermédiaires retiennent le chemin pour lutiliser en sens inverse • Si lutilisateur cesse son activité réseau – Possibilité de se maintenir dans les RC • Transmission de paquets vides : route-update, vers la racine • Sinon, effacement sur temporisation 119
  • 120. Routage 120
  • 121. Route discovery – When the mobile receives PP, it sends a Route-Update Packet tothe base station F which forwards it towards GW– All the RCs on the route are updated 121
  • 122. Downlink routing • If there is no PC on the GW: – GW buffers the packet – GW sends a Paging Packet with the mobiles id– If the nodes have paging caches, hop by hop routing, otherwise, the packet is broadcast 122
  • 123. 123
  • 124. Handoff • Initiated by the mobile • When a mobile gets close to a new BS, it redirects its packets to the new BS • The first packet redirected configures a new route• The packets are send to the old and new BS during a certain time 124
  • 125. Summary• Use of the home address • No temporary address • No encapsulation • The mobile sends the gateway address to the HA • GW@ is learnt by the BS 125
  • 126. Solutions de micro mobilité • Enregistrements régionaux HMIP • Cellular IP • Hawaii 126
  • 127. Hawaii 127
  • 128. Hawaii 128
  • 129. Routing Update ( 1) 129
  • 130. Routing Update ( 2) 130
  • 131. Hawaii 131
  • 132. Plan • Introduction – Qu’est-ce que la mobilité IP ? • Architecture Mobile IP • Mécanismes de mobilité IP – Découverte d’agent – Enregistrement – Tunnelage • Fonctionnalités avancées • Micro-mobilité• Support de mobilité fourni par IPv6 • Mobile IP & 3G • Conclusion 132
  • 133. IPv4 vs IPv6 133
  • 134. Mobile IPv6 • IPv6 mobility relies on: – New functionnalities in IPv6 – A native support of mobility• A global and unique IPv6 address is assigned to each mobile node: the Home Address – This address identifies the mobile• A mobile is able to communicate directly with mobile nodes (no triangle routing) 134
  • 135. Main functionnalities in IPv6 • The correspondents must – Have a binding in their binding cache – Learn the location of the mobile by handling Binding Updates – Route the packets directly to the mobile (Routing Header) • TheHA must – Be a router on the mobiles home network – Intercept the packets on the home network– Tunnel (IPv6 encapsulation) these packets directly to the mobile 135
  • 136. Reaching the mobile • A mobile can always be reached via its HA • A mobile on a visited network always has a COA (selfconfiguration)• The Router Advertisement indicates the subnetwork’s prefix • Combination of this prefix with the MAC address • Movement detection is also accomplished with Neighbor Discovery procedures • Multi-homing 136
  • 137. IPv6 Destination options • Binding Update : – To inform the HA or the correspondents of the new COA • Binding request– Ask for a BU. Used when a correspondent thinks its binding will soon expire • Binding Acknowledgement – Sent by the HA. Acknowledges a BU containing the COA • Home Address – Included in every IPv6 packet from the mobile to its correspondent The packet is supposed to be originated from the home network and not the visited network Uses 144 bits in the header of every packet 137
  • 138. Cache association management • Every time a mobile moves it sends a Binding Update (BU): • The BU includes a lifetime • The mobile keeps a list of the correspondents to which it sent a BU• The temporary address sent to the HA is called the principal COA 138
  • 139. The IETF model 139
  • 140. BU format 140
  • 141. Binding Acknowledge message • ACK message based on a destination header extension• Sent if the A bit is set in the BU sent by the mobile• Also includes an authentication header 141
  • 142. Binding Request & Home address• Allows the correspondents to updatetheir bindings• Store the principal address of the mobile 142
  • 143. IPv6 NodesHandling IPv6 mobility forces the nodes to implement some functionnalities: • Be able to receive and handle BUs • SendBAs • Use RoutingHeader • Maintain a Binding Cache An IPv6 node must be able to • Do IPv6 decapsulation • Send BUs and receive BAs • Maintain a list of BUs sent 143
  • 144. IPv6 routersAt least one router on the mobiles home network may act as a HA A HA must: – Maintain a Binding table– Intercept packets in the mobiles home network – Encapsulate these packets and send them to the mobiles COA 144
  • 145. HA discovery • Modification of the Routing Advertisement (RA) message of Neighbor Discovery • Add an option to the RA message• Modify the minimal time (3 seconds) between two RAs (1 message/sec) • Send a BU (with the H bit set) to the anycast address of the HAs 145
  • 146. IPv6 and mobility (1) • IPv6 represents an almost perfect protocol basis for mobile networking– First, the attendant address configuration protocols allow each Mobile Node to obtain a Care-of Address without the need for Foreign Agents which disappear from the architecture– Second, IPsec implementation is mandatory to IPv6 compliant systems. This resolves security pitfalls by providing a widely available and standardized security architecture • Particularly, mobility bindings are now done by the Mobile Nodes themselves– Third, the destination options IPv6 header extension provides means to sending mobility bindings updates from the Mobile Nodes directly to Correspondent Nodes very efficiently • This simplifies the smooth handoff procedure 146
  • 147. IPv6 and mobility (2) Correspondent Node 147
  • 148. Data mobility perspectives• The Mobile IP architecture is being finalized at the IETF with its basic mechanisms already terminated and some enhanced functionalities being added progressively• The market opportunities for this architecture are huge and should follow the explosive growth of both computer/Internet industries on the one hand and mobile telephony on the other hand• Some work still has to be done however to integrate bothapproaches by having a single network infrastructure for both Mobile IP and other mobility approaches such as the third generation of Mobile Cellular Networks (UMTS) • This conforms to the global “service integration over a consolidated network infrastructure” trend for public networks 148
  • 149. HMIPv6 • MAP (Mobility Anchor Point)– Minimizes interruptions due to handoffs • The mobiles use the MAPs IP@ as COA• MAP receives the packets and delivers them to the mobile • The access routers send the 149
  • 150. HMIPv6 • The access routers send the MAPs IPv6@ in RAs• The mobile may roam and keep the same MAP • If the mobile changes its MAP, it sends a new BU to its HA and correspondents 150
  • 151. HMIPv6IPv6MobHAIPv6MobCOA 151
  • 152. Plan • Introduction – Qu’est-ce que la mobilité IP ? • Architecture Mobile IP • Mécanismes de mobilité IP – Découverte d’agent – Enregistrement – Tunnelage • Fonctionnalités avancées • Micro-mobilité• Support de mobilité fourni par IPv6 • Mobile IP & 3G • Conclusion 152
  • 153. MIP-UMTS standardized architecture 153
  • 154. MIP-UMTS other solutions (1/2) 154
  • 155. MIP-UMTS other solutions (2/2) 155
  • 156. 3GPP Network Reference Architecture – R5 156
  • 157. Mobile IP in UMTS 157
  • 158. Data mobility perspectives• The Mobile IP architecture is being finalized at the IETF with its basic mechanisms already terminated and some enhanced functionalities being added progressively• The market opportunities for this architecture are huge and should follow the explosive growth of both computer/Internet industries on the one hand and mobile telephony on the other hand• Some work still has to be done however to integrate bothapproaches by having a single network infrastructure for both Mobile IP and other mobility approaches such as the third generation of Mobile Cellular Networks (UMTS) • This conforms to the global “service integration over a consolidated network infrastructure” trend for public networks 158