“ Although we often hear that data speak for themselves, their voices can be soft and sly.” Frederick Mosteller, Stephen E. Fienberg, and Robert E.R. Rourke, Beginning Statistics with Data Analysis (Reading, Massachusetts, 1983), p. 234.
“ The universe is made of stories, not of atoms.” Muriel Rukeyser ( American Writer , 1913 - 1980 )
Visual rhetoric is the fairly recent development of a theoretical framework describing how visual images communicate, as opposed to aural or verbal messages. The study of visual rhetoric is different from that of visual or graphic design , in that it emphasizes images as rational expressions of cultural meaning , as opposed to mere aesthetic consideration (Kress 18).
Visual rhetoric examines the relationship between images and text . Some examples of artifacts analyzed by visual rhetoricians are charts , paintings , sculpture , graphs , web pages , advertisements , movies , architecture , newspapers , photographs , etc.
Visual rhetoric is closely related to the older study of semiotics . Semiotic theory seeks to describe the rhetorical significance of sign-making. Visual rhetoric is a broader study, covering all the visual ways humans try to communicate, outside academic policing (Kress 11).
Visual tropes and tropic thinking are a part of visual rhetoric (the art of visual persuasion and visual communication using visual images). The study includes, but is not limited to, the various ways in which it can be applied throughout visual art history.
The term "visual rhetoric" has emerged mainly as a way of marking out disciplinary territory for scholars interested in non-textual artifacts such as those mentioned above; conceptually, the term "visual rhetoric" is itself somewhat problematic. It is usually used to denote non-textual artifacts, yet any mark on a surface -- including text -- can be seen as "visual." Consider the texts available at Project Gutenberg . These "plain vanilla" texts, lacking any visual connection to their original, published forms, nevertheless suggest important questions about visual rhetoric. Their bare-bones manner of presentation implies, for example, that the "words themselves" are more important than the visual forms in which the words were originally presented. Given that such texts can easily be read by a speech synthesizer , they also suggest important questions about the relationship between writing and speech, or orality and literacy .
Visual culture is a field of study within cultural studies focusing on aspects of culture that rely on visual images. Among cultural studies theorists working with contemporary culture, this often overlaps with film studies and the study of television, although it can also include video game studies , comics , traditional artistic media, advertising , and any other medium that has a crucial visual component.
Major work on visual culture has been done by W. J. T. Mitchell , particularly in his books Iconology and Picture Theory . Other writers important to visual culture include Stuart Hall and Slavoj Zizek .
Visual culture is related to visual sociology and visual studies . There is debate over how art history and visual culture are distinct from one another.
Visual Studies, an inter- or postdisciplinary field, aims to integrate and expand the already existing disciplines of Art History, Film and Media Studies, and Cultural Studies. Though often engaging objects or artifacts included within these fields, it can often incorporate those overlooked or excluded by more traditional fields of study. Often criticized for its lack of historical rigor, this is not necessarily intrinsic to the field, and many of its practitioners remain rigorous in their historical foundations and object analysis. Because Visual Studies aims not just to fill in gaps to challenge disciplinary boundaries, it can also be said to have political implications. In fact, Visual Studies is often quite closely linked to Critical Theory.
Include a database/mining/representation person at the workshop
Add visual studies to list of resources
DIA is currently setting ground rules for using blogs and wikis for dynamic intelligence products -- visit them to see where they are
Add the caveat that the percentages of analysis time and production time are based on self-reporting and not on any measured data
The data reported by Jeff Cooper was from RDEC which is not a true production system and was based on software usage time on software packages exclusively categorized as research, analysis, and production.