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AvivErlichRavidAOIR5 AvivErlichRavidAOIR5 Presentation Transcript

  • Virtual Neighborhoods Architecture of Online Communities Reuven Aviv Zippy Erlich Gilad Ravid [email_address] http://www.ravid.org/gilad
  • Agenda
    • Introduction
    • Design, Mechanisms, Architecture
    • Method
    • Results
  • Design of network mechanisms Architecture Collaborative Knowledge construction Content Analysis Social Interdependence theory Matching the predictions of network emergence theories Network statistical analysis of Markov models
  • SNA viewpoints
    • Global SNA
      • Macro
      • Cohesiveness
      • Equivalence (role groups)
      • Power of actors
      • Range of influence
      • Brokerages
    • Local SNA
      • Micro
      • Statistical
      • Dyads and triads
    Aviv, R., Erlich, Z., Ravid, G., & Geva, A. (2003). Network Analysis of Knowledge Construction in Asynchronous Learning Networks. Journal of Asynchronous Learning Networks
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  • The Social Capital Mechanism
    • Hunt for Knowledge (social capital)
      • Using efficient interactions
      • E.g. bridging others
    • Community works with broadcast medium:
      • Most efficient connection: No interactions
        • Passive members (Lurkers)
  • Cognitive balance Emergence of transitive triads cohesiveness Creation of knowledge support cliques
    • The architecture of a network can be describes in terms of three components
      • One or more relations are the fundamental glue between the actors
      • A partition of the actors and the relations into 2 level hierarchy of groups of actors
      • A set of mechanisms shaping the relations to the creation of the neighborhood
  • Virtual Neighborhoods Transitive triad Cyclic triad link Mutual dyad In star Mix star Out star
  • Method of Analysis
    • Reveal Architectural Components
    • Identify Relevant Theories
    • Identify Mechanisms
  • Method
    • Analyze the recorded responsiveness data of two online forums of learners with different design
  • Example: Two Communities
    • 16 weeks each; 19, 18 participants
    • Parts of Open U “Business Ethics” Course
    • Team community
      • Designed for Knowledge Construction
      • Tested positively by Content Analysis
    • Forum Community
      • Designed for support by Q & A
  • Social Capital & Transaction Costs
    • Burt 1992, 2002
    • Bridge over Holes with minimal cost
    • Few single links
    • link <0
    • Supported for both networks
  • Collective action
    • Coleman, 1973, 1986; Marwell & Oliver 1993; Fulk et al. 1996
    • Inducements to contribute under peer pressure
    • Respond to several others
    • If large density & centralization & size then out star > 0
    • Supported for team network.
    • Not supported for forum network because condition in not fulfilled
  • Exchange
    • Willer & Skvoretz, 1997; Hommans, 1958
    • Exchange resources directly, depending on partner & network status
    • Tendency to reciprocate to resource promising partners
    • mutuality > 0
    • Not supported for team network because there are no a-priory resource promising actors
    • supported for Forum network because Tutor is a-priory resource promising actors
  • Generalized exchange
    • Bearman, 1997
    • Exchange resources via mediators, depending on partner & network states
    • Tendency to respond cyclically to resource promising partner
    • cyclicity > 0
    • Not supported in both networks. Probably because no need for information exchange via mediators
  • Contagion Exposure
    • Burt 1980; Contractor et al., 1990
    • Leading to social influence & limitation in attitudes, knowledge & behavior
    • Respond to same as other equivalent actors
    • Out star > 0; in star > 0; mixed star >0; transitivity >0
    • Not supported in both networks. Probably because contagion process could not develop in the short lifetime of networks
  • Cognitive Consistency
    • Heider 1958; Festinger, 1957; Cartwright et al., 1956
    • Drive for balance in cognitions
    • Respond via several paths
    • transitivity > 0
    • Supported in team networks. Not supported in the forum network. In both networks this is due to their designs
  • Uncertainty reduction
    • Berger 1987
    • Reduce uncertainty by gaining
    • Attract responses from several others
    • In star > 0
    • Not supported in both networks. In the forum network the tutor clarified all uncertainties
  • Exogenous factors
    • Residual personal tendencies o respond or trigger only to actors with pre assigned roles
    • For students (1) resp =0; (2) trigg =0; For tutor (3) resp >0; (4) trigg >0
    • 1,2 supported for both networks; 3 un supported for team network, supported for forum network; 4 un supported for both networks
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  • Thank You Questions? Comments? Remarks ?