1.1. henk meurs
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1.1. henk meurs

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1.1. henk meurs 1.1. henk meurs Presentation Transcript

  • Pricing kilometres in The Netherlands Henk Meurs Radboud Universiteit Nijmegen/MuConsult
  • Current tax system
    • Purchase tax on new cars (BPM):
      • 2008: 25% of new price of cars
      • Revenues: euro 3.4 billion annually
    • Vehicle ownership tax (average Euro 630 per year)
      • yearly tax on ownership with regional surcharge
      • Variation by weight, fuel type, province
      • Revenues: euro 4.0 billion (including 1.1 billion reg. surcharge)
    • Fuel taxes (excluded from km-price system)
      • Revenues 6.9 billion
      • Gasoline/LPG taxes mild
    • Major revision in 2009 (up to 2012):
      • Purchase taxes based on emissions (CO 2 , etc)
      • Small shift from purchase taxes to ownership taxes
  • Consequences of current tax system
    • Taxes to large extent based on ownership of cars
    • Overconsumption of car kilometres
    • Car use causes main problems:
      • Congestion
      • Safety
      • Pollution
    • Equity issues:
      • Heavy users pay too little
      • Small users too much
    • Hence shift in tax system necessary:
      • Pay different for mobility
      • Pricing of kilometres rather than ownership
  • Objectives and preconditions
    • Objectives:
    • Reduce increase in congestion
    • Reduce emissions (e.g. CO2)
    • Preconditions
    • No increase in revenues
    • Revenues to infra budget
    • No excessive administrational costs
    • Privacy guaranteed
    • Support in society
  • Formulation of charging levels
    • Base level kilometre charge:
      • Budget neutrality from government perspective
      • Meso-level neutrality (market segments e.g person, freight);
      • All ownership taxes abolished
      • Differentation according to CO 2 emissions and fuel type
      • Premium for diesel cars without particle filter
      • Dispersion according to existing road taxes
    • Option for congestion charge:
      • Congested highways
      • Lower order roads in case of diverted traffic causing problems
  • Charging levels (Av: 0,067 euro/km)
  • Expected effects base fare
    • Mobility:
      • Number of kilometres driven: -12-15%
      • Travel time losses: - 40-60%
      • Kilometres on public transport: + 6%
    • Environmental:
      • CO 2 : -10%
      • Particulate matter: - 10%
      • NOx : - 19%
    • Other:
      • Traffic safety: + 7%
      • Car fleet: +2-3%
  • implementation
    • GPS-based system
      • Public and private track
    • Careful implementation path:
      • Mobility projects in urban areas
      • Large scale testing
      • Long transition period (6 years)
    • Current situation
      • Uncertain: elections and new government
      • Pressure groups developed new alternative
  • Conclusions
    • Kilometre charge with multiple objectives
      • Difficult to develop pricing system meeting all requirements
      • Congestion, environment, budget neutrality at meso level
    • Policy choices relevant:
      • Perceived paradox: effectiveness or support?
    • Implementation path important
      • Support in society (pressure groups vs population)
      • Privacy issues
      • Technological dependence (‘trust’);
      • Car market disturbances