How context affects behaviourPresentation Transcript
How context affects behaviour Photo by torrelaveguensis http://www.flickr.com/photos/11055010@N04/1030557440/sizes/l/
Lets start with a story… http://www.flickr.com/photos/orcaman/3735225205/sizes/l/
The Lab What it looks like
The Lab What it feels like
The Lab What it feels like It changes all three types of context :
the physical context
and social context
Changing any one of the types of context changes the persons cognitive ability. (Stephen J. and Antonio Roazzi)
Brazilian street kids… … in the movie “The city of God”
Child selling bananas on the streets of Brazil Research by Stephen J. and Antonio Roazzi Image credit: http://www.educima.com/foto-trabajo-infantil-vendedor-ambulante-i7486.html
Child selling bananas on the streets of Brazil 98% accuracy rate of doing maths Research by Stephen J. and Antonio Roazzi Image credit: http://www.educima.com/foto-trabajo-infantil-vendedor-ambulante-i7486.html
What happens when you put these street kids into a formalised test environment, where they solve the same maths problems? http://www.flickr.com/photos/dave_mcmt/187432802/sizes/l/
Performance drops significantly! Street context Formal context http://www.flickr.com/photos/dave_mcmt/187432802/sizes/l/
Video game play in the lab vs. real world http://www.flickr.com/photos/34396501@N00/58694182/sizes/l/
Results Video game context Lab task context Source: “The effects of context on cognition: postcards from Brazil” Stephen J. Ceci and Antonio Roazzi, in “Mind Context” Sternberg R. J. and Wagner K. eds. (1994), page 78
Michael Schumacher recently changed his racing number with a team mate. Michael now has number 3, and his team mate number 4.
The lucky sock of an American Football player http://www.flickr.com/photos/chipgriffin/2208361966/sizes/l/
“Despite the holes, it sticks around through the Super Bowl. My son tried wearing new ones during the Giants game and things went poorly until he switched back.” http://www.flickr.com/photos/chipgriffin/2208361966/sizes/l/
Superstitions are typically viewed as: inconsequential creations of irrational minds http://www.flickr.com/photos/13923263@N07/1471150324/sizes/l/
But it turns out that: Superstition improves performance through increasing self confidence. Paper reference: Keep your fingers crossed!: how superstition improves performance. Damish L, Stoberock B, Musswiler T (2010) Performance Image credit: http://www.flickr.com/photos/13923263@N07/1471150324/sizes/l/
You think differently when speaking a different language Changing the way we talk to people, changes the way we think. If you learn another language, you learn another way of looking at the world.
Marketing actions – such as pricing – affect the efficacy of the pills http://www.flickr.com/photos/erix/142789779/sizes/l/
Weird people People from Western, Educated, Industrialised, Rich, Democratic societies. Image credit: http://www-psych.stanford.edu/~learninglab/team.html
Diversity in contexts is just as important as diversity of samples. Stephen J Ceci, Dan M. Kahan, and Donald Braman
The brain does not exist in a vacuum. It operates in the context of the real world. Jonah Lehrer
PRYSVL Modelof person-context interactionRobert J. Sternberg PERSON (who) ROLES (what) SITUATION (where, when) VALUES (why) LUCK (whoops!) Abilities Knowledge Styles Personality Motivations Leader vs. Followers Entrepreneur vs. Manager Thinking vs. Doing Staff vs. Line High stress vs. Low stress Close Supervision vs. Far Supervision Short term goals vs. long term goals Physical comfort vs. physical discomfort People vs. Productivity Process vs. Product Conformity vs. Independence Individualism vs. Group Orientation Altruism vs. Self Interest Innovation vs. Stability Appearance vs. Reality Status variables Event variables
Human decision making is like a pair of scissors: one blade is the brain, while the other blade is a specific environment in which the brain operates. Herb Simon Nobel prize winning psychologist Image credit: http://www.flickr.com/photos/dannyboyster/835620369/
Human behaviour is like a pair of scissors: one blade is the brain, while the other blade is a specific environment in which the brain operates. Herb Simon Nobel prize winning psychologist If you want to understand the function of scissors, then you have to look at both blades simultaneously. For that end, we have to venture out of the lab and into the real world. Jonah Lehrer Image credit: http://www.flickr.com/photos/dannyboyster/835620369/
Send your researcher out there to mix with the wild, and find out how they use your design in their real environment.
Send your researcher out there to mix with the wild, and find out how they use your design in their real environment. There are a variety of methods you can use to that end: Ethnography Contextual Enquiry Remote Ethnography Remote online user research
30 Thank you.
32 James Page Director @jamespage Sabrina Mach Director @sabrinamach Follow @webnographer on Twitter www.webographer.com