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Stuart Miller - GIS Output and the Role of Cartography


BCS Symposium Mapping at Work - June 2009 …

BCS Symposium Mapping at Work - June 2009
Stuart Miller, STAR-APIC

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  • 1. GIS Output and the Role of Cartography Stuart Miller, Commercial Manager STAR-APIC
  • 2. STAR-APIC
    • Mapping software and solutions
      • Data and database management
      • Cartography and data publication
      • Custom solutions
    • www.geolives.com
    • FME
    • Team has many years of digital mapping experience – in UK 50+ years
  • 3. 2009 - It’s a different and new mapping world
    • Massive changes since digital mapping & GIS in the late ’70s
    • Mapping “freely” available
    • Web mapping software
      • easy to use
      • fast
    • Personal Navigation Devices
    • User Generated Content (UGC)
  • 4. Interesting Article
    • Wired article on location services from January 2009
    • ‘ I Am Here: One Man's Experiment With the Location-Aware Lifestyle’
  • 5. Background to Change
    • I am looking at the wider picture of cartography … & not just cartographic publishing for CMYK Printing
    • There are many, but 2 of the themes are …
  • 6. Public Sector Pressures
    • Cut costs
    • Improve productivity
    • Make data available to the public
    • Planning initiatives
    • Share data with other organisations
    • Data Standards for interoperability, OGC, INSPIRE ….
  • 7. Mapping on the Web
    • Accessible, Easy, Cheap or free !
      • Google
      • Yahoo! Maps
      • Bing Maps (formerly Virtual Earth)
      • Multimap, Streetmap, ….
      • OpenStreetMap
    • Web GIS
      • Too slow & complex ? For experts only?
      • Question …
  • 8. The Role of Cartography?
    • Cartography Still Matters
    • Always Did …
    • GIS was part of Cartography
    • Mid ’80s – it flipped and the perception was that Cartography (in a form) was a part of GIS
    • No point in fighting it – perception is reality!
  • 9. Principles of Cartography
    • What are you trying to show ?
    • Projection of earth to flat media
    • Generalisation
      • Simplify to meet requirements
    • Design
      • Highlight to communicate
    • Data update and Maintenance
  • 10. Principles of Design
    • The purpose of design is to focus the attention of the user
    • The Principles of Cartographic Design are Timeless, the Results are not   
    • The Rules of Cartographic Design can be taught and learnt, principles and concepts have to be acquired
    • http://www.mckinleyville.com
  • 11. Back onto Topic …
    • Cartography in the GIS context
    • Briefest of backgrounds
    • (GIS Adoption in time order …)
      • Capture/Conversion/Revision
      • Restructuring/Importing
      • Adding Attribution/Intro of DBMS
      • Analysis/Querying
      • Remodelling of data/speed of queries
      • Data sharing interoperability
      • Introduction of Standards/Sharing …
      • … . What Priority was given to Output?
  • 12. Output from GIS - 1
    • It was very basic plots
    • An output in early days was an achievement!
    • So much data manipulation – called ETL now; consumed most of our time in the GIS industry
    • As it was computer driven it was not market led or customer led but technology led & task in hand was data acquisition and conversion
    • So more recently …
  • 13. Output from GIS - 2
    • Lately, GIS output has broadened, has matured, more expected (demanded?) from the investment now
    • Decades of investment
    • More user-interactive; professional and consumer – User Generated Content (UGC)
    • But it can create Anarchy in both editorial control and also basic principles and cartographic design
    • Just because it is possible doesn’t mean to say it is acceptable (in whose eyes though?)
  • 14. Creation of Maps
    • It was predicted many years ago that the map creation capabilities would be passed to the ‘mass market’ with its limited knowledge of the discipline
    • But we have to embrace it – not knock it!
    • The role and challenge is to ensure that the tools (and not just the maps) are ‘fit for purpose’
    • The design and capabilities of the map tools are as fundamental to cartography as the maps themselves
  • 15. Cartography - Re-Emergence
    • Now that after two decades the data conversions, fine tuning and ‘sweat equity’ has been invested by organisations
    • … More Recently - how an Application of GIS is judged is down to its different media types/accessibility and the currency of the Output to the wider user
    • So there is NO SURPRISE that cartography is re-emerging as being important
    • It may not be termed ‘cartography’ as much – but it is cartography by a different name
  • 16. An example of an Output that is ideal for Cartography
    • GeoPDF format
    • I suggest you download http://www.opengeospatial.org/standards/bp
    • GeoPDF Encoding Best Practice Version 2.2 April 2009
    • Background to the Format & its creation
  • 17. GeoPDF
    • The Army’s Geospatial PDF Project provides GeoPDFs to all warfighters and those tasked with supporting them.
    US Army Corps of Engineers Army Georeferenced PDF (GeoPDF) Project
  • 18.
    • What does a GeoPDF do?
    • with Adobe Reader - Multiple coordinate displays [default is Lat/Long and MGRS], automatic coordinate display, supports 400+ datums and 40+ projections, measure area / length with Reader w/o file having to be reader enabled, importing / exporting geospatial data with Reader [cvs, gpx, kml, kmz and shp/shm], GPS Tracking
    Works with free Adobe Reader
  • 19. More on GeoPDF
    • With Adobe Acrobat - all above plus create GeoPDF manually, GeoMark Enable files for extended use in Reader and Map Assembler for combining multiple GeoPDF files.
    • Layered – Raster & vector & multiple pages for ‘mapbooks’
    • Editable, GPS linked and has inbuilt tools
    • GeoPDF complies with Adobe's PDF specification and ISO 32000
    Source: U.S. Army Corps of Engineers
  • 20. Samples
    • GeoPDF Samples www.acrobatuser.com/gallery/geospatial-gallery
    • Go to http:// www.terragotech.com /download/index/
    • For TerraGo Desktop ToolBar free download
    • Try Google Maps link and Editing Toolbar capabilities
  • 21. USGS Samples
    • Go to http:// store.usgs.gov /
    • “ Digital Maps—Beta” (http://nationalmap.gov/digital_map/)
    • Almost 60,000 United States Geological Survey Digital Raster Graphic maps have been converted to GeoPDFs and are available to anyone via the website http://store.usgs.gov .
  • 22. Some USA users of GeoPDF
    • Source: Terrago Technologies Inc
    Utilities, Oil & Gas, Transportation State & Local Government Defense & Intelligence Systems Integrators Public Safety & Emergency Response Engineering & Natural Resource Management Dallas Police Dallas Police
  • 23. Conclusion 1
    • Cartographic Output of GIS data is now perceived to be important
    • … Never went away in the Cartographers’ eyes
    • Map creation Tools and Data formats (one example GeoPDF) and dissemination & communication technologies have enabled the discipline of cartography to re-emerge
    • Basically GIS has matured in its needs …
  • 24. Conclusion 2
    • In today’s society with its technical capabilities at the consumer level there is NOW the Need and Desire for quality map products that fit the purpose.
    • Reduction in Cost in map creation
    • Speed of Creation and Distribution
  • 25. Conclusion
    • Cartographic Professionals have to be at the top table to contribute and shape the overall GIS and Geospatial industry agenda
    • Finally - Be Proactive and not Reactive within the maturing GIS industry
  • 26.
    • Thank you
    • Stuart Miller
    • Commercial Manager STAR-APIC UK
    • [email_address]
    • +44 (0)7885 297994
    Contact Details