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Mapping UK Sea Space

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  • 1. Mapping UK Sea Space Mapping UK Sea Space John Pepper J h P Principal Consultant John Pepper Consultancy Ltd BCS Symposium 11th June 2010
  • 2. A Few Facts… Over 70% of the Earth’s surface is  covered by water but less than 1% has been seen or explored by humans  Globally, only 10% of coastal states  have more than 50% of waters  (depth < 200m) surveyed to modern  standards Demand for knowledge of our seas  outstrips the ability of Nations to  capture and map the information! BCS Symposium 11th June 2010
  • 3. Historic perspective Historic perspective • Reliance on paper charting to represent Reliance on paper charting  to represent the real world • Accuracy  and precision a challenge • Limited understanding of oceans • Lack of source information • Selected detail shown (<5%) Selected detail shown (<5%) • Cartographic interpretation  • Served the mariner well over time But things are changing and fast!…  BCS Symposium 11th June 2010
  • 4. Why do we need a map? y p • Charts represent an interpretation of the  real world to aid safety of navigation l ld d f f • Increasing use of the seabed ‐ bottom Increasing use of the seabed  bottom  trawling, hydrocarbon extraction, sand  and gravel extraction, cable and pipeline  and gravel extraction, cable and pipeline laying, wind and wave power generation  (Asset Management) (Asset Management) • Spatial planning requires a sound base‐ map combining seafloor topography,  bi i fl h geology and habitat information  (Decision Making) (D i i M ki ) BCS Symposium 11th June 2010
  • 5. THE CHALLENGE – SOURCE FROM PRODUCT THE CHALLENGE SOURCE FROM PRODUCT Source: GB ENC Source: SeaZone HydroSpatial For many feature types the paper chart is  the only source and is not legitimate BCS Symposium 11th June 2010
  • 6. Areas to be mapped pp • Coastal zone ‐ from the shore to the 12 nautical  mile limit.  Complex and expensive to map ‐ need  mile limit Complex and expensive to map need small boats, hovercraft, aircraft. Most data  available but with gaps available but with gaps • Shelf ‐ from the coastal zone to the shelf edge.  An area of high activity (fisheries, minerals).  An area of high activity (fisheries minerals) Some data exists but not all is available • Deep sea ‐ beyond the shelf edge to the Deep‐sea beyond the shelf edge to the  territorial limit.  An area of increasing  exploitation of oil, gas and fish.  Easier and  p ,g cheaper to map than other areas but little  available for non military mapping BCS Symposium 11th June 2010
  • 7. Example of what can be achieved from a specific  Mapping Project pp g j Images courtesy of Federal State  of Maine; USA f M i USA
  • 8. Technological Developments g p • Electronic Navigational Charts (ENC’s) • High Resolution Digital Survey  Bathymetry (Multibeam & LiDAR) • “Ping to Chart” Technology • Visualisation tools – Augmented Reality • Global Geospatial Data standards  (ISO/OGC /S‐100) • R l Ti Real Time Ocean Observing Systems (e.g.  O Ob i S ( GOOS) • Data storage and processing power Data storage and processing power • Autonomous Underwater  Vehicles (AUV) BCS Symposium 11th June 2010
  • 9. Civil Hydrographic Programme /Chart Data – Orkney Islands
  • 10. Legislative Drivers  Legislative Drivers o EU and UK Marine Legislation • Marine Conservation & Governance • Marine Spatial Planning • Marine Management Organisation / Marine Marine Management Organisation / Marine  Scotland – Fisheries management – Commercial development  – Climate Change – Habitats ab tats • Flooding • Water Quality • Emergency Planning & Response / Disaster  Mitigation … to achieve clean, safe, healthy, productive and biologically diverse oceans BCS Symposium 11th June 2010
  • 11. Governance Drivers  • Infrastructure for Spatial  Information in Europe (INSPIRE) – Metadata – Data Sharing & Exchange – Interoperability – Network Services – Monitoring • UK Location Programme UK Location Programme – we know what data we have, and avoid  duplicating it – we use common reference data f d t – we can share location‐related information – we have the appropriate skills among  geographic professionals and those who use  geographic professionals and those who use location information  – we have strong leadership and governance to  g g drive through change BCS Symposium 11th June 2010
  • 12. Recent developments in mapping &  R d l i i & visualising the marine environment visualising the marine environment Coastal Mapping and Analysis p y Land‐Sea Interoperability Digital Terrain Modelling Deep Ocean Mapping Deep Ocean Mapping Land‐Sea DEM’s Smart Processes – Data Capture to Output Delivery BCS Symposium 11th June 2010
  • 13. Coastal Mapping Coastal Mapping • Spatial Planning • Flooding and Inundation • Shore‐line management plans (SMP’s) • Safety of Life / Emergency Response • Shoreline development • Leisure activities • Commercial activities (e.g. dredging) ( g g g) • Renewable Energy • Ports and Harbours • Beach Profiling • Landscape BCS Symposium 11th June 2010
  • 14. Economic activity in the Irish Sea and coastal hinterland Source: Defra Irish Sea Pilot project  ‐ 2006  Land Use Tourism Oil &G &Gas Mariculture Coastal Defence Ports & Navigation Military Activities A i ii Culture Conservation C ti Dredging & p Disposal Submarine Fishing Renewable Marine Mineral Cables Energy Recreation Extraction
  • 15. Seabed Character and Bed Form Mapping Pilot Area BGS/UKHO/SeaZone completed end 2008
  • 16. To create a  map like this map like this Rock Featureless Sand Sand waves Sand wave crest lines Sand and gravel
  • 17. MAPS4ALL™ ‐ Where we are now!
  • 18. Where we are with a 5m rise in Sea Level
  • 19. Combined LiDAR ‐Imagery Coastal Zone  oblique  of the Scilly Isles‐courtesy of  the Environment Agency
  • 20. Combined  coastal Topo‐Bathy LiDAR image of Watchet, Somerset  ‐courtesy of  Environment Agency
  • 21. Combined  estuarine LiDAR, Bathy and  aerial  imagery DEM of Rivers Taw and  Torridge courtesy of the Environment  Agency
  • 22. Mounts Bay Coastal beach profile mapping to monitor sediment transport Image courtesy of NetSurvey Ltd BCS Symposium 11th June 2010
  • 23. Surface Model of Eastern Solent based on Digital Survey Bathymetry Source: SeaZone Solutions: 2006 BCS Symposium 11th June 2010
  • 24. DORIS project bathymetric survey  DORIS project bathymetric survey BCS Symposium 11th June 2010
  • 25. Offshore Renewable Capacity Report
  • 26. Offshore Renewable Capacity Report
  • 27. Ocean Mapping Ocean Mapping • Safety of Life / Emergency Response Safety of Life / Emergency Response • Risk Modelling and mitigation • Climate Change • Defence (sub‐marine) • Hydrocarbons extraction (e.g. Gulf of Mexico) • Physical Oceanography (e.g. salinity, light attenuation)  • Global Observing Systems • Seismology • Habitat & Ecosystem Mapping • Geophysics  and Geomorphology • Deep water infrastructure (e.g.Cables) • Research & Development BCS Symposium 11th June 2010
  • 28. Deep Ocean Mapping The Arctic Ocean The “Darwin Mounds”
  • 29. Deep ocean DEM showing fault lines Courtesy of the Royal Navy
  • 30. Channel and ridge Channel and ridge Deep Ocean Analysis from DEM D O A l i f DEM Courtesy of the Royal Navy
  • 31. MBES Wreck investigation MBES Wreck investigation HMS REPULSE
  • 32. Habitat Mapping using AUV s/ ROV s Habitat Mapping using AUV’s/ ROV’s • Wide area data sets (multibeam bathymetry Wide-area Images courtesy of NOC Images courtesy of NOC and/or sidescan sonar data) for biotic environment • Point- or line-based information (e.g. photo/ Untouched and trawled Lophelia‐reefs video data, seabed samples) for ‘ground-truthing’ of the substrate and biological information • A prerequisite for all scientific seabed studies and an essential tool for the management and assessment of human impacts Images courtesy of JNCC ‐ 2010 BCS Symposium 11th June 2010
  • 33. Software requirements for bringing land and  sea data together sea data together • Hydro data is +ve down, Topo data is +ve up – Software needs to be able to handle this f d b bl h dl hi • Land and Sea data is often referenced to different  coordinate systems coordinate systems – Vertical = MSL for Land, LAT for Sea – DEM’s therefore need to be shifted (VORF, VDATUM, ASCII) ( ) – Or stored in reference to the Ellipsoid – Lat & Long versus OSGB36 • Sea to Shore models need to be created to resolve data  gaps in the surf zone • DEM’s need to be combined – For seamless examination and analysis – To derive continuous vector features e g contours To derive continuous vector features e.g. contours
  • 34. Topo-Bathy DEM Process (1) 1. 1 Import Land Data 2. 2 Import Sea Data 3. Create TIN 4. Interpolate Surfaces from TIN Images courtesy of CARIS
  • 35. Topo‐Bathy DEM Process (2) 5. Perform Datum Shift 6. Combine DEM’s 7. Create Contours 8. Interrogate in 3D Images courtesy of  CARIS
  • 36. • 90% of Ireland is under the sea • 80% of UK is under the sea So…  “Wh i 75% f UK ill “Why is 75% of UK sea space still  not mapped? not mapped?” BCS Symposium 11th June 2010
  • 37. Thank You Any Questions www.johnpepperconsultancy.com BCS Symposium 11th June 2010