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Cartographic language and portrayal

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Cartographic language and portrayal - by Dr Alex Kent, Canterbury University

Cartographic language and portrayal - by Dr Alex Kent, Canterbury University

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  • 1. The Power of the Image 2011 Cartographic Language and Portrayal Dr Alex Kent Canterbury Christ Church University
  • 2. Cartographic Language and Portrayal ● Defining cartographic expression ● Stylistic diversity in European state 1:50,000 topographic mapping ● The role of cartographic language in Slovenia and Latvia
  • 3. The Power of the Image 2011 There is no neutral naturalism. The artist, no less the writer, needs a vocabulary before he can embark on a ‘copy’ of reality. Gombrich (1960) The limits of my language mean the limits of my world. Wittgenstein (1922)
  • 4. The Power of the Image 2011
  • 5. Kraak and Ormeling (1996)
  • 6. Robinson et al. (1995)
  • 7. Keates (1996) 1:10 000 1:25 000 1:50 000 1:100 000 1:250 000
  • 8. General Staff of the Soviet Union Armed Forces (1964-1986)
  • 9. Olson and Whitmarsh (1944)
  • 10. Department of Transport (1995)
  • 11. Shooting Range (Denmark) Castle (Belgium) Radio Mast (Finland) Police Station (Ireland) Sewage Treatment Plant (Latvia) Windmill (France) Other Church (Poland) Alpine Dairy Farm (Austria) Watermill (Spain)
  • 12. The Power of the Image 2011 Ordnance Survey, 2004
  • 13. The Power of the Image 2011
  • 14. The Power of the Image 2011
  • 15. The Power of the Image 2011 IGN, 1981
  • 16. The Power of the Image 2011 Why should there be stylistic diversity? ● Terrain, climate, and vegetation
  • 17. The Power of the Image 2011
  • 18. The Power of the Image 2011 Lantmäteriet, 2001
  • 19. The Power of the Image 2011 Topografische Dienst, 1999
  • 20. The Power of the Image 2011 Landesvermessungsamt Nordrhein-Westfalen, 2004
  • 21. The Power of the Image 2011 Bundesamt Für Eich- und Vermessungswesen, 1998Uprava Republike Slovenije, 2003
  • 22. The Power of the Image 2011 Why should there be stylistic diversity? ● Terrain, climate, and vegetation ● Culture and society Some features have more importance in certain cultures, thus:  The landscape may be classified differently: ▪ selection/omission of features ▪ detail (number of symbols per feature type or ‘class’)  Features may be symbolized differently: ▪ emphasis (e.g., shape, colour, size, texture) ▪ abstraction ▪ aesthetic value
  • 23. Inuit terms for snow and ice (Hall, 1997)
  • 24. The Power of the Image 2011 Investigating Stylistic Diversity ● Consistency of Scale and Purpose (20 European state 1:50 000 topographic maps) - Widespread accessibility and usage - Versatile (equilibrium of generalization) ● Preservation of Choice - Design limitations (paper) - Usage limitations (single visualization) ● Legend Symbologies - Independent of landscape covered on single sheet - Perceived to be useful to the user ● Classification of Discrete Symbols - 19 initial classes aggregated into broader classes - Colour, Lettering, Visual Hierarchy, ‘White’ Space
  • 25. The Power of the Image 2011
  • 26. Czech Republic France Slovenia
  • 27. The Power of the Image 2011
  • 28. Road 0.0 5.0 10.0 15.0 20.0 25.0 30.0 Belgium Great Britain Netherlands Portugal Ireland Switzerland Czech Republic France Sweden Iceland Spain Denmark Slovenia Germany Norway Austria Country Percentage of Whole Symbol Set
  • 29. Hydrology 0.0 5.0 10.0 15.0 20.0 25.0 Iceland Norway Slovenia Germany Austria Sweden Belgium Denmark Portugal Switzerland Czech Republic France Spain Ireland Netherlands Great Britain Country Percentage of Whole Symbol Set
  • 30. Star Plot of Level III Symbol Counts (Poland Example)
  • 31. The Power of the Image 2011
  • 32. Cluster Analysis: Level III Classification
  • 33. The Power of the Image 2011
  • 34. The Power of the Image 2011 Ordnance Survey, 2004
  • 35. The Power of the Image 2011 Ordnance Survey Ireland, 2003
  • 36. Political Independence and Cartographic Language ‘Geopolitical blocks’ (after Dingsdale, 1999; 2002)
  • 37. The Power of the Image 2011
  • 38. Yugoslav National Army, 1970
  • 39. Uprava Republike Slovenije, 2003
  • 40. The Power of the Image 2011
  • 41. The Power of the Image 2011
  • 42. Rīga – Before and After Independence (GUGIK, 1980) (LGIA, c. 1998)
  • 43. General Staff of the Soviet Union Armed Forces, 1988
  • 44. Latvian State Land Service, 1998
  • 45. Latvian State Land Service, 2001
  • 46. The Power of the Image 2011 Contrasting Cultures of Map Use  In Yugoslavia, surveying was devolved and 1:5,000 aerial photography existed for most areas of Slovenia  In Yugoslavia, access to topographic maps was less restricted (e.g. for orienteering)  In the USSR, topographic maps were secret documents and not available for public use  After independence, Slovenia’s state topographic maps were more articulate in expressing the national landscape
  • 47. Common Ground, 2000
  • 48. The Power of the Image 2011 OpenStreetMap, 2010
  • 49. USGS-International Map of the World, 1949 (1:1 000 000) Vi parolas Esperanton?
  • 50. The Power of the Image 2011 The limits of my language mean the limits of my world. Wittgenstein (1922)
  • 51. The Power of the Image 2011 Thank you! alexander.kent@canterbury.ac.uk