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Cartographic language and portrayal - by Dr Alex Kent, Canterbury University

Cartographic language and portrayal - by Dr Alex Kent, Canterbury University

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Cartographic language and portrayal Presentation Transcript

  • 1. The Power of the Image 2011 Cartographic Language and Portrayal Dr Alex Kent Canterbury Christ Church University
  • 2. Cartographic Languageand Portrayal● Defining cartographic expression● Stylistic diversity in European state 1:50,000 topographic mapping● The role of cartographic language in Slovenia and Latvia
  • 3. The Power of the Image 2011 The limits of my language mean the limits of my world. Wittgenstein (1922) There is no neutral naturalism. The artist, no less the writer, needs a vocabulary before he can embark on a ‘copy’ of reality. Gombrich (1960)
  • 4. The Power of the Image 2011
  • 5. Kraak and Ormeling (1996)
  • 6. Robinson et al. (1995)
  • 7. 1:10 0001:25 0001:50 0001:100 000 Keates (1996)1:250 000
  • 8. General Staff of theSoviet Union Armed Forces(1964-1986)
  • 9. Olson and Whitmarsh (1944)
  • 10. Department of Transport (1995)
  • 11. Castle Radio Mast Alpine Dairy Farm (Belgium) (Finland) (Austria) Watermill Other Church Police Station (Spain) (Poland) (Ireland)Shooting Range Sewage Treatment Plant Windmill (Denmark) (Latvia) (France)
  • 12. The Power of the Image 2011 Ordnance Survey, 2004
  • 13. The Power of the Image 2011
  • 14. The Power of the Image 2011
  • 15. The Power of the Image 2011 IGN, 1981
  • 16. The Power Why should there be stylistic diversity? of the Image ● Terrain, climate, and vegetation 2011
  • 17. The Power of the Image 2011
  • 18. The Power of the Image 2011 Lantmäteriet, 2001
  • 19. The Power of the Image 2011 Topografische Dienst, 1999
  • 20. The Power of the Image 2011 Landesvermessungsamt Nordrhein-Westfalen, 2004
  • 21. The Power of the Image 2011 Bundesamt Für Eich- und Vermessungswesen, 1998 Uprava Republike Slovenije, 2003
  • 22. The Power Why should there be stylistic diversity? of the Image ● Terrain, climate, and vegetation 2011 ● Culture and society Some features have more importance in certain cultures, thus:  The landscape may be classified differently: ▪ selection/omission of features ▪ detail (number of symbols per feature type or ‘class’)  Features may be symbolized differently: ▪ emphasis (e.g., shape, colour, size, texture) ▪ abstraction ▪ aesthetic value
  • 23. Inuit terms for snow and ice(Hall, 1997)
  • 24. The Power Investigating Stylistic Diversity of the Image ● Consistency of Scale and Purpose 2011 (20 European state 1:50 000 topographic maps) - Widespread accessibility and usage - Versatile (equilibrium of generalization) ● Preservation of Choice - Design limitations (paper) - Usage limitations (single visualization) ● Legend Symbologies - Independent of landscape covered on single sheet - Perceived to be useful to the user ● Classification of Discrete Symbols - 19 initial classes aggregated into broader classes - Colour, Lettering, Visual Hierarchy, ‘White’ Space
  • 25. The Power of the Image 2011
  • 26. Czech Republic France Slovenia
  • 27. The Power of the Image 2011
  • 28. Road Belgium Great Britain Netherlands Portugal Ireland Switzerland Czech RepublicCountry France Sweden Iceland Spain Denmark Slovenia Germany Norway Austria 0.0 5.0 10.0 15.0 20.0 25.0 30.0 Percentage of Whole Symbol Set
  • 29. Hydrology Iceland Norway Slovenia Germany Austria Sweden BelgiumCountry Denmark Portugal Switzerland Czech Republic France Spain Ireland Netherlands Great Britain 0.0 5.0 10.0 15.0 20.0 25.0 Percentage of Whole Symbol Set
  • 30. Star Plot of Level III Symbol Counts (Poland Example)
  • 31. The Power of the Image 2011
  • 32. Cluster Analysis: Level III Classification
  • 33. The Power of the Image 2011
  • 34. The Power of the Image 2011 Ordnance Survey, 2004
  • 35. The Power of the Image 2011 Ordnance Survey Ireland, 2003
  • 36. Political Independence and Cartographic Language ‘Geopolitical blocks’ (after Dingsdale, 1999; 2002)
  • 37. The Power of the Image 2011
  • 38. Yugoslav National Army, 1970
  • 39. Uprava Republike Slovenije, 2003
  • 40. The Power of the Image 2011
  • 41. The Power of the Image 2011
  • 42. Rīga – Before and After Independence (GUGIK, 1980) (LGIA, c. 1998)
  • 43. General Staff of the Soviet Union Armed Forces, 1988
  • 44. Latvian State Land Service, 1998
  • 45. Latvian State Land Service, 2001
  • 46. The Power Contrasting Cultures of Map Use of the Image 2011  In the USSR, topographic maps were secret documents and not available for public use  In Yugoslavia, access to topographic maps was less restricted (e.g. for orienteering)  In Yugoslavia, surveying was devolved and 1:5,000 aerial photography existed for most areas of Slovenia  After independence, Slovenia’s state topographic maps were more articulate in expressing the national landscape
  • 47. Common Ground, 2000
  • 48. The Power of the Image 2011 OpenStreetMap, 2010
  • 49. USGS-International Map of the World, 1949 (1:1 000 000) Vi parolas Esperanton?
  • 50. The Power of the Image 2011 The limits of my language mean the limits of my world. Wittgenstein (1922)
  • 51. The Power of the Image 2011 Thank you! alexander.kent@canterbury.ac.uk