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Web Technology – Web Server Setup : Chris Uriarte
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Web Technology – Web Server Setup : Chris Uriarte


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  • 1. ITI-520: Web Technology Web Server Setup Rutgers University Internet Institute Instructor: Chris Uriarte Meeting 1: Introduction to the Internet, World Wide Web and Web Servers
  • 2. Course Overview and Goals
    • This course will teach you how to install, configure, and administer a Web server that runs on a Unix system and can be used to deliver dynamic content.
    • The course objectives will be achieved through a combination of lectures, demonstrations, and hands-on exercises.
  • 3. About Your Instructor…
    • Chris Uriarte – [email_address]
    • Contact me anytime via email or telephone: (732) 888-0088 x47.
  • 4. About Your Classmates…
    • Introductions
    • What do you do?
    • What do you do with computers?
    • Why are you taking this class?
  • 5. What This Course Is and Is Not
    • The purpose of the course is to teach you how to setup a Web server. This means you will be learning how to use tools to deliver content for the World Wide Web, not to create content.
    • The Rutgers Internet Institute offers many other courses designed to teach you how to create content for the World Wide Web: World Wide Web Publisher (I & II) Certificates and World Wide Web Developer Certificate.
  • 6. World Wide Web Unix Administrator Certificate
    • This course is one of four required to receive the World Wide Web Unix Administrator Certificate.
    • Other courses: ITI-480 Unix Fundamentals, ITI-481 Unix Administration & ITI-510 Computer Networks
  • 7. Prerequisites
    • Familiarity with a Web browser such as Netscape or Internet Explorer.
    • You should have user-level experience with UNIX and must be familiar with the use of a UNIX text editor like vi, emacs and pico.
    • Some level of experience with creating HTML documents may be helpful.
  • 8. Class Schedule
    • Week 1: Introduction to the Internet, the World Wide Web, and Web Servers
    • Week 2: Installing and Configuring the Apache Web Server
    • Week 3:Extending Apache: Advanced Topics
    • Week 4: Web Security: Secure Servers and Securing Your Server
  • 9. Course Resources
    • Textbook: Professional Apache by Peter Wainwright (Wrox Press, 1999).
    • User account on Linux server
  • 10. How does the World Wide Web Work?
    • Works on a client/server model. The Web server is the server component. The Web browser is the client component. Purpose of the Web server is to provide documents to clients.
    • Web servers, Web browsers, and the information that is shared between them through the Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP) protocol make up the World Wide Web.
  • 11. History of the World Wide Web
    • Grew out of the Internet, a network of networks designed that began in the early 1970’s and was used to support a variety of services (including telnet, ftp, Usenet, email, and gopher) that communicated via TCP/IP (Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol).
    • In 1989, Tim Berners-Lee at CERN developed a new system to simplify document distribution and to allow documents to be linked together. Called the “WorldWideWeb.”
  • 12. Web History, con’t.
    • In 1993, the National Center for Supercomputing Applications (NSCA) released to the public a NCSA server software and a GUI Web browser called Mosaic. Quickly became popular.
    • Mosaic became Netscape
  • 13. Who is a Webmaster?
    • A Webmaster is someone responsible for the content and/or management of a Web site and/or a Web server.
  • 14. What Roles Do Webmasters Play?
    • Web Designers – Create graphical elements and determine layout of Website.
    • Content Providers- Create and edit HTML documents.
    • Web Developers – Write CGI, Java, JavaScript, ASP, PHP, and other scripts or programs that are used to deliver dynamic content.
  • 15. Webmaster Roles, con’t.
    • Administrators – Responsible for maintaining the Web server software and often the operating system and hardware where the Web server is installed.
    • For most organizations, these responsibilities tend to be split over multiple job positions except for very small and simple Web sites.
  • 16. Planning Your Server
    • How and where will you host it?
    • What kind of hardware will you use?
    • What kind of Operating System will the hardware run?
    • What Web server software will you use?
    • What domain name will your site use?
    • Answers to above questions usually determined by budget, staffing, and existing infrastructure of your organization.
  • 17. Hosting Your Server: Use an ISP (Internet Service Provider)
    • Free Page Site – For personal use, limited space and tools, adds advertisements. (examples: Yahoo, Tripod, Xoom, etc.)
    • Personal Page Site – For personal use, usually included with dialup account (about $20 per month), 2-20 MB disk space, none or limited access to server-based technologies for delivering dynamic content, generally under your ISP’s domain. (Website URL usually looks something like:
  • 18. Hosting Your Server, con’t.
    • Virtual Host – For business or personal use, share a machine with other domains, can use your own domain (, should provide a fairly wide range of tools for building more complex Websites, costs based on disk usage and traffic, ranges from $10 to several hundreds of dollars a month. Generally available through all ISPs and Hosting-only providors such as Highway Technologies ( ) and YourDomainHost ( http://www. yourdomainhost .com )
  • 19. Hosting Your Server, con’t.
    • Dedicated Server – For business use, ISP owns and runs the machine, your organization dictates the configuration and has exclusive access to the system, expensive.
    • Co-Located Server – For business use, your organization owns the hardware and software and is responsible for maintaining it, ISP houses the system and provides a network connection, pricing determined by bandwidth requirements.
  • 20. Hosting Your Server: Do It Yourself: Networking Options
    • For an Intranet Server– Need a LAN (local area network).
    • For an Internet Server – Need a dedicated Internet connection. Internet Connectivity Options:
      • POTS (up to 56Kbps) – not practical for business use
      • ISDN (128Kbps) – only a good choice if cable or DSL is not available
      • Cable (512Kbps – 10Mbps)
      • DSL (128kps – 1.54 Mbps+)
      • T-1 (up to 1.54Mbps) – full, fractional, or burstable
      • T-3 (up to 45 Mbps)
  • 21. Finding an ISP
    • Setting up a Internet Web site will require you to purchase some level of services from an ISP.
    • The List – http:// thelist .com
  • 22. Hosting Your Server: Hardware Options
    • Need to select a machine architecture (i.e Intel Compatible PC, Sun, Macintosh G4).
    • Processor speed and number of processors.
    • RAM and Disk Space.
    • NIC card.
    • Price can range from several hundred dollars to thousands of dollars.
  • 23. Hosting Your Server: Operating System Options
    • Commercial Versions of Unix (i.e. Solaris, Irix, HP-UX, AIX, MacOS X).
    • Free Versions of Unix (i.e. Linux, FreeBSD).
    • Microsoft Windows (9x, NT, Windows 2000).
    • Novell NetWare
    • Windows vs. Unix – raises issues of easy of use, stability, scalability, open source, and pricing.
  • 24. Hosting Your Server: Web Server Software Options
    • According to the Netcraft Web Server Survey ( http://www. netcraft .com ), as of January 2000, three Web server software distributions support over 90% of all Web servers on the Internet:
      • Apache 61.66%
      • Microsoft Internet Information Server 19.63%
      • Netscape Enterprise 7.22%
  • 25. Web Server Software Options: Apache
    • “ The standard” for UNIX web servers.
    • Originally based on NCSA httpd code.
    • Can be installed under most Unix variants and Windows. Binary versions available for many operating systems.
    • Uses file-based configuration, although GUI tools are also available.
  • 26. Introduction to Apache, con’t.
    • Unix versions very stable. Windows version less mature (beta-level code).
    • Very Fast and uses resources efficiently.
    • Freely distributed source code. Can be modified for commercial or non-commercial use.
    • Price: Free
    • See for more information.
  • 27. Web Server Software Options: Netscape Server
    • Sometimes referred to as the iPlanet server
    • Distributed through Sun-Netscape Alliance called iPlanet .
    • Server packages: iPlanet/Netscape Enterprise Server, Netscape Fast-Track Server.
    • Runs under Windows NT, Solaris, Irix, HP-UX, Digital Unix, AIX, Linux (coming soon).
  • 28. Netscape iPlanet Server, con’t.
    • Uses Web-based administration.
    • Can be resource intensive.
    • Price: $1495 per processor for Enterprise Server
    • See http://www. iplanet .com/products/infrastructure/web_servers for more information.
  • 29. Web Server Software Options: Microsoft Internet Information Server
    • Most popular for NT-based web servers.
    • Runs only under Windows NT Server. IIS v4 is the most popular release. IIS v5 was released with Windows 2000 Server.
    • GUI-based administration. Web-based administration available as well.
    • May not scale well.
  • 30. Microsoft IIS, con’t.
    • Source code not available. Extendable through Microsoft’s Internet Server API (ISAPI).
    • Price: Free with NT Server 4.0
    • See http://www. microsoft .com/ ntserver /web/default.asp for more information.
  • 31. Important Notes about Web Server Hardware
    • Web Servers need fast disk access and a lot of RAM to handle high-volumes of traffic.
      • Not unusual to see web servers with 1GB of RAM and 10,000RPM hard drives.
    • Processor speed and performance becomes very important when delivering dynamic content via CGI scripts, Server Side Includes or other web applications.
  • 32. How the Internet Works: Networking Basics
    • For a Web server to be useful it will need to be attached to a network.
    • Minimum requirements for a computer network – at least two computers that have a media and a method of communicating.
    • All Internet applications use TCP/IP (Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol) for low-level communications.
  • 33. Networking Basics: TCP/IP
    • TCP/IP is actually a combination of 2 protocols:
    • A transport layer protocol called the Transmission Control Protocol (TCP)
    • A network protocol called the Internet Protocol (IP)
  • 34. Networking Basics: IP Addresses
    • TCP/IP uses IP address to identify different devices. Every computer on the Internet must have a least one unique IP address.
    • IPv4: IP address are four 8-bit numbers separated by dots:
      • Usually divided in three parts:
      • 165.230 is one of Rutgers’ networks – e.g. no one else has addresses starting with 165.230
      • 30 is the subnet portion of the address
      • 68 is the particular node, or host portion of the address
    • Division not necessarily on octet boundary.
  • 35. TCP/IP: Two Friends, Working Together
    • IP - An IP address represents a machine’s identity on the internet and tells other machines how to get to it – similar to your street address (e.g. 123 Main Street, Anytown, USA).
    • TCP is a mechanism used to ensure that anything sent to a specific IP address makes it there in one piece. – similar to the Post Office.
    • Together, TCP/IP assures that anything sent to a server on the Internet is delivered to the right place in one complete piece.
  • 36. Networking Basics: IP Addresses
    • IP addresses no longer being distributed by classes – blocks are distributed to ISPs on an as-needed basis and must be justified.
    • IP addresses are hard to come by. How do you get them?
      • Your ISP received an “address space” from the ARIN (
      • You receive IP addresses from your ISP.
  • 37. Networking Basics: Tools
    • Network interfaces need to be assigned IP addresses.
    • Interfaces can be configured using ifconfig command on UNIX machines.
    • Type ifconfig –a to view current configuration settings.
    • Additional tools for network monitoring: ping, traceroute, tcpdump, netstat, arp, snoop .
  • 38. Networking Basics: DNS
    • IP addresses are usually paired with more human-friendly names: Domain Name System (DNS). Hostname Organization Top-level domain
    • Other top-level domains include .com, .gov, .org, etc. There are also country-specific domains like .uk, .ca, .jp, etc.
  • 39. Networking Basics: DNS, con’t.
    • Domain name information is maintained through a distributed database of host name/ IP address pairing.
    • The Network Information Center (NIC) manages the top-level domains, delegates authority for second-level domains, and maintains a database of registered name servers for all second-level domains.
    • Host name assignments maintained through zone files on primary DNS server. Secondary DNS server gets zone file from primary server.
  • 40. Networking Basics: DNS, con’t.
    • Network Solutions (previously the InterNic) registers domain names – See http://www. networksolutions .com . Other registrars include
    • Costs range from $20 to $50 per year.
    • ISP’s beginning to offer domain name registration as part of other packages.
    • Need to register a primary and secondary domain name servers for your domain and arrange to have zone files created on DNS servers.
  • 41. DNS Overview: If DNS Servers Could Talk…
  • 42. Networking Basics: DNS Tools
    • There are several tools for for monitoring DNS information:
      • whois – tells you the owner and primary DNS servers associated with a domain (e.g. whois ). Also available via web browser at .
      • nslookup and host – tell you IP address information for a particular hostname on the internet (e.g. nslookup or host )
  • 43. DNS Exercise
    • What are IP addresses of the DNS servers that contain information about
    • What are the IP address of:
  • 44. Networking Basics: Ports
    • Servers tend to run a number of services. A single NIC can be used to provide multiple services through ports .
    • Servers with Internet-related services listen on specific ports. Clients contact server by specifying an IP address and a connection port.
    • Common services and port numbers:
      • smtp 25, ftp 21, telnet 23, http/web 80, https/ssl 443
      • A list of services and ports is contained in the /etc/services file
    • Ports below 1024 are reserved for system services and can only be used by programs started by root.
  • 45. Web Servers and UNIX Systems
    • Most web servers run on port 80 – the standard web port
    • Web server software usually runs on UNIX system as some user other than root. It’s considered a security risk to run the web server software as root.
    • The web server software binary is httpd . Web server software is often refered to as “the httpd”
  • 46. Uniform Resource Locator (URL)
    • URL: a fancy way of saying “web site address”
    • Anatomy of a URL: Protocol Hostname Port Number Path To File
  • 47. HTTP – An Introduction
    • HTTP – The Hypertext Transfer Protocol
      • The protocol used between web clients (browsers) and web servers.
      • Web browsers “ask” for a specific web page from the server, who returns the content
  • 48. HTTP: Example and Exercise
    • You can emulate the HTTP conversation between a browser and a server:
      • telnet to the machine, port 80, e.g. telnet 80 from the UNIX command line.
      • Type: “ GET HTTP/1.0 /” Press Enter twice.
      • The server returns the HTML (web page code), which is usually interpreted and displayed by your web browser.
  • 49. Unix Tools and Commands
    • File Editors: vi, emacs, pico
    • File system navigation: cd
    • File management: mv, rm, mkdir,rmdir, ls, chmod, ln
    • Archiving and compression: tar, gzip
    • ***Process management: ps, kill
    • Man pages available for all these commands, e.g “man rmdir”
  • 50. UNIX Process Management
    • UNIX Processes are managed using the ps and kill commands
      • ps is used to list processes running on the system
      • kill is used to kill and restart processes running on the system
    • Every time you start a new program (pico, vi, bash, etc.) a process is created and you are the owner of that process.
  • 51. Process Management Exercises
    • You can type ps –aux to see all the processes running on a system. This will list the process owner, process ID (PID) and the command being run.
    • You can kill any PID, as long as you are the owner of the process.
    • ps –u shows all the processes your are currently running
  • 52. Process Management Exercises, con’t.
    • Open up a new terminal window and type vi foo.txt . This will create a new process on the system that you own.
    • Switch back to your original terminal window. Locate the process ID for your vi session and kill it.
  • 53. Reading for Next Week…
    • Read Chapters 1-5 in Professional Apache .