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Web Server Administration



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  • 1. Web Server Administration Chapter 6 Configuring a Web Server
  • 2. Overview
    • Understand how a Web server works
    • Install IIS and Apache Web servers
    • Examine the IIS and Apache properties
    • Host multiple Web sites
    • Configure new Web sites in IIS and Apache
    • Understand virtual directories
  • 3. How a Web Server Works
    • HTTP (Hypertext Transfer Protocol) defines how information is passed between a browser and a Web server
    • The two most popular Web servers are
      • Apache from Apache Software Foundation
      • Internet Information Services (IIS) from Microsoft
        • The original Web server from Microsoft available on Windows NT was Internet Information Server
    • Almost two-thirds of all Web servers use Apache
  • 4. How a Web Server Works
    • As is true with other servers such as DNS, Web servers listen for communication at a port
      • The default port is 80
      • You can also create Web servers at port numbers greater than 1023
    • Each Web server has a root, which is where you store the HTML documents
  • 5. Understanding HTTP
    • The current version of HTTP is 1.1
      • Virtually no browsers are so old that they do not support 1.1
    • HTTP is a stateless protocol, meaning that each Web page sent is independent of every other Web page sent
      • This makes it more challenging to create a shopping cart application
  • 6. Understanding HTTP
    • HTTP 1.1 supports persistent connections
      • This allows the browser to receive multiple files in one TCP connection
      • This can speed up communication
      • Although you see a single page in your browser, it can be composed of many text and image files
  • 7. Understanding HTTP
    • When the browser sends a request to a Web server, it looks like:
    • GET /hello.htm HTTP/1.1
    • Host:
    • The above requests the hello.htm file from the root of the Web server
    • It specifies the host of
      • There could be multiple hosts at the IP address
  • 8. Understanding HTTP
    • The following shows some of the headers along with the HTML that the Web server would send:
    • HTTP/1.1 200 OK
    • Server: Microsoft-IIS/5.0
    • Content-Type: text/html
    • Last-Modified: Fri, 17 May 2005 18:21:25 GMT
    • Content-Length: 43
    • <html><body>
    • Hello, World
    • </body></html>
    • The headers contain information about the page
  • 9. Features in Apache
    • Apache 1.3 was used for many years but version 2.0 was released in 2001
    • Apache can also be used as a proxy server
      • A proxy server isolates your real Web server from the Internet
    • Apache 2.0 has
      • Better support for Windows
      • Support for IPv6
      • Simplified configuration
      • Unicode support in Windows
      • Multilanguage error responses
    • Apache supports many programming languages such as Perl and PHP
  • 10. Features in IIS
    • IIS versions associated with Windows versions
      • Windows NT – IIS 4.0
      • Windows 2000 – IIS 5.0
      • Windows Server 2003 – IIS 6.0
    • SMTP can be easily added so you can send e-mail from your Web pages
  • 11. Features in IIS 5.0
    • Web Distributed Authoring and Versioning (WebDAV)
      • Allows a server to share Web-based files
    • Named virtual hosting
      • Multiple Web sites can share a single IP address
    • Per Web site bandwidth throttling
      • Control bandwidth by Web site
    • Kerberos authentication
    • Secure Sockets Layer 3.0
      • Encrypted communication
  • 12. Features in IIS 6.0
    • Increased security
      • Default permits only HTML documents
    • Expanded language support
      • Can use XML and SOAP
    • Support for IPv6
    • Increased dependability
      • Kernel-mode HTTP service
      • Self-healing mechanism
  • 13. Components in IIS
    • File Transfer Protocol (FTP) server
      • To transfer files between user and server
    • FrontPage 2000 Server Extensions
      • Used by programs to transfer files to and from a Web site
    • NNTP Service
      • Used to create user forums
    • SMTP Service
    • World Wide Web Server
  • 14. Installing Apache
    • Apache can be installed when you install Linux
    • It is also on Red Hat CD 2
    • If you install it from the Red Hat CD, the directories will be consistent with other server applications
    • If you download it from the Apache Web site, you have to compile it and install it
  • 15. Starting Apache
    • By default, Apache does not start after you install it
    • The following table has a list of commands
    apachectl restart Restart Apache apachectl stop Stop Apache apachectl start Start Apache Command Procedure
  • 16. Minimal Apache Configuration
    • Add a ServerName in /etc/httpd/conf/httpd.conf
    • Add apachectl start to /etc/rc.d/rc.local
  • 17. Default Web Site Properties in IIS
  • 18. Tabs on the Default Web Site Properties Dialog Box
    • Operators (Windows 2000) only
      • This property lists users who can administer Web site
    • Performance
      • Limit bandwidth by Web site
      • Limit simultaneous connections (Windows 2003)
    • ISAPI Filters
      • Specify applications that process HTTP requests
  • 19. Tabs on the Default Web Site Properties Dialog Box
    • Home Directory
      • Specifies the location and properties of the root
      • Log information here
      • Permissions
    • Documents
      • Configure the name for default Web pages
    • HTTP Headers
      • Add your own custom headers
    • Custom Errors
      • Create custom pages for HTTP errors
  • 20. Apache Properties- Global Environment
    • ServerRoot
      • Directory location of server files
    • KeepAlive
      • Indicates whether Apache should maintain a persistent connection
    • Listen
      • Determines the port number for the server
      • Default is 80
  • 21. Apache Properties- Main Server Configuration
    • User
      • Shows the user name that Apache employs when someone requests a Web page
      • The default is apache
    • ServerAdmin
      • E-mail address of administrator
    • ServerName
      • DNS host name or IP address of server
    • DocumentRoot
      • Directory where the Web pages are stored
  • 22. Hosting Multiple Web Sites by Port Number
    • Associate each new Web site with a port above 1023
    • To retrieve a Web page from a site at port 8080
    • Because it requires a user to add the port number, it is not a popular method
  • 23. Hosting Multiple Web Sites by IP Address
    • You can create multiple IP addresses on a single NIC
      • Referred to as virtual IP addresses
    • Useful for flexibility because if each domain has its own unique IP address, you can easily move the domain to a different Web server
    • It is getting more expensive to get multiple IP addresses from an ISP
  • 24. Hosting Multiple Web Sites by Host Name
    • Multiple host names can be associated with a single IP address
    • Getting a single IP address from your ISP is relatively inexpensive
    • You can host an almost unlimited number of domains with a single IP address
    • It is the most common method of hosting
  • 25. Configuring a Virtual Host Based on an IP Address in Apache
    • In /etc/rc.d/rc.local, add an IP address such as:
      • /bin/ifconfig eth0:0
    • In the Virtual Host section of httpd.conf
      • <VirtualHost> ServerName DocumentRoot /var/www/research </VirtualHost>
  • 26. Configuring a Virtual Host Based on a Host Name in Apache
    • NameVirtualHost defines the common IP address
    • Multiple configurations repeat the same IP address and define unique ServerName settings
    • NameVirtualHost
    • <VirtualHost>
    • ServerName DocumentRoot /var/www/html </VirtualHost> <VirtualHost> ServerName DocumentRoot /var/www/web1 </VirtualHost>
  • 27. Configuring a Virtual Directory in Apache
    • The following associates the virtual directory called prod with the location of the directory
    • Alias /prod/ “/var/www/prod/”
    • Then it configures the directory
    • <Directory “/var/www/prod”> AllowOverride None Order allow, deny Allow from all
    • </Directory>
  • 28. Summary
    • Web servers use HTTP to send HTML documents
    • IIS is from Microsoft while Apache is from Apache Software Foundation
    • IIS modifications are made through property pages
    • Apache modifications are typically made by changing /etc/httpd/conf/httpd.conf
  • 29. Summary
    • You can create multiple Web sites on a single computer by adding port numbers, IP addresses, and/or host names
    • Virtual directories are directories that appear to be located beneath the root, yet are physically located elsewhere