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  • 1. Chapter 6: Windows Servers on the LAN
  • 2. History of Windows Networks
    • Microsoft OS desktop market share ?
    • The first Windows network operating system was NT 3.1 (1993). It had an interface similar to Windows 3.1 and integrated well with other popular network operating systems.
    • Windows NT4 (1995) was the network operating system that lead to Microsoft’s current dominance ?
  • 3. NT 3.1 Server
    • Main use as an Application Server
      • Server Network Architecture (SNA)
  • 4. History of Windows Networks
    • Windows 2000 included Active Directory as well as many improvements over Windows NT 4.
        • Now uses only a single architecture
        • Active Directory
        • Four Windows Server 2000 editions:
          • Windows 2000 Professional (mixed)
          • Windows 2000 Server (departmental)
          • Advanced Server (web and applications)
          • Datacenter Server (high end server)
  • 5. History of Windows Networks
    • Windows Server 2003 was not as revolutionary as Windows 2000, but included many security improvements. Expected to be Microsoft’s flagship server product until 2007 ?
        • Modular installation*
        • More Security improvements
        • Four Windows Server 2003 editions:
          • Standard Edition
          • Web Edition (IIS 6) can not be domain controller
          • Enterprise Edition
          • Datacenter Edition
  • 6. Web Servers
    • Statistics on Web servers: IIS vs. Apache
    http://4sysops.com/archives/apache-vs-iis-what-is-your-favorite-market-share-statistics/ Organization / Web Server Apache IIS Google (June 2007) 66% 23% Netcraft (October 2007) 48% 37% Port80 (July 2007) 25% 55% Security Space (Sept. 2007) 74% 19%
  • 7. Windows Server 2003 Hardware Requirements Minimum hardware requirements for Server 2003, Standard Edition ?
  • 8. Windows Server 2003 Memory Model
    • 32-bit and 64-bit addressing schemes supported
      • Require different versions of Windows Server 2003
      • Require different types of processors
      • The larger the addressing size, the more efficiently instructions can be processed
    • Each application (or process) assigned its own 32-bit memory area
      • Helps prevent processes from interfering with each other
    • Virtual Memory dialog box allows increase or decrease of paging file size
  • 9. Windows Server 2003 and Domains
    • Windows Server 2003 networks are organized into domains.
    • A domain is a centralized collection of common security policies, user, and computer accounts.
    • This collection of accounts is stored within Active Directory.
      • called domain controllers which host the AD DB
    • Users must log in and be authenticated by a domain controller before they can access resources in a domain.
    • Members of a domain share a common DNS suffix (such as companyname.internal or cis121.local).
  • 10. Domains (continued)
    • Domain controllers: host the Active Directory database.
          • - should use at least two on each network
    • Replication: identical copy of directory data on domain controller
    • Member servers: do not store AD information and can not authenticate users
  • 11. Trees and Forests
    • A forest is a collection of domains (uncommon namespaces) that share the same Active Directory schema.
    • A tree is a collection of domains within a forest that share a common DNS namespace.
    • A schema is the structure of the database
      • what objects exist
      • what attributes or properties of these objects can be assigned
    company.com child.company.com kid.company.com subsidiary.com child.subsidiary.com east.kid.company.com west.kid.company.com
  • 12. Trees and Forests
    • Active Directory organizes multiple domains hierarchically in a domain tree
      • Root domain : base of Active Directory tree
      • Child domains : branch out to separate groups of objects with same policies
      • Organizational units branch out underneath child domains to further subdivide network’s systems and objects
  • 13. OUs (Organizational Units) Multiple domains in one organization
  • 14. OUs (Organizational Units) A tree with multiple domains and OUs
  • 15. Trust Relationship
    • A trust relationship means that users in one domain can access resources in a different domain.
    • Trust relationships exist between all domains in a forest.
    • Forest trusts allow all domains in one forest to automatically trust all domains in a second forest.
    • Trusts can be changed: 2 way, 1 way
  • 16. Trust Relationships Two-way trusts between domains in a tree
  • 17. Planning For Installation
    • Critical preinstallation decisions:
      • How many, how large, and what kind of partitions will the server require?
      • What type of file system will the server use?
      • What will you name the server?
      • Which protocols & network services should the server use?
      • What will the Administrator password be?
      • Should the network use domains or workgroups and, if so, what will they be called?
      • Will the server support additional services?
      • Which licensing mode will you use?
      • How can I remember all of this information?
  • 18. Microsoft Management Console
    • MMC is the primary tool used to administer Windows Server 2003.
    • A large number of pre- configured MMC are available in the Administrative Tools menu.
    • 3 rd party software often ships with custom MMC add-ons.
    • You can build MMC for a particular task by creating a custom MMC . You add snap-ins to the console that are relevant to the task. You can then save or discard the console once you are finished with it.
    • You can use the MMC to administer remote computers within a domain. You add a snap-in with the focus set to the target remote computer.
  • 19. Computer Management Console
    • Built-in console that allows an administrator to perform most day-to-day system administration tasks as well as remotely administer other Windows computers.
    • Access the Computer Management Console by right-clicking the My Computer icon and then selecting Manage.
    • You can manage other servers using this console by right-clicking Computer Management and then selecting Connect to another computer .
    • Target computer must be a member of the same domain.
  • 20. Web-Based Administration
    • Windows Server 2003 has a Web-based administrative interface.
    • This allows you to perform administrative duties via a Web browser, including checking logs, managing users, and groups and starting and shutting down services.
    • This Admin method can tolerate connection interruptions and delays that other administration methods cannot.
    • Only basic administrative functions can be performed via the Web interface.
  • 21. Remote Desktop for Administration
    • Allows you to connect to a server and view its screen the same as though you were sitting in front of the computer.
    • Up to two administrators can be connected at once, each viewing a different screen.
    • Requires more bandwidth than other administration methods.
    • Remote Desktop clients exist for Mac OSX, Linux, Solaris, and Windows.
  • 22. LAN Infrastructure
    • Windows Server 2003 can host a variety of LAN infrastructure services such as DNS, DHCP, and WINS servers.
    • Use the Add/Remove Windows Components section of Add/Remove programs in the Control Panel to add services.
    • When Windows Server 2003 provides these infrastructure services, it must use a static IP address.
  • 23. Configure a Static IP 1. Open Network Connections from the Control Panel. 2. Right-click Local Area Connection and select Properties. 3. Select Internet Protocol and then click Properties. 4. Select Use the following IP address and enter IP address information.
  • 24. Windows Server 2003 DHCP
    • Once you have added the DHCP service to Windows Server 2003, you will need to create a new scope.
    • A DHCP scope is a pool of IP addresses that a DHCP server allocates to DHCP clients on the network.
    • You can set other information, such as DNS server address, subnet mask, mail server address, proxy server address, and default gateway as scope options.
  • 25. Windows Server 2003 DHCP
    • You should set a DHCP lease time that is appropriate to your network.
      • Long lease times if hosts are added and removed from your network occasionally.
      • Short lease times if hosts are regularly added and removed from the network.
    • Use reservations to ensure that certain hosts (such as servers) always have the same IP address.
    • Use exclusions for those hosts that have statically configured IP addresses.
  • 26. Windows Server 2003 DNS
    • By default, Windows Server 2003 uses Active Directory Integrated Zones (ADI Zones) which are stored within Active Directory .
    • ADI Zones can only be hosted on domain controllers . ADI Zones can be replicated to all domain controllers in the domain or forest. Any DNS server hosting an ADI Zones can process updates to that zone.
    • Only one server can host a primary zone . This server does not need to be a domain controller. Only the server hosting the primary zone can process updates to that zone. The zone data is stored in a zone file.
    • Any DNS server can host a secondary zone . A secondary zone is a read-only copy of an ADI or primary zone.
    • A stub zone is an abbreviated zone that contains only a list of name servers for the target zone. Stub zones are read only and are updated by contacting a DNS server hosting the primary zone. Any Windows Server 2003 DNS server can host a stub zone.
  • 27. WINS Server
    • W indows I nternet N aming S ystem is a legacy name resolution protocol.
    • WINS translates NetBIOS names into IP addresses.
    • WINS is required for LANs that must support Windows NT4 and Windows 9x clients.
    • WINS is not required if all computers on the LAN are Windows 2000 , Windows XP or Windows Server 2003 . DNS is used for these computers.
    • WINS uses Push / Pull replication. When a pull occurs, all information is transferred to the server performing the pull. When a push occurs, only updates are transferred to the target server.
    Server A Server B Server B Server A Server A pulls all information from Server B. Server A pushes updates to Server B.
  • 28. Summary
    • A domain is a centralized collection of common security policies, user and computer accounts.
    • Domain controllers are special computers that host Active Directory. Domain controllers authenticate logons and host common security policy, user and computer accounts.
    • A forest is a collection of domains that share the same Active Directory schema. All domains in a forest automatically trust each other.
    • A tree is a collection of domains within a forest that share a common DNS namespace.
    • Windows Server 2003 can be managed via MMC, Web Interface, or Remote Desktop.
    • Infrastructure servers should use static IP addresses.
    • ADI Zones are hosted on domain controllers. Any DNS server hosting an ADI Zone can process updates to that zone.
    • WINS servers are used to support older clients such as WinNT4 & Win9x.
  • 29. Discussion Questions
    • In what types of situations would you configure a short DHCP lease?
    • What are the benefits of an ADI zone over a primary zone?
    • Why should an infrastructure server (DNS, DHCP) be configured with a static, rather than dynamic, IP address?
    • What is the difference between a domain, a tree, and a forest?
    • What are the limitations of remotely administering via MMC as opposed to Remote Desktop?