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  • Intel – dual core or single core G5 – desktops G4 – laptops and eMacs (for schools) 3/2006
  • nonprof2007.ppt

    1. 1. Technology As A Management Tool Pat Sine Office of Educational Technology College of Human Resources, Education & Public Policy University of Delaware
    2. 2. Topics <ul><li>Technology strategic planning </li></ul><ul><li>Purchasing hardware and software </li></ul><ul><li>Security </li></ul><ul><li>Networking </li></ul><ul><li>Your presence on the web </li></ul><ul><li>Online communications tools </li></ul>
    3. 3. Technology Strategic Planning Strategic Technology Planning
    4. 4. Elements of Strategic Planning <ul><li>Source: </li></ul>
    5. 5. Pointers for Strategic Planning <ul><li>Keep focus on the goals of the organization </li></ul><ul><li>Use the plan as an ongoing map – not a task to be completed </li></ul><ul><li>If you don’t know…get an expert </li></ul><ul><li>Question all experts! </li></ul>
    6. 6. Tech Plan – Table of Contents <ul><li>Introduction and Summary </li></ul><ul><li>Agency’s Mission Statement </li></ul><ul><li>Programs and Services </li></ul><ul><li>Technology Vision Statement </li></ul><ul><li>Current Technology Structure </li></ul><ul><li>Technology Goals </li></ul><ul><li>Technology Work Plan </li></ul><ul><li>Budget </li></ul><ul><li>Monitoring and Evaluation </li></ul>
    7. 7. Budgeting <ul><li>TCO – Total Cost of Ownership </li></ul><ul><li>70 / 30 rule </li></ul><ul><ul><li>30% >>> initial purchase of hardware, software and peripherals </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>70% >>> technical support, repairs, training and upgrades </li></ul></ul>
    8. 8. Planning Resources <ul><li>Tech Soup </li></ul><ul><li>Tech Atlas – Online Tech Plan Development Tool </li></ul>
    9. 9. Who are the Stakeholders?
    10. 10. Stakeholders <ul><li>Decision makers across the organization </li></ul><ul><li>Clients to be served </li></ul><ul><li>Staff and volunteers who will use the technology </li></ul>
    11. 11. Purchasing Hardware
    12. 12. The only reason to have a computer is to run software. So… decide on your general software needs first.
    13. 13. But…we’ll start with hardware anyway!
    14. 14. How do we measure? <ul><li>Bits </li></ul><ul><li>Bytes </li></ul><ul><li>Kilo 10 3 </li></ul><ul><li>Mega 10 6 </li></ul><ul><li>Giga 10 9 </li></ul><ul><li>Tera 10 12 </li></ul><ul><li>Peta 10 15 </li></ul>
    15. 15. Basic Hardware Decisions <ul><li>What kind of machine? </li></ul><ul><li>Windows or Macintosh? </li></ul><ul><li>Desktop, laptop, tablet? </li></ul><ul><li>Desktop and laptop? </li></ul>
    16. 16. Basic Hardware Decisions <ul><li>Processor type and speed </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Measured in GHz </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Windows (min 1.5) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Intel Core Duo Series </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>AMD Athlon™ 64 X2 Dual-Core </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Mac (1.8 to 2.2) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Intel Core 2 Duo processor </li></ul></ul></ul>
    17. 17. Basic Hardware Decisions <ul><li>Memory – RAM </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Measured in MB or GB </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Preferably 1GB </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>(some say it will run at 512, but not worth later update costs) </li></ul></ul></ul>
    18. 18. Basic Hardware Decisions <ul><li>Hard drive size </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Measured in GB </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>60 – 80 GB </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>More in a desktop </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>More to store multimedia </li></ul></ul>
    19. 19. Basic Hardware Decisions <ul><li>Optical Drives </li></ul><ul><ul><li>DVD ROM & CD R/W (the old way) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>CDRW/DVD Combo (2006) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>DVD+/-RW (2007+) </li></ul></ul>
    20. 20. Basic Hardware Decisions <ul><li>Connectivity </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Modem – 56 Kbps </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Network card – 10/100/1000 Mbps </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Wireless adapter – 802.11b or 802.11g (most do both) – heading for 802.11n </li></ul></ul>
    21. 21. Other Hardware Decisions <ul><li>Things you don’t need to think about, much. </li></ul><ul><li>Monitors – DVI capable </li></ul><ul><li>Mouse and keyboard </li></ul><ul><li>Video cards </li></ul><ul><li>Sound cards </li></ul><ul><li>Modems </li></ul><ul><li>Ethernet (network) connectivity </li></ul><ul><li>Wireless access in a notebook </li></ul>
    22. 22. Even More Hardware Decisions <ul><li>What else? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Backup devices and data transport </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>CD-R </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>CD-RW </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>DVD +/-RW </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Tape </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Thumb drive (pen, USB, flash, jump) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Printers, scanners, digital cameras </li></ul></ul>
    23. 23. <ul><li>The biggest mistake to avoid… </li></ul><ul><li>Waiting just one more week for the prices to drop and the technology to stabilize. </li></ul>
    24. 24. One More Hardware Decision <ul><li>What about recycled computers? </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li> </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>TCO – Total Cost of Ownership </li></ul>
    25. 25. Hardware Decisions
    26. 26. Choosing Software
    27. 27. Software Characteristics <ul><li>Compatibility </li></ul><ul><li>Capability </li></ul><ul><li>Stability </li></ul><ul><li>Scalability </li></ul><ul><li>Ease of Use </li></ul><ul><li>Longevity and Support </li></ul>
    28. 28. Software Categories <ul><li>Commercial or purchased </li></ul><ul><li>Free </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Open Source </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Shareware </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Freeware </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Public Domain </li></ul></ul>
    29. 29. What’s Available For Free Look for software at or E-base Etapestry Non-profit Databases Outlook Express Mozilla Thunderbird E-mail clients Internet Explorer Mozilla Firefox Web Browsers OpenOffice Office Suite
    30. 30. What’s Available For Free Online Empressr Presentation Software Gmail or Yahoo Mail E-mail Spreadsheet Google Docs & Spreadsheets Word Processor
    31. 31. Purchasing Software <ul><li>Donated and Discount Products for Nonprofits </li></ul><ul><ul><li>TechSoup Stock </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li> </li></ul></ul>
    32. 32. What Else? <ul><li>Virus and Spyware Protection! </li></ul><ul><ul><li>AVG Antivirus </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Windows Defender </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>TechSoup: Virus Protection Resource Page </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Firewall </li></ul><ul><ul><li>ZoneAlarm / </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Built-in Windows Firewall </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Your wireless or network router </li></ul></ul>
    33. 33. Databases: Powerful, Somewhat more daunting, but Priceless <ul><li>Capabilities </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Next step after spreadsheets for organizing data </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Can grow with the organization </li></ul></ul><ul><li>ebase and eTapestry </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Specifically for non-profits to conduct business </li></ul></ul>
    34. 34. Software Decisions
    35. 35. Tech Skills
    36. 36. Tech Skills Considerations <ul><li>How will you train all your staff to use technology to improve productivity? </li></ul><ul><li>How will you reward those who do excel and encourage those who shy away? </li></ul><ul><li>As your operations become more computer-based, what will you do about technophobes? </li></ul>
    37. 37. Tech Skills Considerations <ul><li>Technology Literacy Benchmarks for Nonprofit Organizations (2001) </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul>
    38. 38. Tech Skills
    39. 39. Security
    40. 40. Invasions: the enemy outside <ul><li>Hacking and Cracking </li></ul><ul><li>Viruses </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A program or piece of code that is designed to replicate itself and spread from file to file, usually attaching itself to applications. Replicates itself via the network or email. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Worms </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A program or algorithm that replicates itself over a computer network without user intervention and usually performs malicious actions. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Trojan Horses </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A destructive program that masquerades as a benign application. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Hoaxes </li></ul><ul><li>Phishing and pharming </li></ul>
    41. 41. User Practices: the enemy inside <ul><li>Insecure passwords </li></ul><ul><li>Posted passwords </li></ul><ul><li>Poor back up practices </li></ul><ul><li>Internet firewall non-use </li></ul><ul><li>Lack of virus software updates </li></ul><ul><li>Lack of OS and other software updates </li></ul>
    42. 42. Security
    43. 43. Connecting to the Internet
    44. 44. Connecting To The Internet Broadband 1.5Mbps (symmetrical, dedicated) T1 Generally 384 Kbps (upload) - 6 Mbps (asymmetrical, shared) Cable Generally 1-3 Mbps (distance-dependent, asymmetrical) -- Soon to be upgraded to FiOS at 5-30 Mbps (fiber to the home DSL 56Kbps Dial-up
    45. 45. Connecting to the Internet
    46. 46. Local Area Networking
    47. 47. Types Of Local Area Networks <ul><li>Peer-to-Peer </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Local </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Virtual </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Client-Server </li></ul>
    48. 48. Peer-to-peer Networking <ul><li>Source:, </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul>Router
    49. 49. Client-server Networking <ul><li>Source:, </li></ul><ul><li>www.techsoup,org/articlepage.cfm?ArticleID=210&topicid=3 </li></ul>Router
    50. 50. Why A Server? <ul><li>Authentication </li></ul><ul><li>E-mail </li></ul><ul><li>Applications </li></ul><ul><li>File and Print Servers </li></ul><ul><li>Security </li></ul><ul><li>Backups </li></ul>
    51. 51. When A Server? <ul><li>4 or fewer ► Peer-to-Peer </li></ul><ul><li>20 or more ► Client/Server </li></ul><ul><li>In between ► determine by </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Business practice </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Availability of network support staff </li></ul></ul>
    52. 52. Reaching Further on the Network <ul><li>Internet </li></ul><ul><li>Intranet </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Web-based services protected by password access </li></ul></ul><ul><li>LAN – Local Area Network </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Single site network </li></ul></ul><ul><li>WAN – Wide Area Network </li></ul><ul><ul><li>LANs connected over a wide distance </li></ul></ul><ul><li>VPN – Virtual Private Network </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Network that uses public wires to allow access to a network (usually a LAN) </li></ul></ul>
    53. 53. Local Area Networking
    54. 54. Why the Web?
    55. 55. Why The Web? <ul><li>General information – puts you on the map </li></ul><ul><li>Disseminate special materials more efficiently </li></ul><ul><li>“Any time” connections </li></ul><ul><li>Create a library of materials </li></ul><ul><li>Involve new people less intrusively </li></ul>
    56. 56. Where to Publish <ul><li>Space from your connection provider </li></ul><ul><li>Local server </li></ul><ul><li>Vendors </li></ul><ul><li>Web Hosting </li></ul><ul><li>Registering a domain name </li></ul>
    57. 57. Where to Publish <ul><li>Criteria for a Web Hosting Service </li></ul><ul><ul><li>FindMyHosting: Web Host Guide </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>How to Choose a Web Host by Christopher Heng </li></ul></ul><ul><li>FindMyHosting </li></ul><ul><ul><li> / </li></ul></ul>
    58. 58. Skills Needed for a Great Site <ul><li>Publications – writing & organizing </li></ul><ul><li>Graphics arts </li></ul><ul><li>Technical </li></ul>
    59. 59. Stages of Site Development <ul><li>Brochure - static </li></ul><ul><li>Magazine – regular updates </li></ul><ul><li>Direct Mail Appeal – tied to membership or outreach database </li></ul><ul><li>Community – closer to a portal </li></ul>Source: The Stages of Site Development , Rick Christ
    60. 60. NPO Web Site Samples <ul><li>Center for Democracy & Technology / </li></ul><ul><li>Creative Mentoring </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li> / </li></ul>
    61. 61. Blogging <ul><li>Web logs Weblogs Blogs </li></ul><ul><li>Nonprofit Blog Exchange m / </li></ul><ul><li>A Nonprofit's Guide to the Blogosphere </li></ul>
    62. 62. Why Blog? <ul><li>To report back from an event or conference </li></ul><ul><li>To involve staff and take advantage of their knowledge </li></ul><ul><li>To involve volunteers and document their work </li></ul><ul><li>To provide resources and information to constituents </li></ul><ul><li>To provide resources and information from constituents </li></ul><ul><li>To give constituents a place to voice their opinion </li></ul><ul><li>To give constituents support </li></ul><ul><li>To create the media coverage constituents want </li></ul><ul><li>To give constituents the power and tools to create change </li></ul><ul><li>To reach potential donors </li></ul>Source:, 10-ways-nonprofits-can-use-blogs
    63. 63. Web Site Decisions
    64. 64. Using Online Communications Tools
    65. 65. Asynchronous Communication <ul><li>Email </li></ul><ul><li>Listservs </li></ul><ul><li>Blogs </li></ul><ul><li>Wikis </li></ul>
    66. 66. E-mail <ul><li>Netiquette </li></ul><ul><li>Management and storage </li></ul><ul><li>Clarity </li></ul><ul><li>Lists managed through an Address book </li></ul>
    67. 67. Listservs <ul><li>“ Chatty” </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Charity Channel Forums </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li> </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>E-zines or newsletters </li></ul><ul><li>Do-it-yourself </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Yahoo! Groups / </li></ul></ul>
    68. 68. Synchronous Communication <ul><li>Chatrooms </li></ul><ul><li>Instant Messaging </li></ul><ul><li>Video conferencing </li></ul><ul><li>Skype </li></ul>
    69. 69. AOL Instant Messenger
    70. 70. NetMeeting (now replaced)
    71. 71. Skype
    72. 72. Online Communication Decisions
    73. 73. Great Sources of Additional Help TechSoup Compumentor NetSquared
    74. 74. Materials for this presentation can be found at <ul><li> </li></ul>