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Name Based Net Architectures
Name Based Net Architectures
Name Based Net Architectures
Name Based Net Architectures
Name Based Net Architectures
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Name Based Net Architectures

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  • Does the paper answer the question?
  • It does satisfy the requirement of their suitable IA
  • Lots of problems with what the Internet is tuned to do today DNS is rather static
  • WHAT, not WHERE! You don’t often know WHERE, but you always know WHAT you want!
  • One of the cornerstones of N21 is a new naming system. Intentional names --> express WHAT you want Names are descriptions; names are queries
  • What are some key features of the world I just described? - Lots of heterogeneity - Much higher levels of dynamism than today - Much more decentralized and needs much more robustness - allow for tetherless operation
  • Transcript

    • 1. Network Architecture (R02) Name Based Nets? Jon Crowcroft, http://www. cl .cam.ac.uk/~jac22 http://www.cl.cam.ac.uk/teaching/0910/R02/
    • 2. Shoch’s Mnemonic Mantra
      • Name - what it is
        • Readable/semantics/organisation
        • Attributed…x.500 & INS & DNS Service Name
      • Address - where “it” is
        • Identity perhaps
        • Location hints perhaps
      • Route - how to get to it
        • Consult a map
        • (Build a map?)
      • Name-address binding - resolvers
      • Address-route binding - forwarders
    • 3. Addresses
      • Pure location = last component in route
      • Hierarchy = loose source route
      • Identifier != address ( == name)
      • IP addresses are a mix
        • Interface
        • Prefix matching - distributed hierarchy!
    • 4. Multicast/Anycast “addresses”
      • Are really names
      • You can tell because you need to bind
      • Late binding…
    • 5. Mobility & Address Re-Use
      • If we run out of address space:
      • Look at usage in space & time
      • Re-use of addresses when hosts not active
      • Re-allocation of addresses to where more use
      • Can do by updating routing or…
      • Non global addresses +state
    • 6. Where can we update things
      • DNS Name ->
        • Local addr + NAT + Dyn DNS
      • IP Address ->
        • See later (xxx)
      • Lower layer label…
        • Label switching
      • All need state in the net somewhere
        • NAT, router or switch, respectively)
    • 7. Bug in internet
      • Transport uses IP address as part of “end” state - includes routing hint!
      • Many mobility (and multipath) hacks to hide this mistake!
    • 8. Mobile => State Update
      • Whether you do it with name/addr, route inject, or label,
      • If you move, then
        • other end has to know, and
        • New peers have to know, or
        • Someone has to proxy for you in your old place -> triangular routing (bad)
      • Big problem is update procedure
        • Workload
        • Security!
    • 9. Cellular (GPRS, 3G etc) Data
      • Is below IP for now
      • So you don’t see this, but
      • Does manage device location, and then either
        • Routeable addr for active device
        • NAT
        • Re-do adress and rely on phone being only client (and HTTP level recovery - standard in most web 2.0 systems)
        • Big problems if you want to be “always on” for data.
    • 10. What breaks if we update our IP?
      • See 8+8 and LISP
        • Need to update routes
        • Need other end of live transport session to know
        • Need DNS entry to reflect this…so new peers can reach us at new place
      • Both route update and DNS update might take time….so
        • Need help during hysteresis (temporary triangle)
        • May be gap during which some new peers can’t reach us…
        • Both route&dns update may take time if securely done (e.g. if ID Is allocated via HIP)
    • 11. My crazy idea
      • Address swapping
      • In a really big system, there are as many pople moving from A to B as from B to A over sufficient time scale (e.g on roads)
      • So why not swap addresses?
        • And use the people you swapped addresses with as “care of” for temporary triangles during handover
        • While you tell the other end
      • What happens when both ends do this?
    • 12. For static systems sometimes need a transparent choice
      • Load balancers or DDoS avoidance
        • Replicated Services
        • Migrating Services
      • Lots of the techniques give hint on how to do mobile, and how not to!
    • 13. Global Server Load Balancing Dima Krioukov [ [email_address] .com] Alex Kit [ [email_address] .com] October 24, 2000
    • 14. Purpose
      • Existing methods
      • New technique
      • Analysis
      • Applicability considerations
    • 15. Plan
      • Introduction
        • What are ASPs?
        • Requirements to IDCs
      • LSLB
        • Load Sharing NAT (LSNAT)
        • Direct Server Return (DSR)
        • Tunneling
      • GSLB
        • DNS Based
        • Host Route Injection (HRI)
        • Triangle Data Flow (TDF)
        • Latest Trends
      • New Technique – Virtual Block Injection (VBI)
        • Description
        • Testing
        • Analysis
      • Applicability Considerations
      • Conclusions and References
    • 16. Abbreviations
      • LB = Load Balancing/Balancer
      • SLB = Server LB
      • LSLB = Local SLB
      • GSLB = Global SLB
      • HA = High Availability
      • RS = Real Server/Service
      • VS = Virtual Server/Service
      • VIP = VS IP address
      • LSNAT = Load Sharing NAT
      • DSR = Direct Server Return
      • PRP = Proximity Report Protocol
      • LRP = Load Report Protocol
      • LPRP = PRP + LRP
      • HRI = Host Route Injection
      • VBI = Virtual Block Injection
      • TDF = Triangle Data Flow
      • IDC = Internet Data Center
      • CDN = Content Delivery Network
      • ASP = Application Service Provider
      • CASP = Content/Collocation and Application Service Provider
      • AIP = Application Infrastructure Provider
      • xyP = ?
    • 17. 1. Introduction
      • Logic: GSLB  IDC  ASP  Hosting
    • 18. Hosting Infrastructure Web User Content Owner IDC Owner ISP OSS
    • 19. ASP Infrastructure End Customer ASP Applications Operations ISP/Backbone Access IDC
    • 20. IDC IDC Core (Routing) Distribution (L3 Switching) Tier Tier Tier LB Tier Load Balancing (L4 Switching) Port Density (L2 Switching) Servers SAN
    • 21. Requirements to IDCs
      • Load Balancing (LB)
      • Local
      • Global
      • Local
      • Global
      • Proximity (“including” congestion)
      • Load
      • High Availability (HA)
      IDC1 IDC2 Client HA  LB
    • 22. 2. Generic SLB and LSLB
      • SLB = VS  RS
      • Health Checking
        • Layer 2
        • Layer 3
        • Layer 4
        • Layer 7
      • SLB Algorithm
        • Round Robin
        • Least Connections
        • Server Response Time
        • Server Load
        • Hashing
      • SLB Forwarding
        • Session Tables
        • Timers
    • 23. LSLB Forwarding
      • LSNAT
      • DSR
      • Tunneling
    • 24. LSNAT Router LB S1 S2 S3 X Y src/ dst Layer Ingress Client_Port S1_Port dst Client_IP S1_IP dst LB_MAC S1_MAC dst Client_Port Virtual_Port dst Client_IP Virtual_IP dst dst Router_MAC Virtual_MAC Client_Port Client_IP LB_MAC Client_Port Client_IP Router_MAC S1_IP src L3 src src src src src Virtual_IP L3 S1_Port L4 Virtual_Port L4 S1_MAC L2 Y Virtual_MAC L2 X Egress Segment
    • 25. LSNAT + Source NAT Router LB S1 S2 S3 X Y src/ dst Layer Ingress LB_V_Port S1_Port dst LB_V_IP S1_IP dst LB_V_MAC S1_MAC dst Client_Port Virtual_Port dst Client_IP Virtual_IP dst dst Router_MAC Virtual_MAC LB_V_Port LB_V_IP LB_V_MAC Client_Port Client_IP Router_MAC S1_IP src L3 src src src src src Virtual_IP L3 S1_Port L4 Virtual_Port L4 S1_MAC L2 Y Virtual_MAC L2 X Egress Segment
    • 26. DSR Router LB S1 S2 S3 1 2 3 Virtual_Port Client_Port Virtual_IP Client_IP S1_MAC Virtual_MAC 2 Client_Port Virtual_Port Client_IP Virtual_IP Router_MAC S1_MAC 3 src/ dst Layer 1 Virtual_Port dst Virtual_IP dst dst Virtual_MAC Client_Port Client_IP Router_MAC src src src L3 L4 L2
    • 27. Tunneling Router LB S1 S2 S3 1 2 3 Int: V_IP Int: C_IP V_Port C_Port Ext: S1_IP Ext: LB_IP S1_MAC LB_MAC 2 C_Port V_Port C_IP V_IP R_MAC S1_MAC 3 src/ dst Layer 1 V_Port dst V_IP dst dst V_MAC C_Port C_IP R_MAC src src src L3 L4 L2
    • 28. 3. GSLB
      • DNS Based
      • HRI
      • TDF
      • Latest Trends
    • 29. 3.1 DNS Based
      • GSLB = Name  VS (DNS+)
      • Smart DNS
        • Load and availability awareness  Load Report Protocol (LRP)
        • Proximity and congestion awareness  Proximity Report Protocol (PRP)
      • LB DNS Functionality
        • DNS Server
        • DNS Proxy
          • Caching
        • DNS Traffic Intercept
    • 30. LPRP
      • Transport
        • UDP
        • TCP
        • HTTP
      • Operation
        • Periodic Updates
        • Periodic Requests
        • Triggered Updates
      IDC1 LB IDC2 LB IDC3 LB
    • 31. PRP
      • RTT
      • Effective bandwidth
      • Number of hops
      • Number of AS hops
      • IGP metric
      Proximity to the client LDNS, not to the client
    • 32. LRP
      • VS Health
        • Up
        • Down
        • Backup only
      • VS Load
        • Number of sessions
        • Response Time
      • LB Load
        • Number of sessions
        • Capacity threshold
        • CPU
      • RS/Content Load
      • Network Load
        • bps
        • pps
      • QoS
      • Security
    • 33. How it works IDC1 IDC2 LB IDC3 LB Customer LDNS ADNS Client RDNS 1 2 3 4 5 5 6 6 6
    • 34. How it works IDC1 IDC2 LB IDC3 LB Customer LDNS ADNS Client RDNS 7 7 8 10 11 9
    • 35. Analysis
      • Pros
      • Accurate load info
      • Accurate proximity info
      • Perfect solution… in some cases and if certain conditions are met
      • Cons
      • DNS – wrong target
      • Proximity between client and its LDNS
      • Caching
        • LB
        • LDNS
        • Application
      • Complexity
      • Hard to find optimal values for various timers (TTL, cache timeouts, etc.) and prefix lengths
    • 36. 3.2 HRI
      • GSLB = Routing+
      • To what?
        • BGP
        • IGP
      • By what?
        • RS
        • Router
        • LB
    • 37. To what
      • IGP?
      • BGP
        • Route filtering (both ways)
        • No ECMP
      Client Router IDC1 IDC2
    • 38. By what
      • RS
      IDC1 Router RS BGP IDC2 Router RS BGP
    • 39. By what
      • Router
      IDC1 Router RS IDC2 Router RS RS LB
    • 40. By what
      • LB
      IDC2 Router RS RS LB IDC1 Router RS RS LB BGP BGP
    • 41. Analysis
      • Pros
      • Simplicity
      • No new protocols are needed
      • Proximity is handled by routing
      • Load handling?
      • Cons
      • Single backbone*
        • Its own
        • Single ISP
      • Too many routes
      • Less accurate load and proximity info
        • Only local load
        • Optimal routing?
      • Route flapping*
    • 42. 3.3 TDF
      • GSLB = X + TDF
      • NAT Based
      • Tunneling
      Client IDC1, “ wrong” IDC2, “ right”
    • 43. Why “wrong” IDC?
      • Failure of, disabled or non-implemented LPRP
      • Cached DNS records
      • Other retardation effects (LPRP, BGP)
    • 44. NAT Based Client IDC1, “ wrong” V1.1; V1.2 IDC2, “ right” V2.1; V2.2 3 2 1 1 V1.1 C C V2.2 dst V1.1 C src L3 3 2
    • 45. “ Remote Servers” Client IDC1, “ wrong” V1.1 IDC2, “ right” V2.1 2 1 C V1.1 4 1 V1.1 C V1.1 V2.1 dst V2.1 V1.1 src L3 3 2 3 4
    • 46. Tunneling
      • Next section
    • 47. Analysis
      • Pros
      • Fixes errors optimally
      • Cons
      • ip verify reverse-path
      Client Router Router IDC1, “ wrong” IDC2, “ right”
    • 48. Analysis
      • Pros
      • Fixes errors optimally
      • Cons
      • ip verify reverse-path
      Client Router Router IDC1, “ wrong” IDC2, “ right”
    • 49. 3.4 Latest Trends, Radicalism
      • Internet infiltration
      • Going to the client edge
      • Going to the client
      • Modifying the client
      • LB presence in strategic locations (HydraGPS, Speedera)
      • LDNS modifications (Speedera)
      • Application modifications (SRV RRs)
    • 50. Internet Infiltrations IDC2 LB IDC1 LB Customer LB LB LB Client LB LB LB
    • 51. Internet Infiltrations IDC2 LB IDC1 LB Customer LB LB LB Client LB LB
    • 52. LDNS modifications in CDNs IDC2 LB IDC1 LB Customer LDNS Client ASP Backbone
    • 53. 4. Virtual Block Injection (VBI)
      • Inject not VS host routes, but blocks of GSLB’ed VSs  IDC (LB) failures are handled by the routing protocol
      • Use tunneling TDF in case of individual VS failure
    • 54. How it works AS1 AS2 V/20, AS3 V/20, AS3 Client ISP1 ISP2 IDC1, R1/20 IDC2, R2/20
    • 55. How it works AS1 AS2 V/20, AS3 Client ISP1 ISP2 IDC1, R1/20 IDC2, R2/20
    • 56. How it works AS1 AS2 V/20, AS3 V/20, AS3 Client ISP1 ISP2 IDC1, R1/20 IDC2, R2/20
    • 57. Testing
      • Needed
      • LB
      • BGP
      • Tunnels
      • Linux
      • Linux Virtual Server (LVS, Wensong Zhang, Julian Anastasov)
      • Zebra
      • Tunnels
    • 58. Test Network
    • 59. Analysis
      • Pros
      • All of HRI, plus
      • No host route injection
      • Working TDF
      • Perfect VS health handling
      • VS load  LRP
      • Obvious simplifications in more “ideal” cases
      • Cons
      • LB load  stop advertisement?
      • BGP – proximity tool?
      • Discontinuous AS?
      • Route flapping!
    • 60. Route Flapping AS1 AS2 V/20, AS3 V/20, AS3 Client Router ISP1 ISP2 IDC1, R1/20 IDC2, R2/20 UDP TCP
    • 61. Solution for UDP
      • Session table entry exchange for long sessions
      AS1 AS2 V/20, AS3 V/20, AS3 Client Router ISP1 ISP2 IDC1, R1/20 IDC2, R2/20
    • 62. Solution for UDP
      • Session table entry exchange for long sessions
      AS1 AS2 V/20, AS3 V/20, AS3 Client Router ISP1 ISP2 IDC1, R1/20 IDC2, R2/20
    • 63. Solution for TCP
      • If LB receives packet
      • Destined to a VS
      • No SYN
      • No session table entry
      • Not via the tunnels
      • Forward via all the tunnels
      AS1 AS2 V/20, AS3 V/20, AS3 Client Router ISP1 ISP2 IDC1, R1/20 IDC2, R2/20
    • 64. 5. Applicability Considerations
      • GSLB of
      • Small number of VSs (or RSs)
        • by an ISP*
        • by its customer
      • Big number of VSs (between IDCs)
        • CASP  ISP
        • CASP  ISP
          • CASP has its own backbone
            • CASP does not have control over customer access
            • CASP has control over customer access**
          • CASP does not have its own backbone
            • CASP is multihomed to the same ISP
            • CASP is multihomed to different ISPs*
    • 65. 6. Conclusions
      • No ideal GSLB method
      • For some “ideal” network scenarios, there are some “ideal” solutions
      • For realistic network scenarios, there are rapidly improving realistic solutions
      • Good competition
      • Lack of comparative testing in the production-like environment
    • 66. References
      • On ASPs: Nortel , ASP Industry Consortium , Network Magazine , IRG
      • Vendors: Alteon , ArrowPoint , Foundry , F5 , Cisco , Nortel , Radware , HydraWEB , Speedera , Resonate
      • RFCs: LSNAT , SRV , DNS for LB , SLB draft (work in progress)
      • Open Source: LVS, http://www.linuxvirtualserver.org/
      • VBI Testing: http://www.krioukov.net/~dima/VBI/
    • 67. IPNL: A NAT-Extended Internet Architecture Paul Francis Tahoe Network Remakrishna Gummadi UC Berkeley
    • 68. About title
      • Suitable IA
      • Improving IPv4’s
        • scalability
        • size
      • Keeping its property
        • Long-lived addresses,Robustness-statelessness, Address independence, Packet hijacking resistance
      • Extension of NAT
      • Modify only hosts and NAT boxes
    • 69. Answer Question
      • Some extension of NAT
      • Suitable Internet Architecture
      ?
    • 70. Outline
      • IPNL basics
      • Key attributes of IPNL
      • Review question
      • Other works
      • Comparison with IPv6
      • Discussion
    • 71. Basic(0)--NAT
      • Network address translation
      • Advantages
        • Connect private network
        • Isolate private network
      • Disadvantages
        • Unaddressable hosts
    • 72. Basics(1)--concepts
      • Topology
      • Terminologies
      • FQDN, MRIP, RN, EHIP
      • Addresses
        • FQDN,
        • IPNL address
          • Local IP, Global IP(composed of MRIP, RN, EHIP)
      • IPNL Header next…
      internal nl-router Global private private frontdoor private EHIP RN MRIP
    • 73. Terms
      • FQDN
      • Realm Number
      • Middle Realm
      • End Host ID/IP
      • Fully qualified Domain Name - DNS
      • New thing (AS)?
      • Realm based IP?
      • Now Real specific (like non routeable Ips)
    • 74. Basics(2)--routing IPNL Header Optional FQDN header (variable) Optional global header (16) Local header (24)
    • 75. Basic(2)--routing
      • Knowledge of IPNL host & routers
      HOST: (1)FQDN & EHIP (2)one or more nl-routers Internal nl-router: (1)its neighbors (2)FQDN, IP pair list (3)Routing information Frontdoor: Entry for all realms behind it
    • 76. Example1: Routing by FQDN
    • 77. Example2: Routing by IPNL addresses DestAddress: M3:R6:H3
    • 78. Key attributes of IPNL
      • Reuse existing infrastructure
      • Utilize FQDN
      • Extend IP address space
      • Isolate site addressing
        • Separate local and global header
        • Realm number independence
        • In-flight IPNL address resolution
        • Location
      MRIP RN EHIP
    • 79. Experiment
      • Testbed
        • “ netperf” benchmark
      • Result
        • Good! No degradation of throughput at all
        • Latency associated with failure connection depends on routes refresh frequency
    • 80. Testbed
    • 81. Review question
      • Maintain characteristics of IPv4
        • Long-lived addresses
        • Robustness
        • Address independence
        • Packet hijacking resistance
      • Solve
        • Scalability
        • Address depletion
           
    • 82. NICE
    • 83. Other works
      • AVES
        • “ A waypoint service approach to connect heterogeneous internet address space” by Eugene Ng, Ion Stoica, Hui Zhang (CMU)
      • TRIAD
        • By D.R. Cheriton, M. Gritter(stanford)
      • IPv6
    • 84. Comparisons with IPv6
      • IPNL
      • Completely isolate sites
      • Less expensive
      • Simpler transition
      • Easier security administration
      • IPv6pure
      • Less Header rewriting
      • Simpler auto-address configuration
      Advantages disappear in IPv6on4 env
    • 85. Discussions
      • EHIP 4 Byte?
      • Too long header?
      • Complexity analysis of IPNL?
        • Routing algorithm
      • Experiment convincing?
      • Does IPNL have a bright future?
      • Quality of the paper?
    • 86. Resource Discovery Using an Intentional Naming System Hari Balakrishnan MIT Lab for Computer Science http://wind.lcs.mit.edu/ [email_address] With: William Adjie-Winoto, Elliot Schwartz, Jeremy Lilley, Anit Chakraborty
    • 87. Application: Location-dependent wireless services
      • Access, control services, communicate with them
      • Handle mobility & group communication
      App should be able to conveniently specify a resource and access it
      • Spontaneous networking
      • Locate other useful services (e.g., nearest café)
      Where?
      • Automatically obtain map of region & discover devices, services and people there
    • 88. Challenges
      • Configuration
      • Routing
      • Discovery
      • Adaptation
      • Security & privacy
      Dynamic, mobile environment with no pre-configured support for internetworking or service location
    • 89. Today
      • Mostly static topology & services
      • Deploying new services cumbersome
      • Applications cannot learn about network
      • Failures are common!
      • High management cost
      Routers Servers Clients DNS Hostname Address
    • 90. Ad hoc configuration
      • Static configuration impossible
      • DHCP-like configuration undesirable
        • Over wireless, pre-configured subnetworks and broadcasts problematic
      • Solution: Distributed, randomized address assignment
      addr = a r mask = m r addr = b r mask = m r addr = c r mask = n Coalesce? Route? [a r :m r ]
    • 91. Resource discovery
      • Why is this hard?
        • Dynamic environment (mobility, performance changes, etc.)
        • No pre-configured support, no centralized servers
        • Must be easy to deploy (“ZERO” manual configuration)
        • Heterogeneous services & devices
      • Approach: a new naming system & resolution architecture
    • 92. Design goals
      • Names must be descriptive, signifying application intent
      Responsiveness Name resolvers must track rapid changes Robustness System must overcome resolver and service failure Easy configuration Name resolvers must self-configure Expressiveness
    • 93. Intentional Naming System (INS) principles
      • Names are intentional , based on attributes
        • Apps know WHAT they want, not WHERE
      • INS integrates resolution and forwarding
        • Late binding of names to nodes
      • INS resolvers replicate and cooperate
        • Soft-state name exchange protocol with periodic refreshes
      • INS resolvers self-configure
        • Form an application-level overlay network
    • 94. INS architecture overview
      • Intentional Name Resolvers (INR) form a distributed overlay
      Integrate resolution and message routing image Lookup camera510.lcs.mit.edu INR self-configuration
      • [building = ne-43
        • [room = 510]]
      • [entity = camera]
      Intentional name
    • 95. How does it work? INR DSR Virtual space partitions Domain Space Resolvers Scaling? Application-level overlay network formed based on performance Inter-domain information via DSR protocol Exchange names as if they were routes
    • 96. INS service model INR application Early binding Late binding query Intentional anycast Intentional multicast Application-level routing using intentional names Self-configuring app-level overlay network formed based on performance Soft-state name dissemination set of names
    • 97. What’s in a name?
      • Names are queries
        • Attribute-value matches
        • Range queries
        • Wildcard matches
      • Expressive name language (like XML)
      • Resolver architecture decoupled from language
      • [vspace = thermometer]
      • [building = ne-43
        • [room = *]]
      • [temperature < 62 0 F]
      data [vspace = netgroup] [department = arch-lab [state = oregon [city = hillsboro]]] [rank = admin] data
      • [vspace = camera]
      • [building = ne-43
        • [room = 504]]
      • [resolution=800x600]]
      • [access = public]
      • [status = ready]
      • Names are descriptive
        • Providers announce names
    • 98. Responsiveness: Late binding
      • Mapping from name to location(s) can change rapidly
      • Integrate resolution and message routing to track change
        • INR resolves name by lookup-and-forward, not by returning address
        • lookup(name) is a route
        • Forward along route
      • A name can map to one location (“anycast”) or to many (“multicast”)
    • 99. Late binding services
      • Intentional anycast
        • INR picks one of several possible locations
        • Choice based on service-controlled metric [contrast with IP anycast]
        • Overlay used to exchange name-routes
      • Intentional multicast
        • INR picks all overlay neighbors that “express interest” in name
        • Message flows along spanning tree
        • Overlay used to transfer data too
    • 100. Robustness: Names as soft-state
      • Resolution via network of replicated resolvers
      • Names are weakly consistent, like network-layer routes
        • Routing protocol to exchange names
      • Fate sharing with services, not INRs
        • Name unresolved only if service absent
      • Soft-state with expiration is robust against service/client failure
        • No need for explicit de-registration
    • 101. Self-configuring resolvers
      • INRs configure using a distributed topology formation protocol
      • DSR (DNS++) maintains list of candidate and active INRs
      • INR-to-INR “ping” experiments for “link weights”
      • Current implementation forms (evolving) spanning tree
      • INRs self-terminate if load is low
    • 102. Efficient name lookups
      • Data structure
      • Lookup
        • AND operations among orthogonal attributes
        • For values pick the value(s) satisfying the lookup
      • Polynomial-time in worst case
    • 103. Scaling issues
      • Two potential problems
        • Lookup overhead
        • Routing protocol overhead
      • Load-balancing by spawning new INR handles lookup problem
      • Virtual space partitioning handles routing protocol problem
        • Just spawning new INR is insufficient
    • 104. Virtual space partitioning vspace=camera vspace=5th-floor Routing updates for each vspace Delegate this to another INR
    • 105. INR Implementation Overlay Manager Network Monitor Route Manager Client Manager Forwarder vspace neighbors NameTreeSet Communicator Mobility Sockets TCP/UDP lookup Intentional anycast, multicast Incoming message
    • 106. Applications
      • Wireless Networks of Devices (WIND)
        • Location-dependent mobile applications
        • Floorplan: A navigation tool
        • Camera: An image/video service
        • Printer: A smart print spooler
        • TV & jukebox
        • Network-independent “instant messaging”
        • Location-support system for services and clients to learn location
    • 107. WIND
    • 108.  
    • 109.  
    • 110.  
    • 111.  
    • 112.  
    • 113.  
    • 114.  
    • 115.  
    • 116. Status & performance
      • Java implementation of INS & applications
      • PC-based resolver performance
        • 1 resolver: several thousand names @100-1000 lookups/s
        • Discovery time linear in hops
      • Scalability
        • Virtual space partitions for load-shedding
        • Wide-area design in progress
      • Deployment
        • Hook in wide-area architecture to DNS
        • Standardize virtual space names (like MIME)
      • Paper at SOSP 17 (http://wind.lcs.mit.edu/)
    • 117. Related work
      • Domain Name System
        • Differences in expressiveness and architecture
      • Service Location Protocol
        • More centralized, less spontaneous
      • Berkeley Service Discovery Service
        • Authentication, fixed hierarchies for wide-area
      • Jini:
        • INS for self-configuring fault-tolerant discovery
      • Universal Plug-and-Play & SSDP
        • XML-based descriptions; INS fits well
      • Intentional names in other contexts
        • E.g., Discover query routing, DistributedDirector
    • 118. Application-Level Networks
      • Increasing number of services that set up application-level overlay networks
      • Distributed Web caches
      • Replica management systems
      • Transcoders
      • Multi-party communication
      • Naming systems
      • Net news
    • 119. What Do They Have in Common?
      • Form an overlay over IP
      • Nodes exchange meta-data information
      • Nodes forward messages based on meta-data
      • Incorporate configuration machinery
      • Fault/crash recovery
      • Load balancing
    • 120. Supporting Application-Level Networks
      • General protocols for meta-data dissemination
      • Fault-tolerance primitives
      • Self-configuring overlays
        • Bootstrap and placement
        • Neighbor formation
        • Load balancing
      • Security and privacy primitives
    • 121. Future Internet Architecture Flexible IP routers Scheduling, buffer mgmt Use each other to add value Resource management Traffic engineering Congestion Manager Middleware ... Cache & replica management Self-configuring overlays INS Media transcoders Performance discovery Service location Jini UPnP E-speak T-spaces Decentralized security
    • 122. Conclusion
      • Achieving self-organizing networks requires a flexible naming system for resource discovery
        • INS works in dynamic, heterogeneous networks
        • Expressiveness: names convey intent
        • Responsiveness: late binding
        • Robustness: soft-state name dissemination
        • Configuration: Resolvers self-configure
      • Application-level overlay networks are a good way to build flexible, self-organizing network applications
    • 123. For next week (Tuesday 27th oct)
      • I want each of you to read about location/identifier split proposals in the Internet community (e.g. LISP)
      • And come up with
        • What do they solve
        • What do they not solve…
        • And email me 1 slide with that on!
        • Which YOU will present!
      • And we will discuss how the desiderata (requirements) changed!

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