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                     Linux, Apache, Mysql, PHP

                       Sameer D. Sahasrabuddhe
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               The World Wide Web

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                                  Client-Server Architecture
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               • Server: provides serv...
What’s a webserver?
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               • A processs that responds to requests for resources on port 80.
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The Apache HTTP Server
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               • The number one http server on the Internet - 63% website...
What are modules?
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               Apache’s functionality is contained in modules that you can choose to
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 Title Page                         Some common modules

               mod cgi Execution of CGI scripts.
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                                       Controlling Apache
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               /etc/httpd/conf/httpd.conf ...
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                                       Apache content
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               /var/www/html/ The “DocumentRo...
Dynamic Content Generation
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                • Client-Server decoupling: the client never knows the physical forma...
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                PHP: Hypertext Preprocessor


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                • A general purpose scripting language...
Home Page                              What can PHP do?
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                • Server-side scripting.
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External services
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                • Database connectivity
                   – A wide range of d...
PHP on the Web

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                       PHP can be directly embedded in HTML markup.

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                             PHP on the Web (continued)
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                    <head>
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                                        Language features
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                • Variables - pre-define...
Variables in PHP


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                $foo = "bar";
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Arrays
                $a = array( 1 => ’one’,
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                            3 =>’th...
Home Page                        Arrays functions
                unset ($a[’color’]);
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                rese...
Functions
                <?php
                function foo()
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                    echo "In foo()<br>n";...
OOP in PHP
                <?php
                class Cart
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                    var $items;
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HTML Forms
                <form action="foo.php" method="post">
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                                        Session handling
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                • A way to preserve cert...
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                                  Session example
                <?php
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Cookies
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                 • A mechanism for storing data in the client.
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                 • Any cooki...
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                MySQL


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                                             What is it?
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                • The most popular Open So...
Installation
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                • Installation on Red Hat Linux is a breeze, using rpms for mysql,
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Using the mysql client
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                                      MySQL Privilege System
                Managed by tables i...
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                • SQL - Structured Query Langua...
MySQL databases
                mysql> SHOW DATABASES;
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                | Database |
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                Putting it together


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                                            Resources
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                The resources listed here a...
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                RTFM

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                Thanks..
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Linux, Apache, Mysql, PHP

  1. 1. Home Page Title Page Linux, Apache, Mysql, PHP Sameer D. Sahasrabuddhe KReSIT, IIT Bombay Page 1 of 39 http://www.it.iitb.ac.in/˜sameerds/ Go Back Full Screen Close Quit
  2. 2. Home Page Title Page The World Wide Web Page 2 of 39 Go Back Full Screen Close Quit
  3. 3. Home Page Client-Server Architecture Title Page • Server: provides services. • Client: generates requests for services. • May or may not run on the same machine. Page 3 of 39 • Typically, they use a standard protocol for communication. • For example, Apache is a webserver, the browser is a client and the Go Back protocol used is HTTP. Full Screen Close Quit
  4. 4. What’s a webserver? Home Page • A processs that responds to requests for resources on port 80. Title Page • Typical requests are for hypertext files and related objects. • The client uses a Universal Resource Locator (URL). • Example - http://www.kernel.org/pub/ • A typical HTTP transaction: Page 4 of 39 1. The browser (client) makes a request to the website. Go Back 2. The webserver looks up the resource specified. 3. The webserver reads/generates the corresponding content and Full Screen sends it to the browser (client). Close Quit
  5. 5. The Apache HTTP Server Home Page Title Page • The number one http server on the Internet - 63% websites, as of August 2002. • A project of the Apache Software Foundation. • Provides full source code and comes with an unrestrictive license - the Apache Software License. Page 5 of 39 • Runs on Windows NT/9x, Netware 5.x and above, OS/2, and most versions of Unix, as well as several other operating systems. Go Back • Can be customised by writing “modules” using the Apache module Full Screen API. Close Quit
  6. 6. What are modules? Home Page Apache’s functionality is contained in modules that you can choose to Title Page include or exclude. Types of modules static modules compiled into the httpd binary. Page 6 of 39 dynamic modules stored separately and can be optionally loaded at run- time. Go Back third-party modules modules that are not included in the standard Full Screen Apache HTTP Server distribution. Close Quit
  7. 7. Home Page Title Page Some common modules mod cgi Execution of CGI scripts. mod imap Server-side imagemap processing. mod include Server-parsed html documents (Server Side Includes). Page 7 of 39 mod php Server-side scripting in PHP (PHP Hypertext Preprocessor). Go Back Full Screen Close Quit
  8. 8. Home Page Controlling Apache Title Page /etc/httpd/conf/httpd.conf The configuration file for the Apache HTTP server. .htaccess File used to control Apache’s behaviour on a per-directory ba- sis. Page 8 of 39 /etc/init.d/httpd Script used to control the httpd process - start, stop, restart, reload, status. Go Back /var/log/httpd/ Contains the Apache logs - error.log, access.log Full Screen Close Quit
  9. 9. Home Page Apache content Title Page /var/www/html/ The “DocumentRoot” - all websites are served from here by default. $home/public html/ User’s directory for serving webpages. For exam- ple, http://www.it.iitb.ac.in/˜sameerds/ is served Page 9 of 39 from /home/sameerds/public html/ index.html “DirectoryIndex” that is used by default when a request Go Back specifies a directory. Full Screen Close Quit
  10. 10. Dynamic Content Generation Home Page • Client-Server decoupling: the client never knows the physical format Title Page of a resource. • The reply to a request is a data stream from the server. • The server may transparently create or modify data. Even images can be generated on the fly! • This can be done in several ways: Page 10 of 39 1. CGI - Common Gateway Interface to external programs. Go Back 2. SSI - Server-Side Includes. 3. Server Side Scripts - the most flexible way to use dynamically Full Screen generated webpages. Close Quit
  11. 11. Home Page Title Page PHP: Hypertext Preprocessor Page 11 of 39 Go Back Full Screen Close Quit
  12. 12. Home Page What is it? Title Page • A general purpose scripting language that is especially good for server-side scripting. • A project maintained by the Apache Software Foundation. • All major operating systems - Linux, many Unix variants, Microsoft Windows, Mac OS X, RISC OS, and probably others. Page 12 of 39 • All major webservers - Apache, Microsoft IIS, PWS, Netscape and Go Back iPlanet servers, Oreilly Website Pro server, Caudium, Xitami, Omni- HTTPd, and many others. Full Screen Close Quit
  13. 13. Home Page What can PHP do? Title Page • Server-side scripting. • Command line scripting. • Writing client-side GUI applications: PHP-Gtk • Text processing features such as PCRE’s, XML documents, XSLT Page 13 of 39 transformation. Go Back • Abilities also included generating images, PDF files and even Flash movies, on the fly. Full Screen Close Quit
  14. 14. External services Home Page Title Page • Database connectivity – A wide range of databases - MySQL, PostgreSQL, Informix, ODBC, Oracle ... too many more to list. – DBX and ODBC interfaces, that allow scripting independent of the database backends. Page 14 of 39 • Network services such as IMAP, POP, SMTP, DNS, LDAP, SNMP etc. as well as raw TCP sockets! Go Back • Support for instantiating Java objects, remote CORBA objects, and Full Screen COM on windows. Close Quit
  15. 15. PHP on the Web Home Page PHP can be directly embedded in HTML markup. Title Page <html> <head> <title>Hello World!</title> </head> <body> Page 15 of 39 <?php echo "Hi, I’m a PHP script!"; Go Back ?> Full Screen </body> </html> Close Quit
  16. 16. Home Page PHP on the Web (continued) Title Page <html> <head> <title>Hello World!</title> </head> <body> Page 16 of 39 Hi, I’m a PHP script! </body> Go Back </html> Full Screen Close Quit
  17. 17. Home Page Language features Title Page • Variables - pre-defined, external, user-defined, variable variables, ref- erences. • Standard data-types such as booleans, integers, floating point num- bers, strings and arrays. Page 17 of 39 • Control structures - if-then-else while, do-while, switch, foreach. Go Back • Functions - user-defined functions similar to C, variable functions. Full Screen Close Quit
  18. 18. Variables in PHP Home Page Variable variables! $foo = "bar"; Title Page $$foo = "value"; The result is that the variable $bbar, gets the value value. References Page 18 of 39 <?php $foo = ’Bob’; Go Back $bar = &$foo; $bar = "My name is $bar"; Full Screen echo $bar; echo $foo; Close ?> Quit
  19. 19. Arrays $a = array( 1 => ’one’, Home Page 2 => ’two’, 3 =>’three’ ); Title Page $a[1] = ’one’; $a[2] = ’two’; $a[3] = ’three’; $a[] = ’four’; $a = array( ’color’ => ’red’ Page 19 of 39 , ’taste’ => ’sweet’ , ’shape’ => ’round’ Go Back , ’name’ => ’apple’ , 4 Full Screen ); Close $a[] = ’four’; Quit
  20. 20. Home Page Arrays functions unset ($a[’color’]); Title Page reset ($a); while (list($key, $value) = each ($a)) { echo "Key: $key; Value: $value<br>n"; } Page 20 of 39 foreach ($a as $key => $value) { Go Back echo "Key: $key; Value: $value<br>n"; } Full Screen Close Quit
  21. 21. Functions <?php function foo() Home Page { echo "In foo()<br>n"; Title Page } function bar($arg = ’’) { echo "In bar(), with ’$arg’.<br>n"; } Page 21 of 39 foo(); Go Back $func = ’foo’; $func(); Full Screen bar(’test’); $func = ’bar’; $func(’test’); Close ?> Quit
  22. 22. OOP in PHP <?php class Cart Home Page { var $items; Title Page ... function add_item ($artnr, $num) { ... } function remove_item ($artnr, $num) { ... } } Page 22 of 39 $cart = new Cart; Go Back $cart->add_item("10", 1); Full Screen $another_cart = new Cart; $another_cart->add_item("0815", 3); Close ?> Quit
  23. 23. HTML Forms <form action="foo.php" method="post"> Name: <input type="text" name="username"><br> Home Page Email: <input type="text" name="email"><br> <input type="submit" name="submit"> Title Page </form> <?php print $_POST[’username’]; print $_REQUEST[’username’]; Page 23 of 39 // g, p and c type variables: import_request_variables(’p’, ’p_’); Go Back print $p_username; Full Screen print $HTTP_POST_VARS[’username’]; print $username; Close ?> Quit
  24. 24. Home Page Session handling Title Page • A way to preserve certain data across subsequent accesses. • A visitor accessing your web site is assigned a unique session id, which is used in two ways. • Cookies that are stored on the client, to be read on subsequent ac- Page 24 of 39 cesses. Go Back • Session ID’s that are propagated in the URL - more reliable. Full Screen Close Quit
  25. 25. Home Page Session example <?php Title Page session_register ("count"); $count++; ?> Hello visitor, you have seen this page <?php echo $count; ?> times.<p> Page 25 of 39 To continue, Go Back <A HREF="nextpage.php?<?=SID?>"> click here</A> Full Screen Close Quit
  26. 26. Cookies Home Page • A mechanism for storing data in the client. Title Page • Any cookies sent from the client will automatically be turned into a PHP variable. setcookie ("cookie[three]", "cookiethree"); setcookie ("cookie[two]", "cookietwo"); setcookie ("cookie[one]", "cookieone"); Page 26 of 39 if (isset ($cookie)) { while(list ($name, $value) = each($cookie)) { Go Back echo "$name == $value<br>n"; } Full Screen } Close Quit
  27. 27. Home Page Title Page MySQL Page 27 of 39 Go Back Full Screen Close Quit
  28. 28. Home Page What is it? Title Page • The most popular Open Source SQL database. • Developed, distributed and supported by MySQL AB. • Several different client programs, libraries and administrative tools.. Page 28 of 39 • A wide range of programming interfaces (APIs). • Works on a wide range of operating systems including Windows, Go Back Unix variants, Mac OS X, etc. Full Screen Close Quit
  29. 29. Installation Home Page • Installation on Red Hat Linux is a breeze, using rpms for mysql, Title Page mysql-server and mysqlclient. • Control script - /etc/init.d/mysqld. • Users on the server are distinct from those on the system. • The user accounts and database details are stored in a database called Page 29 of 39 mysql. • All other users are created and controlled by the mysql root. Go Back • Users can create databases, tables, other users, etc depending on priv- Full Screen ileges provided by the root. Close Quit
  30. 30. Using the mysql client Home Page Use mysql to connect to a MySQL server. shell> mysql -h host -u user -p Title Page shell> mysql -h host -u user -p < batch-file Configuration files /etc/my.cnf Global options Page 30 of 39 DATADIR/my.cnf Server-specific options Go Back defaults-extra-file The file specified with –defaults-extra-file=# Full Screen /.my.cnf User-specific options Close Quit
  31. 31. User administration Home Page shell> mysql -u root mysql mysql> SET PASSWORD FOR Title Page -> root@localhost=PASSWORD(’new_password’); shell> mysqladmin -u root password new_password mysql> GRANT ALL PRIVILEGES ON *.* TO monty@localhost Page 31 of 39 -> IDENTIFIED BY ’some_pass’ WITH GRANT OPTION; mysql> GRANT ALL PRIVILEGES ON foo.* TO bar@"%" Go Back -> IDENTIFIED BY ’some_pass’; mysql> GRANT USAGE ON *.* TO simpleton@some.server Full Screen -> IDENTIFIED BY ’some_pass’; Close Quit
  32. 32. Home Page Title Page MySQL Privilege System Managed by tables in the database called mysql. user global privileges of each user. db which user can access which database from which host. Page 32 of 39 host extension to db for multiple hosts. Go Back Full Screen Close Quit
  33. 33. Home Page Data, Databases and Tables Title Page • SQL - Structured Query Language • Queries such as create, delete, select, update, insert, etc. • Numeric Datatypes - INT, BIGINT, TINYINT, FLOAT, DECIMAL, etc Page 33 of 39 • String Datatypes - CHAR, VARCHAR, TEXT, BLOB • ENUM and SET - “one”, “two”, “three” Go Back • DATETIME, DATE, TIMESTAMP Full Screen Close Quit
  34. 34. MySQL databases mysql> SHOW DATABASES; Home Page +----------+ | Database | Title Page +----------+ | mysql | | test | | tmp | +----------+ Page 34 of 39 mysql> CREATE DATABASE menagerie; mysql> USE menagerie Go Back Database changed Full Screen mysql> SHOW TABLES; Empty set (0.00 sec) Close Quit
  35. 35. Home Page Title Page Putting it together Page 35 of 39 Go Back Full Screen Close Quit
  36. 36. Home Page Resources Title Page The resources listed here are usually installed on the system, under /usr/share/doc/ • The Apache Manual http://httpd.apache.org/ • The PHP Manual http://www.php.net/manual/en/ Page 36 of 39 • The MySQL Manual Go Back http://www.mysql.com/documentation/ Full Screen Close Quit
  37. 37. Home Page Title Page RTFM Page 37 of 39 Go Back Full Screen Close Quit
  38. 38. Home Page Title Page Thanks.. Page 38 of 39 Go Back Full Screen Close Quit
  39. 39. Home Page Title Page Page 39 of 39 Go Back Full Screen Close Quit
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