Linux and Localization Tutorial Paras pradhan Senior Linux Developer Madan puraskar pustakalaya Lalitpur Nepal [email_addr...
About Linux: <ul><li>Operating system that was initially created by Linus Torvalds at early 90s </li></ul><ul><li>Name of ...
<ul><li>History : 1971 - The first edition of the Unix server operating system emerges from Bell Labs. 1985 – Richard Stal...
About  Linux: contd... <ul><li>Official site kernel.org </li></ul><ul><li>Sister site linuxhq.com </li></ul><ul><li>Curren...
About  Linux: contd... <ul><li>Linux distro: </li></ul><ul><li>Collection of Linux Kernel + GNU softwares/tools. like:  </...
About  Linux: contd... <ul><li>Getting   linux : </li></ul><ul><li>Internet Download  </li></ul><ul><li>CDROM  </li></ul><...
About  Linux: contd... <ul><li>Linux updating: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>From packages </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>From inernet...
About  Linux: contd... <ul><li>Window managers and desktop environments: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>windomaker </li></ul></ul><...
About  Linux: contd... <ul><li>For programmers: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>c++ , python, php, perl etc </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><...
About  Linux: contd... <ul><li>Gnu and openSource </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Project in Free Software Foundation (FSF) </li></u...
About  Linux: contd... <ul><li>OpenSource: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Source code of softwares available in openSource software...
About  Linux: contd... <ul><li>Linux and Networks: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>ISPs and NSPs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Web host...
About Nepalinux: <ul><li>A linux distribution </li></ul><ul><li>Mostly for Desktop usage </li></ul><ul><li>Nepali unicode ...
Basics of Linux Localization <ul><li>i18n(Internationalization and why i18n: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>User wants to work in h...
Basics of Linux Localization contd.... <ul><li>L10n (Localization) and why l10n: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Implementation of a...
Basics of Linux Localization contd.... <ul><li>GNU gettext for localization: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Tool to internationaliz...
Basics of Linux Localization contd.... <ul><li>Locale: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Part of glibc </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ever...
Basics of Linux Localization contd.... <ul><li>Locale definiation file's contents and defniation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>LC_...
Basics of Linux Localization contd.... <ul><li>Input system for Linux </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Used for input of characters. ...
Basics of Linux Localization contd.... <ul><li>Fonts in Linux: </li></ul><ul><li>a)8bit TTF limited to 256 glyphs (200 usa...
Basics of Linux Localization contd.... <ul><ul><li>freetpye: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>ttf rendering </li></ul></ul><...
Basics of Linux Localization contd.... <ul><li>Gnome  rendering, pango, freetype and xft: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>rendering ...
Basics of Linux Localization contd.... <ul><li>Printing: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Gnome 2.8 use pango engine </li></ul></ul><...
Basics of Linux Localization contd.... <ul><li>Openoffice.org and localization </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Complete office suite...
Basics of Linux Localization contd.... <ul><li>Mozilla localization, rendering , printing </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Web browse...
Basics of Linux Localization contd.... <ul><li>Localization and translate tools: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Translate tool used...
Linux Localization Tutorial <ul><li>Linux installation: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Boot from CD </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Make...
Linux Localization Tutorial contd.... <ul><li>Locale installation: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Locale defination file is ne_NP <...
Linux Localization Tutorial contd.... <ul><li>Fonts installation: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Download samanata.ttf from  http:/...
Linux Localization Tutorial contd.... <ul><li>Running Nepali Gnome: </li></ul><ul><li>1)export LC_ALL=ne_NP will change de...
Linux Localization Tutorial contd.... <ul><li>Input system: </li></ul><ul><li>A) xkb </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Note: only ...
Linux Localization Tutorial contd.... <ul><li>Adding Nepali Roman keyboard utility in Gnome desktop bottom panel </li></ul...
Linux Localization Tutorial contd.... <ul><li>B) iiimf: </li></ul><ul><li>Both traditional and romanzied can be done </li>...
Linux Localization Tutorial contd.... b) install them using dpkg -i package name mkdir -p /usr/lib/im/locale/UNIT/NEPALI/d...
Linux Localization Tutorial contd.... <ul><li>IIIMF in FC3: </li></ul><ul><li>a)For fc3  download from ( http://fedora.red...
Linux Localization Tutorial contd.... e)Using iiimf: Create symlinks: ln -s /etc/X11/xinit/xinput.d/iiimf /etc/alternative...
Linux Localization Tutorial contd.... <ul><li>Linux customization: </li></ul><ul><li>use of debootstrap and sid for debian...
Linux Localization Tutorial contd.... <ul><li>Translation of gnome or gnu apps </li></ul><ul><ul><li>using gettext tools <...
Linux Localization Tutorial contd.... <ul><li>Nepalinux CD demo : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Based on debian sid and knoppix ba...
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Linux and Localization Tutorial Paras pradhan Senior Linux ...

  1. 1. Linux and Localization Tutorial Paras pradhan Senior Linux Developer Madan puraskar pustakalaya Lalitpur Nepal [email_address]
  2. 2. About Linux: <ul><li>Operating system that was initially created by Linus Torvalds at early 90s </li></ul><ul><li>Name of the core kernel </li></ul><ul><li>If surrounded by utilities and applications then it is a distro </li></ul><ul><li>Linux = Linux is not Unix </li></ul><ul><li>Linux is free and Opensource </li></ul><ul><li>Cane be redistributed and modified </li></ul><ul><li>Based on GPL (GNU Public Licensed) </li></ul><ul><li>Comments from some experts: </li></ul><ul><li>&quot;Linux, it turns out, was no intentional masterstroke, but an incremental process, a combination of experiments, ideas, and tiny scraps of code that gradually coalesced into an organic whole.&quot; - Glyn Moody, Wired </li></ul><ul><li>“ Once the system is at the edge of chaos, we are bound to see surprises. Linux is one such system that has come to dazzle us all. “ – Ko Kuwabara </li></ul>
  3. 3. <ul><li>History : 1971 - The first edition of the Unix server operating system emerges from Bell Labs. 1985 – Richard Stallman publishes his famous &quot;GNU Manifesto&quot;, one of the first documents of the open-source revolution. 1991 - In August, Torvalds announces his plans to create a free operating system on the Minix users newsgroup. He modestly notes in his posting that his OS is &quot;just a hobby”. In October, Linux 0.01 is released on the Internet under a GNU public license. 1992 + - Different Linux Distributions started . E.g: debian linux , slackware linux etc </li></ul>About Linux: contd...
  4. 4. About Linux: contd... <ul><li>Official site kernel.org </li></ul><ul><li>Sister site linuxhq.com </li></ul><ul><li>Current Kernel version is 2.6.x </li></ul>
  5. 5. About Linux: contd... <ul><li>Linux distro: </li></ul><ul><li>Collection of Linux Kernel + GNU softwares/tools. like: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Yast installer </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Kernel </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Gcc </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Kudzu </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Open Office </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>GNU Cash </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Dpkg , Rpm </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Examples of Popular GNU/Linux Distributions </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Debian GNU/Linux </li></ul><ul><li>Redhat Linux </li></ul><ul><li>SUSE linux </li></ul>
  6. 6. About Linux: contd... <ul><li>Getting linux : </li></ul><ul><li>Internet Download </li></ul><ul><li>CDROM </li></ul><ul><li>CDROM in a Book </li></ul><ul><li>Which linux distro? </li></ul><ul><li>Depends upon use </li></ul><ul><li>For Servers, most popular are Redhat, Debian, Fedora </li></ul><ul><li>For Desktops, most popular are suse, mandrake, debian, mepis, knoppix etc </li></ul><ul><li>Installation : </li></ul><ul><li>From CD, internet </li></ul><ul><li>Needs Linux native and swap filesystems </li></ul><ul><li>Package managers(most popular) </li></ul><ul><li>pkgtool, autopackag etc </li></ul><ul><li>rpm and dpkg </li></ul>
  7. 7. About Linux: contd... <ul><li>Linux updating: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>From packages </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>From inernet using tools like up2date, redhat network, yum etc </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Starting process of Linux: </li></ul><ul><li>1)Boot Manager </li></ul><ul><li>2)Kernel </li></ul><ul><li>3)Initialization Scripts </li></ul><ul><li>4)Login </li></ul><ul><li>5)Shell </li></ul><ul><li>6)Window Managers </li></ul><ul><li>7)Desktop </li></ul><ul><li>8)Applications </li></ul>
  8. 8. About Linux: contd... <ul><li>Window managers and desktop environments: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>windomaker </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>gnome </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>kde </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>xface </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Editors : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>pico, emacs, bluefish </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Web browsers and mail clients: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Mozilla, firefox, thunderbird etc </li></ul></ul>
  9. 9. About Linux: contd... <ul><li>For programmers: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>c++ , python, php, perl etc </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Perl </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Python </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>PHP </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Tcl </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ada </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>GDB </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Glade </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Tcl/Tk </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Databases : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Mysql, oracle, postgre </li></ul></ul>
  10. 10. About Linux: contd... <ul><li>Gnu and openSource </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Project in Free Software Foundation (FSF) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>URL – http//www.gnu.org/fsf/fsf.html </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Organization that maintain and collect many free software </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ex. bash, gcc, linux, make and etc... </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>GNU stand for Gnu ‘s Not Unix </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>URL http://www.gnu.org </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Initiated by Richard Stallman since 1984 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>GNU and OpenSource softwares can be available from freshmeat.net, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>sourceforge.net, gnu.org etc </li></ul></ul>
  11. 11. About Linux: contd... <ul><li>OpenSource: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Source code of softwares available in openSource softwares </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Can be modified as per need </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Redistribute the modified software maintaining the licenscing criteria </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Commercial company make use of openSource software for ex: redhat, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>abria soft, miktotik etc </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Uses of Linux at various sectors: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Education </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Data centeres </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>ISPs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Commercial appliance productions </li></ul></ul>
  12. 12. About Linux: contd... <ul><li>Linux and Networks: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>ISPs and NSPs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Web hosting company </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Big networks of school and universites </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Network servers and services as: PDC, DHCP, NAT, NIS, NFS, FTP etc </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Can support all network protocols as TCP/IP, IPX/SPX etc </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>All protocols in Kernel </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>QoS </li></ul></ul>
  13. 13. About Nepalinux: <ul><li>A linux distribution </li></ul><ul><li>Mostly for Desktop usage </li></ul><ul><li>Nepali unicode support </li></ul><ul><li>Nepali user interfaces in many office and other applications like: </li></ul><ul><li>gnucash, nautils, gedit , openoffice etc </li></ul><ul><li>Tools like nepali spellchecker , thesaurus for nepali language will be </li></ul><ul><ul><li>integrated </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Can also be used by the community who doesn't know English </li></ul><ul><li>Government , private sectors , education sector can use it freely </li></ul><ul><ul><li>with no price </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Zero price or will be freely available for download or Cds from MPP </li></ul><ul><li>Nepali unicode support </li></ul><ul><li>Can run without installing to Hard disks </li></ul><ul><li>why nepalinux? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Not bound to other commercial distributions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Zero price or free </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Nepali Unicode support </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Nepali utilities will be integrated </li></ul></ul>
  14. 14. Basics of Linux Localization <ul><li>i18n(Internationalization and why i18n: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>User wants to work in his native language </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Most software assume user knows english </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>I18nizing a program allows support for </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Input </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Processing & Storage </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Display </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Printing </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Potentially handle multiple languages, customs in the world </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Displaying characters for the users' native languages. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Inputing characters for the users' native languages. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Handling popular encodings for the users' native languages. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Displaying messages in users' native languages. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Character classification & sorting. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Some the internationaliuzed softwares are: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>gnome and gnome apps </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>kde </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>pango </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>QT </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>ICU </li></ul></ul></ul>
  15. 15. Basics of Linux Localization contd.... <ul><li>L10n (Localization) and why l10n: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Implementation of a specific language for an already internationalized </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>software. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Adapting a program to a given culture </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cultural Parameters </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Language rules </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Script – character set </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Date , time , currency </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Graphics & Icons </li></ul></ul>
  16. 16. Basics of Linux Localization contd.... <ul><li>GNU gettext for localization: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Tool to internationalize messages of the software outputs according to </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>locale status </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>simple process: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>a) Coding using gettext support ( in C include <libintl.h> </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>#include <locale.h> ,#define _(String) gettext((String)) ) </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>can be used </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>b) generate POT files of the program </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>c) translate POT </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>d) change it to PO and then MO </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>e) copy it to related location </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>f) test it using setting the locale and running the application </li></ul></ul></ul>
  17. 17. Basics of Linux Localization contd.... <ul><li>Locale: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Part of glibc </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Every lanugae must have it's own locale </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Many localized tools are dependent on locale </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Nepali locale developed and submitted by MPP and named as ne_NP </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Locale created using locale definiation file. </li></ul></ul>
  18. 18. Basics of Linux Localization contd.... <ul><li>Locale definiation file's contents and defniation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>LC_CTYPE - Category related to encodings. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Character testing functions such as islower() , multibyte character functions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>LC_COLLATE - Category related to sorting. strcoll() </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>LC_MESSAGES - Category related to the language for messages the software </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>outputs. This category is used for gettext. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>LC_MONETARY - Format to show monetary numbers, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Currency symbol,comma or period, columns, </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>LC_NUMERIC - Number format to show, Position of decimal </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Digit seperators </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>LC_TIME - Category related to format to show time and date, such as name </li></ul></ul><ul><li>of months and weeks, order of date, month, and year, and so on. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>New categories </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>LC_PAPER </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>LC_IDENTIFICATION </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>LC_ADDRESS </li></ul></ul></ul>
  19. 19. Basics of Linux Localization contd.... <ul><li>Input system for Linux </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Used for input of characters. In our case input of nepali characters </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>There are many input systems </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>i) xkb </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>ii)iiimf </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>iii) scim </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Xkb limitations </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Xkb and iiimf used at mpp for nepalinux </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Both romanized and traditional keyboard layouts already developed </li></ul></ul>
  20. 20. Basics of Linux Localization contd.... <ul><li>Fonts in Linux: </li></ul><ul><li>a)8bit TTF limited to 256 glyphs (200 usable) </li></ul><ul><li>b)16bit Unicode TTF cover unicode ranges. upto 65,000 glyphs </li></ul><ul><li>c)Opentype – for advanced typography GSUB, GPOS tables,useful for </li></ul><ul><li>complex scripts like Indic , Tibetan need cluster formation & ligature rules </li></ul><ul><li>Ttf and otf are being used for nepalinux </li></ul><ul><li>Rules can be added to otf fonts </li></ul><ul><li>Types: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>bdf fonts: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>rendered by X </li></ul></ul></ul>
  21. 21. Basics of Linux Localization contd.... <ul><ul><li>freetpye: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>ttf rendering </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>rendering sclabale fonts </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>anti aliasing </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>suport for opentype table </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>auto hinting </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>opentype: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>otf fonts rendering </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>opentype fonts rendered by xft/fontconfig </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>gsub, gpos support </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>rules based </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>tools: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>fontforge, fontlab etc </li></ul></ul>
  22. 22. Basics of Linux Localization contd.... <ul><li>Gnome rendering, pango, freetype and xft: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>rendering done in gnome by pango </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>modular </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Text handling </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>supports unicode chars </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Supports bitmap, Type1 , TTF and OpenType fonts </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Rendering modules for Arabic, Indic, Thai, CJK etc </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>rendering using FreeType library and Xft/Fontconfig </li></ul></ul>
  23. 23. Basics of Linux Localization contd.... <ul><li>Printing: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Gnome 2.8 use pango engine </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Gnome 2.6 uses libgnomeprint </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>X apps use Xprint ( has dev support ) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>KDE use Qprinter of QT </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Mozilla uses mozprint + xprint and pango </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Openoffice uses ICU </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Gnome localization: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Status in l10n.gnome.org </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Translation of gnome 2.8.x is being done </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Usi ng POT files for tranlslation </li></ul></ul><ul><li>tools used are poedit, kbabble etc </li></ul><ul><li>Kde localization: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>not done </li></ul></ul>
  24. 24. Basics of Linux Localization contd.... <ul><li>Openoffice.org and localization </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Complete office suite </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Replacement for MS Office </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Just announced the localization at l10n.openoffice.org </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Localization of 2.0 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Localization processs involved </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>a) Announcing </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>b) Adding Languages </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>c) Creation of openoffice locales </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>d) UI translation </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>e) Creating patch for localization </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>f) Build the localized nepali openoffice </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Will be integrated with nepalinux </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Will support almost all linux distribution and most probably for windows. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Develop Nepali Spellchecker for openoffice.org </li></ul></ul>
  25. 25. Basics of Linux Localization contd.... <ul><li>Mozilla localization, rendering , printing </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Web browser with email client </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Most of the the localization is done at MPP </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Localization involves </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>a) Adding languange </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>b) UI translation </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>c) Enabling CTL and necessary parameters </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>d) Build </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>e) Genereate the installter and localize the installer if possible </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Version used is 1.7 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Rendering and printing done by mozprint, xprint and pango </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Printing support is not done completely at MPP and undergoing. </li></ul></ul>
  26. 26. Basics of Linux Localization contd.... <ul><li>Localization and translate tools: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Translate tool used for mozilla , openoffice , gnome apps etc </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Mozilla translator for mozilla </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Kabbel </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Gtranslator </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Poedit </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>More </li></ul></ul>
  27. 27. Linux Localization Tutorial <ul><li>Linux installation: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Boot from CD </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Make / , swap partitions and Linux native ext3 , Linux swap partition </li></ul></ul><ul><li>and follow the normal process </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Select packages </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Install boot loader as grub, lilo etc </li></ul></ul>
  28. 28. Linux Localization Tutorial contd.... <ul><li>Locale installation: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Locale defination file is ne_NP </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Basic process ( distro neutral) : </li></ul></ul><ul><li>a) Remove the previous one if exist </li></ul><ul><li>command: rm -rf /usr/lib/locale/ne_NP </li></ul><ul><li>b)cp /usr/share/i18n/charmaps/UTF-8.gz /tmp </li></ul><ul><li>c)/bin/gunzip -d /tmp/UTF-8.gz </li></ul><ul><ul><li>d)Download ne_NP from http://www.nepalinux.org/ldf/ne_NP </li></ul></ul><ul><li>e) /usr/bin/localedef -i ne_NP -f /tmp/UTF-8 /usr/lib/locale/ne_NP </li></ul><ul><li>f) check by using locale -a </li></ul>
  29. 29. Linux Localization Tutorial contd.... <ul><li>Fonts installation: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Download samanata.ttf from http://www.nepalinux.org/fonts/ samanata.ttf </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>mkdir -p /usr/share/fonts/default/npfonts </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>cp -f samanatha.ttf /usr/share/fonts/default/npfonts/ </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>fc-cache -f </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>fc-list to view installed fonts </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Note: On FC3 system download kalimati.otf file for better rendering and install </li></ul></ul>
  30. 30. Linux Localization Tutorial contd.... <ul><li>Running Nepali Gnome: </li></ul><ul><li>1)export LC_ALL=ne_NP will change defaulf locale for nepali env. </li></ul><ul><li>2)startx to see nepali Gnome </li></ul><ul><li>OR </li></ul><ul><li>1)Edit locale.aliases of gdm folder </li></ul><ul><li>2)Add ' Nepali' ne_NP </li></ul><ul><li>3)Select Nepali on Languges select option of gdm login screen </li></ul><ul><li>4)Login to see nepali Gnome </li></ul>
  31. 31. Linux Localization Tutorial contd.... <ul><li>Input system: </li></ul><ul><li>A) xkb </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Note: only romanizied </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Download ne file from http://www.nepalinux.org/input/ </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>cp -f files/ne /usr/X11R6/lib/X11/xkb/symbols/pc </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>cp -f files/ne /usr/X11R6/lib/X11/xkb/symbols </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Add the following lins on /usr/X11R6/lib/X11/xkb/rules/xorg.xml </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>or /usr/X11R6/lib/X11/xkb/rules/xfree86.xml </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li><layout> </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li><configItem> </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li><name>ne</name> </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li><description>Nepali_Romanized</description> </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li></configItem> </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li><variantList/> </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li></layout> </li></ul></ul></ul>
  32. 32. Linux Localization Tutorial contd.... <ul><li>Adding Nepali Roman keyboard utility in Gnome desktop bottom panel </li></ul><ul><ul><li>On the buttom panel right </li></ul></ul><ul><li>1) Right click the mouse </li></ul><ul><li>2) Click &quot;Add to Panel&quot; </li></ul><ul><li>3) Click &quot;Keyboard indicator&quot; </li></ul><ul><li>4) Click the &quot;ADD&quot; button </li></ul><ul><li>5) Right click the added icon </li></ul><ul><li>6) Click &quot;Open keyboard preferences&quot; </li></ul><ul><li>7) Click the &quot;Layout&quot; tab </li></ul><ul><li>8) Select &quot;Nepali_Romanized&quot; from available layouts </li></ul><ul><li>9) Click &quot;ADD and Close&quot; </li></ul><ul><li>10) Open Gedit and try to type, you will get Nepali characters </li></ul><ul><li>11)Enjoy ! </li></ul>
  33. 33. Linux Localization Tutorial contd.... <ul><li>B) iiimf: </li></ul><ul><li>Both traditional and romanzied can be done </li></ul><ul><li>Download npkeybt.data and npkeybr.data from http://www.nepalinux.org/input </li></ul><ul><li>Dowload required packages for iiimf </li></ul><ul><li>IIMF in Debian: </li></ul><ul><li>a) for debian (http://www.debian.org) </li></ul><ul><li>iiimf-htt-csconv 11.4.1870-7 Codeset Conversion modules for IIIMF </li></ul><ul><li>components </li></ul><ul><li>ii iiimf-htt-le-indic 11.4.1870-7 UNIT language engine for iiimf-htt-server </li></ul><ul><li>ii iiimf-htt-server 11.4.1870-7 Htt input method server </li></ul><ul><li>ii iiimf-htt-xbe 11.4.1870-7 IIIMF Htt XIM BackEnd module </li></ul><ul><li>ii iiimgcf 11.4.1870-7 IIIM GTK+ 2.x Input Method Module Client </li></ul><ul><li>ii libiiimcf2 11.4.1870-7 Internet/Intranet Input Method Client </li></ul><ul><li>Framework library </li></ul><ul><li>ii libiiimp0 11.4.1870-7 Internet/Intranet Input Method Protocol </li></ul><ul><li>library </li></ul>
  34. 34. Linux Localization Tutorial contd.... b) install them using dpkg -i package name mkdir -p /usr/lib/im/locale/UNIT/NEPALI/data d) cp npkeybt.data /usr/lib/im/locale/UNIT/NEPALI/data e) cp npkeybr.data /usr/lib/im/locale/UNIT/NEPALI/data f)add the following to /usr/lib/im/locale/UNIT/sysime.cfg [ ne_NP ] npkeybt common/ctim.so NEPALI npkeybr common/ctim.so NEPALI Restart iiimf using, /etc/init.d/iiimf-htt-server start e)Using iiimf: Open xterm export GTK_IM_MODULE=iiim gedit , oowriter etc Press ctrl +o Press f5 and f6 to get nepali traditional and romanized input.
  35. 35. Linux Localization Tutorial contd.... <ul><li>IIIMF in FC3: </li></ul><ul><li>a)For fc3 download from ( http://fedora.redhat.com ) or from fc3 Cds. </li></ul><ul><li>b)rpm -ivh iiim* </li></ul><ul><li>c)mkdir -p /usr/lib/im/locale/UNIT/NEPALI/data </li></ul><ul><li>d)cp npkeybt.data /usr/lib/im/locale/UNIT/NEPALI/data </li></ul><ul><li>e)cp npkeybr.data /usr/lib/im/locale/UNIT/NEPALI/data </li></ul><ul><li>f)add the following to /usr/lib/im/locale/UNIT/sysime.cfg </li></ul><ul><li>[ ne_NP ] </li></ul><ul><li>npkeybt common/ctim.so NEPALI </li></ul><ul><li>npkeybr common/ctim.so NEPALI </li></ul><ul><li>g)Restart iiimf using, /etc/init.d/iiimf-htt-server start </li></ul>
  36. 36. Linux Localization Tutorial contd.... e)Using iiimf: Create symlinks: ln -s /etc/X11/xinit/xinput.d/iiimf /etc/alternatives/xinput-ne_NP ln -s /etc/alternatives/xinput-ne_NP /etc/X11/xinit/xinput.d/ne_NP OR # Adding keyboard utility in Gnome desktop bottom panel On the buttom panel right 1) Right click the mouse 2) Click &quot;Add to Panel&quot; 3) Click &quot;GTK input method&quot; 4) Click the &quot;ADD&quot; button 5) Right click the added icon 6) Select unitle 7)Press f5 and f6 to get nepali traditional and romanized input.
  37. 37. Linux Localization Tutorial contd.... <ul><li>Linux customization: </li></ul><ul><li>use of debootstrap and sid for debian </li></ul><ul><li>knoppix or morphix customization </li></ul><ul><li>Linux from scratch </li></ul>
  38. 38. Linux Localization Tutorial contd.... <ul><li>Translation of gnome or gnu apps </li></ul><ul><ul><li>using gettext tools </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>cp /usr/share/locale/ne/LC_MESSAGES/gedit-2.6.mo / </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>msgunfmt -o gedit-2.6.po gedit-2.6.mo </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Edit the file </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>msgfmt -o gedit-2.6.mo gedit-2.6.po </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>cp gedit-2.6.mo /usr/share/locale/ne/LC_MESSAGES/ </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>run gedit to check </li></ul></ul>
  39. 39. Linux Localization Tutorial contd.... <ul><li>Nepalinux CD demo : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Based on debian sid and knoppix based morphix linux </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Live cd </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Can be install on hard disk </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Nelp for fc3: </li></ul><ul><li>a) Download nelp1.tar.gz from http://www.nepalinux.org/fc3/ </li></ul><ul><li>b) tar -zxvf nelp1.tar.sh </li></ul><ul><li>c)cd nelp1 </li></ul><ul><li>d) ./nelp.sh keyhelp </li></ul><ul><li>e) ./nelp.sh install </li></ul><ul><li>Debian Linux tutorials: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>url ( debian.org) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>use of sid </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>use of apt-get </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>use of dpkg </li></ul></ul>
  40. 40. Download this slide from: http://www.nepalinux.org/linuxtutorial.ppt
  41. 41. Thank You
  42. 42. Questions ?
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