iREX : Inter-domain Resource Exchange Architecture Ariffin Datuk Yahaya & Tatsuya Suda {ariffin, suda} @   ics.uci.edu Uni...
iREX Presentation Outline <ul><li>Problem Statement   </li></ul><ul><li>Our Solution </li></ul><ul><li>Simulation Results ...
Problem Statement <ul><li>How to self-manage QoS policy across multiple  autonomous  domains in the Internet? </li></ul><u...
S to D connection <ul><li>Intra-domain QoS Policy  EASY to deploy & manage </li></ul><ul><li>Domains directly control its ...
Problem Statement <ul><li>How to self-manage QoS policy across multiple  autonomous  domains in the Internet? </li></ul>In...
iREX Presentation Outline <ul><li>Problem Statement  </li></ul><ul><li>Our Solution </li></ul><ul><li>Simulation Results <...
iREX <ul><li>Goals </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Self Manage QoS Policy Negotiation & Deployment </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Conges...
iREX use of Economics <ul><li>iREX Economic Model: “ Posted Price Competition ” </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Domains are both  se...
S W Y X Z D iREX Economics Example Each resource owner prices his links and  periodically advertises the cheapest known li...
S W Y X Z D iREX Economics Example $1 $1 $1 $1 SYWXD:$4 S  gets information that S YWXD is the cheapest path. S then uses ...
S W Y X Z D iREX Economics Example Bandwidth use causes link prices to increase. $ 2 $ 2 $ 2 $2 $ 2 $2 SYWXD:$8 BR BR BR B...
S W Y X Z D iREX Economics Example D eployments  increase along the same path   and p rices continue to increase . $ 3 $ 3...
S W Y X Z D iREX Economics Example S chooses SYZXD for next deployment(s) . $3 $3 $3 $2 $3 $2 SY Z XD:$ 10 BR BR BR BR BR ...
S W Y X Z D Note :  Congestion avoidance Deployments avoid congestion automatically  by distributing deployments. $4 $3 $4...
Resource Price Economic Analysis <ul><li>Two commodities are sold from the same ID link </li></ul><ul><ul><li>BE traffic (...
Domain Link Bandwidth Allocation <ul><li>As demand curve moves up the supply curve </li></ul><ul><ul><li>the price the ID ...
Distributed Database S W Y X Z D Reputation Example Domains can check for a reputation scores and will not advertise domai...
S W Y X Z D Reputation Example $4 $4 $4 $4 $2 $2 Reputation Z =  +4 Distributed Database The reputation system isolates “b...
S W Y X Z D Fault Tolerance Example Any domain that detect faults will try to redeploy $4 $3 $4 $3 $3 $3 FAULT X If a doma...
S W Y X Z D Fault Tolerance Example Y takes on the responsibility of recovery  and finds path YWXD $4 $3 $4 $3 $3 $3 FAULT...
S W Y X Z D Fault Tolerance Example Source then can decide to reroute the faulted deployments. $4 $3 $4 $ 2 $3 $3 BR BR BR...
iREX Presentation Outline <ul><li>Problem Statement  </li></ul><ul><li>Our Solution </li></ul><ul><li>Simulation Results <...
iREX Simulator <ul><li>Packet level simulation for control packets. </li></ul><ul><li>Flow level simulation for QoS policy...
Simulated Price Functions <ul><li>Each domain in the simulation is assigned a price function randomly </li></ul><ul><li>We...
Flat then Cubed <ul><li>Price has multiple 1 until a cutoff % is reached for link capacity usage. </li></ul><ul><li>After ...
Flat then Linear <ul><li>Price has multiple 1 until a cutoff % is reached for link capacity usage. </li></ul><ul><li>After...
Tiered <ul><li>Price has multiple 1 until a cutoff % is reached for link capacity usage. </li></ul><ul><li>There are 4 cut...
Simulation Topology vBNS MCI’s Very High Speed Backbone Network System L3 Tier 1 ISP
iREX Metrics <ul><li>SLA Comparative Metrics </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Congestion Probability </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Block...
<ul><li>Congestion </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The total number of links that are congested globally divided by the total number...
<ul><li>Blocking Probability </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The number of unsuccessful global ID deployments divided by the total n...
<ul><li>Pareto Fairness </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The percentage of deployments that were successful in the SLA configuration ...
<ul><li>Multi-Path probability </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The number of policies that are deployed globally that, at the time o...
<ul><li>Unique Paths (between Los Angeles to Boston) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The number of paths that has at least one path ...
<ul><li>Setup Time </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The time starting when the domain first issues a request for a policy deployment ...
<ul><li>Control Packets </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The average number of packet to setup a deployment. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><...
<ul><li>Reputation Effectiveness </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The number of reservation requests that arrive at the “bad” domain ...
<ul><li>Reputation Control Packets </li></ul><ul><ul><li>All reputation related control packets generated across a time pe...
<ul><li>Recovery Probability </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The global total number of failed deployments successfully recovered di...
<ul><li>Recovery Time </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The time starting when a deployment fails up to the time that the deployment i...
<ul><li>Recovery Control Packets </li></ul><ul><ul><li>All recovery related control packets divided by the number of recov...
iREX Presentation Outline <ul><li>Problem Statement  </li></ul><ul><li>Our Solution </li></ul><ul><li>Simulation Results <...
Conclusion <ul><li>iREX </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Architecture for self-managing inter-domain QoS policy deployment </li></ul>...
Thank you. Contact: Ariffin Datuk Yahaya ariffin@ ics.uci.edu
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iREX

  1. 1. iREX : Inter-domain Resource Exchange Architecture Ariffin Datuk Yahaya & Tatsuya Suda {ariffin, suda} @ ics.uci.edu University of California, Irvine Zuse – Berlin 2006
  2. 2. iREX Presentation Outline <ul><li>Problem Statement </li></ul><ul><li>Our Solution </li></ul><ul><li>Simulation Results </li></ul><ul><li>Conclusion </li></ul>
  3. 3. Problem Statement <ul><li>How to self-manage QoS policy across multiple autonomous domains in the Internet? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Note: policy must be supported by network resources. </li></ul></ul>AT&T SBC Level 3 MCI INTERNET QWEST … … … Domains Border Router D BR BR BR BR BR BR BR BR BR BR BR S D Agree to provide resource for AT&T AT&T negotiates for resource
  4. 4. S to D connection <ul><li>Intra-domain QoS Policy EASY to deploy & manage </li></ul><ul><li>Domains directly control its own resources (connectivity) </li></ul><ul><li>Inter-domain QoS Policy HARD to deploy & manage </li></ul><ul><li>Domains are autonomously run by multiple entities </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Have no information or control beyond their domain borders </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Must deal with many different resources owners </li></ul></ul></ul>BR = Border Router R = Router Intra-Domain QoS Policy Multiple Inter-Domain QoS Policies Intra-Domain QoS Policy BR R R AT&T Domain MCI Domain Inter-domain QoS Policy Intra-domain QoS Policy Inter-domain QoS Policy Intra-domain QoS Policy D BR S
  5. 5. Problem Statement <ul><li>How to self-manage QoS policy across multiple autonomous domains in the Internet? </li></ul>Inter-Domain QoS Policy Management INTERNET … … … Domains Border Router BR BR BR BR BR BR BR BR BR BR BR S D … QoS Management Inter-domain QoS Policy Intra-domain QoS Policy Inter-domain QoS Policy Intra-domain QoS Policy Inter-domain QoS Policy Intra-domain QoS Policy Inter-domain QoS Policy Intra-domain QoS Policy
  6. 6. iREX Presentation Outline <ul><li>Problem Statement </li></ul><ul><li>Our Solution </li></ul><ul><li>Simulation Results </li></ul><ul><li>Conclusion </li></ul>
  7. 7. iREX <ul><li>Goals </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Self Manage QoS Policy Negotiation & Deployment </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Congestion Avoidance </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Accountability & Responsibility* </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Approach </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Enable an economic market for inter-domain network resources </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Domains optimize for their own benefit </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ensure architecture conformance </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Domain Reputation System </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Fault Tolerance System </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Enable a self perpetuating resource filtering process through the economic market </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Design a protocol to provide resource information & full control to the initiating (source) domain. </li></ul></ul>I nter-domain R esource Ex change Architecture * Not presented, but in the paper.
  8. 8. iREX use of Economics <ul><li>iREX Economic Model: “ Posted Price Competition ” </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Domains are both sellers and buyers . </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Sellers </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Advertise the price of their available inter-domain resources </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Buyers </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Choose among advertised resources to d eploy inter-domain QoS policy </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>Need QoS to AT&T Path A $20 Path B $10 Path C $5 SBC BR BR BR
  9. 9. S W Y X Z D iREX Economics Example Each resource owner prices his links and periodically advertises the cheapest known link prices. $1 $1 $1 $1 $2 $2 BR BR BR BR BR BR BR BR BR BR BR BR Source Domain Destination Domain Intermediate Domains Border Routers
  10. 10. S W Y X Z D iREX Economics Example $1 $1 $1 $1 SYWXD:$4 S gets information that S YWXD is the cheapest path. S then uses source routing to deploy QoS policy along SYWXD. BR BR BR BR BR BR BR BR BR BR BR BR $2 $2 $2 $2 YWXD:$ 3
  11. 11. S W Y X Z D iREX Economics Example Bandwidth use causes link prices to increase. $ 2 $ 2 $ 2 $2 $ 2 $2 SYWXD:$8 BR BR BR BR BR BR BR BR BR BR BR BR YWXD:$ 6
  12. 12. S W Y X Z D iREX Economics Example D eployments increase along the same path and p rices continue to increase . $ 3 $ 3 $ 3 $2 $ 3 $2 SYWXD:$ 12 Domains continuously advertise the cheapest prices and S gets new information on a cheaper route SY Z XD. BR BR BR BR BR BR BR BR BR BR BR BR Y Z XD:$ 7 $2 $2
  13. 13. S W Y X Z D iREX Economics Example S chooses SYZXD for next deployment(s) . $3 $3 $3 $2 $3 $2 SY Z XD:$ 10 BR BR BR BR BR BR BR BR BR BR BR BR
  14. 14. S W Y X Z D Note : Congestion avoidance Deployments avoid congestion automatically by distributing deployments. $4 $3 $4 $3 $3 $3 Sending simultaneously on more than 1 path  BR BR BR BR BR BR BR BR BR BR BR BR
  15. 15. Resource Price Economic Analysis <ul><li>Two commodities are sold from the same ID link </li></ul><ul><ul><li>BE traffic (Email, www, ecommerce, etc.) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Must keep BE users happy by providing REASONABLE service. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Premium traffic (VPN, Video, Telephony, etc.) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Must keep Premium users happy by providing PERFECT service. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Allocating some of the link for QoS incurs risk for the Domain because </li></ul><ul><ul><li>it cuts down on the bandwidth available for BE. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>It increases the probability of impacting Premium traffic that has already been deployed </li></ul></ul>
  16. 16. Domain Link Bandwidth Allocation <ul><li>As demand curve moves up the supply curve </li></ul><ul><ul><li>the price the ID market is willing to pay increases </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>a domain will allocate bandwidth between the Min Risk and Max Risk point on the x axis. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>More risk, higher price </li></ul></ul></ul>Price % Bandwidth allocated to QoS Demand Supply Minimum Price Maximum Allocation Max Price due to Physical Constraints Minimum Allocation 100 % Min Risk MAX Risk
  17. 17. Distributed Database S W Y X Z D Reputation Example Domains can check for a reputation scores and will not advertise domains/resources with bad reputation. $4 $3 $4 $3 $2 $2 Y Z XD:$ 8 BUT Z has bad reputation  Reputation iREX has a distributed reputation database system where any domains can register complains for non-conformance. Z = +3 BR BR BR BR BR BR BR BR BR BR BR BR Y W XD:$ 10 Query Rep. Score ZXD:$ 6
  18. 18. S W Y X Z D Reputation Example $4 $4 $4 $4 $2 $2 Reputation Z = +4 Distributed Database The reputation system isolates “bad” domains from the market. Because Y does not advertise paths through Z, S continues to deploy on SYWXD. BR BR BR BR BR BR BR BR BR BR BR BR
  19. 19. S W Y X Z D Fault Tolerance Example Any domain that detect faults will try to redeploy $4 $3 $4 $3 $3 $3 FAULT X If a domain has no viable routes for redeploying, it signals backward so that another domain can try recovery. No Path  BR BR BR BR BR BR BR BR BR BR BR BR
  20. 20. S W Y X Z D Fault Tolerance Example Y takes on the responsibility of recovery and finds path YWXD $4 $3 $4 $3 $3 $3 FAULT X Y informs the source about the available path to reroute. YWXD  BR BR BR BR BR BR BR BR BR BR BR BR
  21. 21. S W Y X Z D Fault Tolerance Example Source then can decide to reroute the faulted deployments. $4 $3 $4 $ 2 $3 $3 BR BR BR BR BR BR BR BR BR BR BR BR
  22. 22. iREX Presentation Outline <ul><li>Problem Statement </li></ul><ul><li>Our Solution </li></ul><ul><li>Simulation Results </li></ul><ul><li>Conclusion </li></ul>
  23. 23. iREX Simulator <ul><li>Packet level simulation for control packets. </li></ul><ul><li>Flow level simulation for QoS policy. </li></ul><ul><li>Domains </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Implements BGP & iREX protocols </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>only have local knowledge </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>react to reservations </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>random pricing functions </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>selfish goal to maximize profit </li></ul></ul>Domain Node Wire Input & Output Queue Input & Output Queue Process Queue Simulator Components
  24. 24. Simulated Price Functions <ul><li>Each domain in the simulation is assigned a price function randomly </li></ul><ul><li>We initially simulated 3 models of pricing for the domains in the simulation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Flat then Cubed </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Flat then Linear </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Tiered. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Each domain uses different parameters for the price functions. </li></ul>
  25. 25. Flat then Cubed <ul><li>Price has multiple 1 until a cutoff % is reached for link capacity usage. </li></ul><ul><li>After cutoff %, the price increases according to a constant multiplied by a cube of the bandwidth used. </li></ul><ul><li>Parameters: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Cutoff % </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Constant multiplier (c) </li></ul></ul>Price Multiple Used Link Capacity (0% to 100%) 100% 1 P max Cutoff % Slope = c X 3
  26. 26. Flat then Linear <ul><li>Price has multiple 1 until a cutoff % is reached for link capacity usage. </li></ul><ul><li>After cutoff %, the price increases according to a linear equation of </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Price = c (mX) + 1 </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Parameters </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Cutoff % </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Constant Multiplier (c) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Linear Slope (m) </li></ul></ul>Price Multiple Used Link Capacity (0% to 100%) 100% 1 P max Cutoff % Slope = c(m X )
  27. 27. Tiered <ul><li>Price has multiple 1 until a cutoff % is reached for link capacity usage. </li></ul><ul><li>There are 4 cutoff percentages with 4 price multiple levels. </li></ul><ul><li>Parameters </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Cutoff % </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>CP1, CP2, CP3, CP4 </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Price Levels </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>P1, P2, P3, P4 </li></ul></ul></ul>Price Multiple Used Link Capacity (0% to 100%) P 4 CP1 % P 3 P 2 P 1 CP2 % CP4 % CP3% 1 100 %
  28. 28. Simulation Topology vBNS MCI’s Very High Speed Backbone Network System L3 Tier 1 ISP
  29. 29. iREX Metrics <ul><li>SLA Comparative Metrics </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Congestion Probability </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Blocking Probability </li></ul></ul><ul><li>iREX behavior Metrics </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Pareto Fairness </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Multipath Probability </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Num. Unique Paths </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Overhead Metrics </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Setup Time </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Control Packets </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Reputation Metrics </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Reputation Effectiveness </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Reputation Control Packets </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Fault Tolerance Metrics </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Recovery Probability </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Recovery Time </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Recovery Control Packets </li></ul></ul>
  30. 30. <ul><li>Congestion </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The total number of links that are congested globally divided by the total number of requests successfully deployed globally. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Link congested when > 50% of its capacity is in use. </li></ul></ul></ul>iREX Causes Less Congestion
  31. 31. <ul><li>Blocking Probability </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The number of unsuccessful global ID deployments divided by the total number of ID deployments attempted globally. </li></ul></ul>iREX allows more Reservations
  32. 32. <ul><li>Pareto Fairness </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The percentage of deployments that were successful in the SLA configuration that is also successful in the iREX configuration. </li></ul></ul>iREX is > 80% Pareto Fair
  33. 33. <ul><li>Multi-Path probability </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The number of policies that are deployed globally that, at the time of deployment, have more than one path connecting the same source destination domain pair divided by the total number of policies deployed globally. </li></ul></ul>iREX starts using Multipath at about 18 % traffic load to Maximize Bandwidth Efficiency
  34. 34. <ul><li>Unique Paths (between Los Angeles to Boston) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The number of paths that has at least one path vector link different from all other paths being used at the time of deployment. </li></ul></ul>iREX exploits available paths when there is available bandwidth
  35. 35. <ul><li>Setup Time </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The time starting when the domain first issues a request for a policy deployment up to the time that the policy deployment is finally successful. </li></ul></ul>Worse case under 510 ms at 6,000 kilometers.
  36. 36. <ul><li>Control Packets </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The average number of packet to setup a deployment. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Control packets divided by the number of deployments </li></ul></ul></ul>Maximum of 10 control packets per reservation deployment.
  37. 37. <ul><li>Reputation Effectiveness </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The number of reservation requests that arrive at the “bad” domain while the iREX reputation system is active divided by the number of reservation requests that arrive at the “bad” domain without using the iREX reputation system. </li></ul></ul>iREX Reputation system is about 70% effective and takes about 3 minutes to activate.
  38. 38. <ul><li>Reputation Control Packets </li></ul><ul><ul><li>All reputation related control packets generated across a time period </li></ul></ul>iREX Reputation Overhead is low
  39. 39. <ul><li>Recovery Probability </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The global total number of failed deployments successfully recovered divided by the global total number of failed deployments. </li></ul></ul>iREX recovers 100% faults up to 30% load.
  40. 40. <ul><li>Recovery Time </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The time starting when a deployment fails up to the time that the deployment is finally recovered. </li></ul></ul>iREX worse recovery time is less than 1,200 ms
  41. 41. <ul><li>Recovery Control Packets </li></ul><ul><ul><li>All recovery related control packets divided by the number of recovered deployments </li></ul></ul>iREX Overhead is low
  42. 42. iREX Presentation Outline <ul><li>Problem Statement </li></ul><ul><li>Our Solution </li></ul><ul><li>Simulation Results </li></ul><ul><li>Conclusion </li></ul>
  43. 43. Conclusion <ul><li>iREX </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Architecture for self-managing inter-domain QoS policy deployment </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Domains cooperate indirectly by optimizing their own benefit </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ideas: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Economics (price) determine inter-domain path dynamics </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Reputation & Fault Tolerance enforces conformance </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Benefits: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Self Managing Inter-domain QoS policy </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Totally Distributed </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Low setup time ( < 500 ms) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Efficient global traffic distribution </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Happily profitable non-cooperating ISPs  </li></ul></ul></ul>
  44. 44. Thank you. Contact: Ariffin Datuk Yahaya ariffin@ ics.uci.edu
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