Networked Communication Applications Copyright 1997 Panko
Importance of Communication <ul><li>The Manager’s day </li></ul><ul><ul><li>25% In conference rooms </li></ul></ul><ul><ul...
Historical Perspective <ul><li>1950s, 1960s, 1970s </li></ul><ul><ul><li>We focused mostly on clerical support </li></ul><...
Historical Perspective <ul><li>1990s </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Networking is exploding </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Focusing on ...
Keyboard-Based Tools <ul><li>Electronic Mail (E-mail) </li></ul><ul><li>Computer conferencing </li></ul><ul><li>Groupware ...
Voice and Video <ul><li>POTS </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Plain old telephone service </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Audio conferenci...
Calls to Middleware Word Processor Electronic Mail (Middleware) Transport Standard Internet Standard Subnet Standard Elect...
Calls to Middleware <ul><li>E-mail and other networked communication applications can form a layer between other applicati...
Calls to Middleware <ul><li>Interface between middleware program and other applications must be standardized </li></ul><ul...
Electronic Mail <ul><li>Attachments </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Messages carry word processing, spreadsheet, other files </li></...
Electronic Mail <ul><li>Rules, Filters, Agents </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Some people are overloaded by e-mail </li></ul></ul><...
Computer Conferencing Computer Conferencing Program Bulletin Board Participant Message Being Submitted Message Being Poste...
Computer Conferencing <ul><li>E-mail designed for one-to-one or one-to-few communication </li></ul><ul><li>Computer confer...
Electronic Mail System Sender’s PC Electronic Mail Host Electronic Mail Host Electronic Mail Host Receiver’s PC Message
Electronic Mail Hosts <ul><li>Together, act Like a Postal Service </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Deliver mail to one another </li><...
Communication Between Mail Hosts <ul><li>Needed for mail delivery </li></ul><ul><li>Simple Mail Transfer Protocol (SMTP) <...
Other Standards Linking Mail Hosts <ul><li>Other Standards Exist for Mail Host Exchanges </li></ul><ul><li>X.400 </li></ul...
Other Standards Linking Mail Hosts <ul><li>Other Standards Exist for Mail Host Exchanges </li></ul><ul><li>Proprietary Sta...
User-Mail Host Communication <ul><li>Host-Host Communication </li></ul><ul><ul><li>For delivering mail to user mailboxes <...
User-Mail Host Communication <ul><li>Mail Stored on the Host </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Traditionally, mail stayed on the host ...
User-Mail Host Communication <ul><li>Downloading Systems </li></ul><ul><ul><li>User can download mail for reading later of...
Internet Mail Downloading Standards <ul><li>POP 3 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Post Office Protocol, Version 3 </li></ul></ul><ul...
Message Structure Standard <ul><li>Structure of Messages must be Standardized </li></ul><ul><ul><li>To allow different sys...
Message Structure Standard <ul><li>HTML </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Widely used on the WWW </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Can be use...
Internet Encoding Sender Encoded File in 7-bit ASCII Original File in 8-bit ASCII Encoding Receiver Original File in 8-bit...
Internet Encoding for Attachments Sender Encoded File in 7-bit ASCII Original File in 8-bit ASCII Encoding Receiver Origin...
Internet Attachment Encoding <ul><li>Most attachments use 8-bit file formats </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Use all 8 bits of each ...
Encoding for Attachments <ul><li>Internet Encoding </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Creates a stream of bytes conforming to Internet ...
Internet Attachment Encoding Standards <ul><li>Binhex </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Created for Macintosh </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><...
Internet Attachment Encoding Standards <ul><li>MIME </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Multipurpose Internet Multimedia Exchange standa...
Internet E-Mail Standards PC with local Email program Message Downloading & Uploading via POP or IMAP SMTP (Simple Mail Tr...
Email Ettiquette <ul><li>Rules of proper behavior </li></ul><ul><li>Flaming </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Sending heated, nasty me...
Electronic Mail Etiquette <ul><li>Spamming </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Mass mailing commercial advertisements via email or compu...
Electronic Mail Etiquette <ul><li>Replying </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Who will the reply go to? Summarize! </li></ul></ul><ul><...
Corporate Privacy <ul><li>Corporate email is not private </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Employer has right to read all messages </l...
Directory Server <ul><li>Final a user’s formal E-mail address </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Also a locator for other information <...
Taxonomy of Groupware Dimensions Same Place Different Place Same Time (Synchronous) Different Time (Asynchronous) Electron...
Workflow Systems <ul><li>Multiuser Manual Processes Today </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The job pass from one person to another </...
Typical Computerized Workflow System Prepares Request Reviews for Need Reviews for Adherence to Rules Reviews for Technica...
Workflow Tools <ul><li>Provide support for subtasks </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Tools to help each person working on the job </l...
Project Management System <ul><li>Workflow is for highly-structured work </li></ul><ul><li>Project management systems </li...
Project Management Tasks: Creation of Proposal Outline Proposal Draft Introduction Draft Plan Draft Qualifications Review ...
Electronic Document Management (EDM) <ul><li>Documents are widely used in organizations </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Already crea...
Electronic Document Management (EDM) <ul><li>Management </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Keeping track of versions </li></ul></ul><ul...
Lotus Notes <ul><li>Prototypical Groupware Tool </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Set of highly integrated tools </li></ul></ul><ul><l...
Lotus Notes <ul><li>Application Development Tools </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Very-high-level programming language for creating ...
Application Development Customer Tracking Application Application Development (Integration) Verbal Communi- cation (Email)...
Replication in Notes <ul><li>Files created on local Notes servers </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Replicated to other Notes servers,...
The Internet and Groupware <ul><li>Lotus Notes </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Now integrates Internet access </li></ul></ul><ul><li...
Room-to-Room Videoconferencing Camera and Monitors Codec Roll-About System Codec Conference Room 1 Conference Room 2 Circu...
Room-to-Room Videoconferencing <ul><li>Monitors </li></ul><ul><li>Cameras </li></ul><ul><li>Controller for Meeting Leaders...
Room-to-Room Videoconferencing <ul><li>CODECs:  Translation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Video signals from cameras are analog </...
Multipoint Conferencing Units (MCUs) <ul><li>Switch between any two rooms </li></ul><ul><li>Multisite conferences </li></u...
Document Conferencing <ul><li>Desktop communication </li></ul><ul><ul><li>PC users can share documents </li></ul></ul><ul>...
Videoconferencing Standards <ul><li>Proprietary Standards </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Before, each vendor had their own propriet...
Basic ITU-T Videoconferencing Standards <ul><li>H.320 Series </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Videoconferencing over the ISDN </li></...
Electronic Meeting Room (EMR) <ul><li>The Need </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Managers spend 25% of the day in conference rooms </l...
An Electronic Meeting Room (EMR) Participant PCs Public Screen with Projection System Moderator PC Server with Software LAN
Electronic Meeting Room (EMR) <ul><li>Participant PCs </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Each has their own PC </li></ul></ul><ul><li>M...
Electronic Meeting Room (EMR) <ul><li>Server software </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Real key to EMR Success </li></ul></ul><ul><ul...
Electronic Meeting Room (EMR) <ul><li>Commenting on specific alternatives </li></ul><ul><li>Voting </li></ul><ul><ul><li>C...
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  1. 1. Networked Communication Applications Copyright 1997 Panko
  2. 2. Importance of Communication <ul><li>The Manager’s day </li></ul><ul><ul><li>25% In conference rooms </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>30% In other face-to-face meetings </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>5% On the telephone </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>25% Reading and writing </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>85% Total communication </li></ul></ul>
  3. 3. Historical Perspective <ul><li>1950s, 1960s, 1970s </li></ul><ul><ul><li>We focused mostly on clerical support </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>But only 1/3 of employment, 1/4 office salaries </li></ul></ul><ul><li>1980s </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The PC era </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Focused on stand-alone managerial and professional work </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>But most managerial and professional work is not stand-alone </li></ul></ul>
  4. 4. Historical Perspective <ul><li>1990s </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Networking is exploding </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Focusing on managerial and professional groupwork </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Redesigning cross-unit functions (Chapter 11) </li></ul></ul>
  5. 5. Keyboard-Based Tools <ul><li>Electronic Mail (E-mail) </li></ul><ul><li>Computer conferencing </li></ul><ul><li>Groupware </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Focus on groups rather than individuals </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Electronic Meeting Rooms </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Conference rooms with computers for participants </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Software to make meetings work better </li></ul></ul>
  6. 6. Voice and Video <ul><li>POTS </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Plain old telephone service </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Audio conferencing </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Videoconferencing </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Room-to-room </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Desktop </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Document conferencing </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Share documents and applications </li></ul></ul>
  7. 7. Calls to Middleware Word Processor Electronic Mail (Middleware) Transport Standard Internet Standard Subnet Standard Electronic Mail Transport Standard Internet Standard Subnet Standard Station A Station B Middleware Called using API standard
  8. 8. Calls to Middleware <ul><li>E-mail and other networked communication applications can form a layer between other applications and transport </li></ul><ul><li>Called middleware </li></ul><ul><li>Allows word processing user to send a document as a message </li></ul>
  9. 9. Calls to Middleware <ul><li>Interface between middleware program and other applications must be standardized </li></ul><ul><li>Called an application program interface (API) </li></ul><ul><li>Most popular e-mail API is Microsoft’s MAPI </li></ul>Word Processor Electronic Mail (Middleware) Middleware Call using API standard
  10. 10. Electronic Mail <ul><li>Attachments </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Messages carry word processing, spreadsheet, other files </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Can be better than other file transfer methods </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>If sent over the Internet, extra work must be done </li></ul></ul>
  11. 11. Electronic Mail <ul><li>Rules, Filters, Agents </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Some people are overloaded by e-mail </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Your e-mail program can pre-process your mail </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Send low-priority mail to “To be read” file </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Can flag high-priority mail </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Can even respond to some without your intervention </li></ul></ul>
  12. 12. Computer Conferencing Computer Conferencing Program Bulletin Board Participant Message Being Submitted Message Being Posted Message Being Read Later by Other Participant Participant
  13. 13. Computer Conferencing <ul><li>E-mail designed for one-to-one or one-to-few communication </li></ul><ul><li>Computer conferencing is designed for group communication </li></ul><ul><li>New messages are posted, can be read by others </li></ul><ul><li>Special tools for posting, reading </li></ul><ul><li>Administrative tools for conference manager </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Participant lists, voting, etc. </li></ul></ul>
  14. 14. Electronic Mail System Sender’s PC Electronic Mail Host Electronic Mail Host Electronic Mail Host Receiver’s PC Message
  15. 15. Electronic Mail Hosts <ul><li>Together, act Like a Postal Service </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Deliver mail to one another </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Report delivery failures </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>panko@hawaii.edu -- hawaii.edu is the mail host </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Hold incoming mail until user logs in </li></ul><ul><li>May provide a directory of users </li></ul>
  16. 16. Communication Between Mail Hosts <ul><li>Needed for mail delivery </li></ul><ul><li>Simple Mail Transfer Protocol (SMTP) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>TCP/IP host-host mail standard for delivery </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Between mail hosts; not between mail host and user </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Simple but effective </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Becoming dominant </li></ul></ul>
  17. 17. Other Standards Linking Mail Hosts <ul><li>Other Standards Exist for Mail Host Exchanges </li></ul><ul><li>X.400 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>More sophisticated standard from OSI </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Popular with European carriers </li></ul></ul><ul><li>MHS </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Popular on Novell NetWare Networks </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Now being superseded </li></ul></ul>
  18. 18. Other Standards Linking Mail Hosts <ul><li>Other Standards Exist for Mail Host Exchanges </li></ul><ul><li>Proprietary Standards </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Exist for Lotus Notes, other programs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Often full-featured, difficult to dislodge </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Translation Software </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Translates among SMTP, X.400, MHS, and proprietary host-host protocols </li></ul></ul>
  19. 19. User-Mail Host Communication <ul><li>Host-Host Communication </li></ul><ul><ul><li>For delivering mail to user mailboxes </li></ul></ul><ul><li>User-Host Communication </li></ul><ul><ul><li>To receive mail in the mailbox </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>To post new mail </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>To do administrative tasks </li></ul></ul>Host- Host User- Host
  20. 20. User-Mail Host Communication <ul><li>Mail Stored on the Host </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Traditionally, mail stayed on the host until deleted </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Whole body of mail can be accessed from anywhere </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>All interaction was online, in real time </li></ul></ul>Mail
  21. 21. User-Mail Host Communication <ul><li>Downloading Systems </li></ul><ul><ul><li>User can download mail for reading later offline </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>User can prepare mail offline and later upload it </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Considerations </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Allows offline work </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Especially important for notebook users for whom connection time is expensive, inconvenient </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Old mail may be scattered over mailbox on host, office PC, home PC, and notebook computer </li></ul></ul>
  22. 22. Internet Mail Downloading Standards <ul><li>POP 3 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Post Office Protocol, Version 3 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Download all mail </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Can take long if big attachments, much junk mail </li></ul></ul><ul><li>IMAP 4 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Interactive Mail Access Protocol, Version 4 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Newer standard </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>See one-line message summaries </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Download only what is desired </li></ul></ul>
  23. 23. Message Structure Standard <ul><li>Structure of Messages must be Standardized </li></ul><ul><ul><li>To allow different systems to read the messages </li></ul></ul><ul><li>RFC 822 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Basic Internet standard for document structure </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Text-only, structured fields </li></ul></ul><ul><li>MIME </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Multipurpose Internet Mail Extensions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Allows multimedia messages </li></ul></ul>
  24. 24. Message Structure Standard <ul><li>HTML </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Widely used on the WWW </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Can be used for body, even header of message </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Not yet standardized for email use </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Displeases receivers who cannot read body as HTML </li></ul></ul>
  25. 25. Internet Encoding Sender Encoded File in 7-bit ASCII Original File in 8-bit ASCII Encoding Receiver Original File in 8-bit ASCII Encoded File in 7-bit ASCII Decoding Internet Internet can only transmit 7-bit ASCII
  26. 26. Internet Encoding for Attachments Sender Encoded File in 7-bit ASCII Original File in 8-bit ASCII Encoding Receiver Original File in 8-bit ASCII Encoded File in 7-bit ASCII Decoding Internet Sender must encode outgoing file into 7-bit ASCII standard. Called Internet encoding Several standards exist: Binhex, UUencode, MIME
  27. 27. Internet Attachment Encoding <ul><li>Most attachments use 8-bit file formats </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Use all 8 bits of each byte </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Internet only supports 7-bit ASCII </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>8th bit is chopped off during transmission </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>In addition, 32 of the 7-bit combinations are forbidden because they were created to manage transmission rather than convey information </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sending 8-bit files over the Internet would damage them </li></ul></ul>
  28. 28. Encoding for Attachments <ul><li>Internet Encoding </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Creates a stream of bytes conforming to Internet limitation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Must be decoded at the other end </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Unfortunately, competing Internet attachment encoding standards exist: MIME most popular </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sender must chose an Internet attachment encoding format the reader can decode </li></ul></ul>
  29. 29. Internet Attachment Encoding Standards <ul><li>Binhex </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Created for Macintosh </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Widely supported on PC mail programs </li></ul></ul><ul><li>UUENCODE </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Created for UNIX machines </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Widely supported on PC mail programs </li></ul></ul>
  30. 30. Internet Attachment Encoding Standards <ul><li>MIME </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Multipurpose Internet Multimedia Exchange standard </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>General-purpose encoding system for the Internet. Not limited to attachments </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Support is growing </li></ul></ul><ul><li>S/MIME </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Secure MIME </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Used where security is important </li></ul></ul>
  31. 31. Internet E-Mail Standards PC with local Email program Message Downloading & Uploading via POP or IMAP SMTP (Simple Mail Transfer Protocol) PC with Software that that handles mail in real time Message Content Standard RFC 822: Text Only MIME: Multimedia Attachment Encoding Binhex, UUENCODE, MIME Vendor-Specific Communication E-Mail Host E-Mail Host
  32. 32. Email Ettiquette <ul><li>Rules of proper behavior </li></ul><ul><li>Flaming </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Sending heated, nasty messages </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>It is so easy to reply that people sometimes do so without thinking </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The other person may not seem like a person </li></ul></ul>
  33. 33. Electronic Mail Etiquette <ul><li>Spamming </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Mass mailing commercial advertisements via email or computer conferences </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Very annoying </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Not illegal, per se, although some specific offers are </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Courts are favoring providers vs spammers </li></ul></ul>
  34. 34. Electronic Mail Etiquette <ul><li>Replying </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Who will the reply go to? Summarize! </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Obviously the original sender </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>But also all receivers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>If you think the former but send to all, they will all receive your “private” message </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Forwarding </li></ul><ul><ul><li>If someone sends you a message, it may be embarrassing to them if you forward it to others </li></ul></ul>
  35. 35. Corporate Privacy <ul><li>Corporate email is not private </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Employer has right to read all messages </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>You can be fired even if you thought the message was private and only went to one other person </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Legal Discovery </li></ul><ul><ul><li>In lawsuits, lawyers can subpoena all email </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Even if the company has given up the right to do so </li></ul></ul>
  36. 36. Directory Server <ul><li>Final a user’s formal E-mail address </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Also a locator for other information </li></ul></ul>“ What is the address of ‘Ray’?” Ray Kimura Raymond brown Susan Raynes Rkimura Rbrown SRaynes Directory Server User PC
  37. 37. Taxonomy of Groupware Dimensions Same Place Different Place Same Time (Synchronous) Different Time (Asynchronous) Electronic Meeting Room Departmental EDM Videoconferencing Desktop Conferencing Email Computer Conferencing
  38. 38. Workflow Systems <ul><li>Multiuser Manual Processes Today </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The job pass from one person to another </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Each works only part of it </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The job must then be passed on </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Example: fill in expense report </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Problems </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Often very slow </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Often lacks tools for doing work, passing it on </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Hard to manage across multiple departments </li></ul></ul>
  39. 39. Typical Computerized Workflow System Prepares Request Reviews for Need Reviews for Adherence to Rules Reviews for Technical Matters Sends Purchase Order Must be Completed Before Purchasing will Issue Purchase Order Employee Supervisor Purchasing Fiscal Officer IS Department
  40. 40. Workflow Tools <ul><li>Provide support for subtasks </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Tools to help each person working on the job </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Provide distribution tools </li></ul><ul><ul><li>When finished, worker hits “Go” button </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Delivery and notification is automatic </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Reduces time lags </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Management tools </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Tracking individual jobs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Statistics to find bottlenecks </li></ul></ul>
  41. 41. Project Management System <ul><li>Workflow is for highly-structured work </li></ul><ul><li>Project management systems </li></ul><ul><ul><li>For less highly-structured work (building a building, writing a proposal) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Many people involved </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Many tasks to do, with some depending on others </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Tools </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Planning </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Tracking </li></ul></ul>
  42. 42. Project Management Tasks: Creation of Proposal Outline Proposal Draft Introduction Draft Plan Draft Qualifications Review and Edit Submit All Drafts Must be Complete Before Review
  43. 43. Electronic Document Management (EDM) <ul><li>Documents are widely used in organizations </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Already created electronically </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Problems in locating documents, retrieval </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Organized storage and retrieval </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Keyword searches on indexed fields </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Full-text retrieval searches text of entire document for certain strings </li></ul></ul>
  44. 44. Electronic Document Management (EDM) <ul><li>Management </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Keeping track of versions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Document check-in, check out </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Retention strategy </li></ul></ul>
  45. 45. Lotus Notes <ul><li>Prototypical Groupware Tool </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Set of highly integrated tools </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Word processing and other document-creation tools </li></ul><ul><li>E-mail </li></ul><ul><li>Retrieval tools </li></ul><ul><li>Coordination tools </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Plans timing of events </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Tracks timing of events </li></ul></ul>
  46. 46. Lotus Notes <ul><li>Application Development Tools </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Very-high-level programming language for creating individual integrated applications </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Create proposal tracking application, other applications </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Can also buy pre-made applications </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Perhaps Notes’ greatest strength </li></ul></ul>
  47. 47. Application Development Customer Tracking Application Application Development (Integration) Verbal Communi- cation (Email) Group Composition (Proposal Writing) Group Memory (Customer Information Retrieval) Coordination (Order Tracking) Control (Management Statistics)
  48. 48. Replication in Notes <ul><li>Files created on local Notes servers </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Replicated to other Notes servers, often overnight </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Does not require replication speed of database </li></ul></ul>Notes Server B Notes Server A Notes Server C Replication of New and Modified Files
  49. 49. The Internet and Groupware <ul><li>Lotus Notes </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Now integrates Internet access </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Other Groupware Products </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Some designed for Internet use from ground up </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Can also be used in Intranets </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Netscape Communicator </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>MS NetMeeting </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>TeamWave </li></ul></ul>
  50. 50. Room-to-Room Videoconferencing Camera and Monitors Codec Roll-About System Codec Conference Room 1 Conference Room 2 Circuit Typically 56 kbps to T1/E1
  51. 51. Room-to-Room Videoconferencing <ul><li>Monitors </li></ul><ul><li>Cameras </li></ul><ul><li>Controller for Meeting Leaders </li></ul><ul><li>Microphones </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Acoustics is the most difficult part to get right </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Howl-around from feedback </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Unnatural sounds </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Requires careful room preparation </li></ul></ul>
  52. 52. Room-to-Room Videoconferencing <ul><li>CODECs: Translation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Video signals from cameras are analog </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>CODEC converts to digital for transmission on a digital line </li></ul></ul><ul><li>CODECs: Compression </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Videoconferencing codecs also compress the digital signal </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Lose quality at high compression: grainy pictures, jerky motion, buzzy sound </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Good at T1, fractional T1 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Marginal at 64 kbps </li></ul></ul>
  53. 53. Multipoint Conferencing Units (MCUs) <ul><li>Switch between any two rooms </li></ul><ul><li>Multisite conferences </li></ul>Site A (In Conference) Site B (Not Involved) Site C (In Conference) MCU Site D (In Conference Communication Link
  54. 54. Document Conferencing <ul><li>Desktop communication </li></ul><ul><ul><li>PC users can share documents </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>May be able to jointly work on a program (e.g., spreadsheet) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>With desktop video, can see and hear each other </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Video requires a fast transmission line </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>ISDN is the slowest possible line for video </li></ul></ul>User B Transmission Line User A
  55. 55. Videoconferencing Standards <ul><li>Proprietary Standards </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Before, each vendor had their own proprietary standards </li></ul></ul><ul><li>ITU-T </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Now, most follow the ITU-T’s videoconferencing standards </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Standards are still being added for new needs </li></ul></ul>
  56. 56. Basic ITU-T Videoconferencing Standards <ul><li>H.320 Series </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Videoconferencing over the ISDN </li></ul></ul><ul><li>H.323 Series </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Videoconferencing over LANs, the Internet </li></ul></ul><ul><li>H.324 Series </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Videoconferencing over the telephone network using modems </li></ul></ul><ul><li>T.120 Series </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Document conferencing </li></ul></ul>
  57. 57. Electronic Meeting Room (EMR) <ul><li>The Need </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Managers spend 25% of the day in conference rooms </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>When they get there, they have to leave their computer technology behind </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Meetings have problems that need to be addressed: lasting too long, some people being afraid to speak, etc. </li></ul></ul>
  58. 58. An Electronic Meeting Room (EMR) Participant PCs Public Screen with Projection System Moderator PC Server with Software LAN
  59. 59. Electronic Meeting Room (EMR) <ul><li>Participant PCs </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Each has their own PC </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Moderator PC </li></ul><ul><ul><li>To control the meeting software </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Public Screen </li></ul><ul><ul><li>To display shared information </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Requires a projector </li></ul></ul><ul><li>LAN to link everyone together </li></ul>
  60. 60. Electronic Meeting Room (EMR) <ul><li>Server software </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Real key to EMR Success </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Toolbox of programs for various agenda items </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Integrated: set agenda, pick tool for each item </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Electronic Brainstorming </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Generating ideas </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Proven to generate ideas much faster than face-to-face brainstorming </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>May generate more comments from low-level people too intimidated to talk face-to-face </li></ul></ul>
  61. 61. Electronic Meeting Room (EMR) <ul><li>Commenting on specific alternatives </li></ul><ul><li>Voting </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Can be anonymous </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Can analyze pattern of votes to indicate areas of disagreements </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Presentation of Reports </li></ul><ul><ul><li>PowerPoint, etc. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>People have straight face-to-face discussions too </li></ul>
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