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  • 1. Reliable MySQL Using Replication Issac Goldstand Mirimar Networks www.mirimar.net [email_address]
  • 2. What is replication?
    • Allows 2 or more databases to maintain state between them
    • MySQL 3.23 and up supports asynchronous replication
    • One server acts as a master for one or more slaves
    • Slaves pull data to be replicated from server’s binary logs and execute the relevant statements locally
  • 3. Replication basics…
    • One master supports multiple slaves
    • Each node on the network is assigned a unique identifying number
    • Each slave attempts to connect to the master and fetches data to be replicated
    Master Slave Slave Slave Slaves
  • 4. Replication basics…
    • Clients perform data modification on master server
    • INSERT, SELECT, DELETE, LOAD DATA
    • EXECUTE in MySQL 5.0 and above
    DATA DATA INSERT INTO … Master Slave Client
  • 5. Replication basics…
    • Immediately following execution of command on master, the command is written to the local binary log
    • Additionally, the master records its unique ID (to prevent endless loops in circular replication scenarios) and the timestamp for use with statements which use NOW(), etc.
    DATA DATA INSERT INTO … Binary Log Master Slave Client
  • 6. Replication basics…
    • If the slave is online, the command is transmitted to the slave in parallel (well, immediately following) to being written in the local binary log
    • Otherwise, when the slave next connects it will receive a list of all pending statements from the master server’s binary log
    • The slave’s replication IO thread stores the command in the local relay log
    DATA DATA INSERT INTO … INSERT INTO … Relay Log Replication Thread Master Slave Client
  • 7. Replication basics…
    • Once the data is received in the slave’s relay log, the slave SQL thread executes the command locally, bringing the slave up-to-date with the master
    • In MySQL 3.23, the IO and SQL threads were just one thread. In later versions this was changed to boost performance
    DATA DATA INSERT INTO … INSERT INTO … Relay Log Replication Thread DATA Master Slave Client
  • 8. Replication Strategies
    • Load balancing – single write, distributed read
    Master Slave Slave Slave Client (SELECT) Client (SELECT) Client (SELECT) Client (SELECT) Client (SELECT) Client (SELECT) Client (INSERT)
  • 9. Replication Strategies
    • Load balancing – single write, distributed read
    • Load balancing – circular read/write
    MySQL Server MySQL Server MySQL Server Client INSERT INTO… INSERT INTO … Client
  • 10. Replication Strategies
    • Load balancing – single write, distributed read
    • Load balancing – circular read/write
    • High availability (hot failover)
    DATA DATA DATA DATA DATA Client Master Slave
  • 11. Replication Strategies
    • Load balancing – single write, distributed read
    • Load balancing – circular read/write
    • High availability (hot failover)
    • Snapshot backups
    Master Slave Backup with LOCK TABLES (or single transaction) Client INSERT / SELECT Client INSERT / SELECT
  • 12. Simple Replication Setup
    • Modify my.cnf to include a unique server-id for each node
    • On master server, ensure that log-bin (binary logging) is enabled in my.cnf
    • On slave, configure login credentials on master, either via my.cnf or CHANGE MASTER TO statement
    • Copy initial data snapshot from master to slave
    • Configure initial binary log position on slave
    • Start replication with SLAVE START command
  • 13. Configure master my.cnf ------------- [mysqld] server-id = 1 log-bin
  • 14. Configure slave my.cnf ------------- [mysqld] server-id = 2 master-user = someuser master-password = secret master-host = ip.of.master
  • 15. Initial dataset
    • Binary log provides a record of all modifications to master database starting from a fixed point: when binary logging was activated
    • If all binary logs exist on master from initial install of MySQL, the slave(s) can use these to bring themselves up-to-date
    • Otherwise, a snapshot of the master must be taken, using mysqldump –master-data , to provide an initial dataset for the slave(s)
    • If only MyISAM tables are used, the LOAD DATA FROM MASTER statement may be used on the slave(s)
  • 16. Configure log position MASTER mysql> SHOW MASTER STATUS; +---------------------------+----------+--------------+------------------+ | File | Position | Binlog_Do_DB | Binlog_Ignore_DB | +---------------------------+----------+--------------+------------------+ | vmware-mirimar-bin.000002 | 79 | | | +---------------------------+----------+--------------+------------------+ SLAVE mysql> CHANGE MASTER TO MASTER_LOG_FILE=‘ vmware-mirimar-bin.000002 ’, MASTER_LOG_POS= 79 ; SLAVE mysql> START SLAVE;
  • 17. Using CHANGE MASTER TO
    • MASTER_HOST
    • MASTER_USER
    • MASTER_PASSWORD
    • MASTER_LOG_FILE
    • MASTER_LOG_POS
  • 18. Advanced CHANGE MASTER TO
    • MASTER_PORT
    • RELAY_LOG_FILE
    • RELAY_LOG_POS
    • MASTER_SSL
    • SSL: CA/CAPATH/CERT/KEY/CIPHER
  • 19. Confirming it works SLAVE mysql> SHOW SLAVE STATUSG *************************** 1. row *************************** Slave_IO_State: Waiting for master to send event Master_Host: vmware-mirimar Master_User: someuser Master_Port: 3306 Connect_Retry: 60 Master_Log_File: vmware-mirimar-bin.000002 Read_Master_Log_Pos: 79 Relay_Log_File: vmware1-mirimar-relay-bin.000002 Relay_Log_Pos: 250 Relay_Master_Log_File: vmware-mirimar-bin.000002 Slave_IO_Running: Yes Slave_SQL_Running: Yes Last_Errno: 0 Last_Error: Skip_Counter: 0 Exec_Master_Log_Pos: 79 Relay_Log_Space: 250 Seconds_Behind_Master: 0
  • 20. Permissions
    • Slaves need REPLICATION SLAVE permission on master for basic usage
    • If LOAD TABLE FROM MASTER or LOAD DATA FROM MASTER statements are used, slave will also need SUPER and RELOAD privileges
  • 21. Internal Threads
    • Since MySQL 4.0, replication slaves run two threads
    • IO thread continuously receives updates from master and writes to local relay log
    • SQL thread continuously executes statements in relay log
  • 22. IO thread isolation
    • Isolating IO thread means that slave won’t have to wait for long-executing statements to finish executing before retrieving data from master
    • Also, slave will continue reading data from master if a statement creates a data conflict
  • 23. SQL thread isolation
    • SQL thread isolation allows for replication in an environment without a continuous link between slave and masters
    • If master fails (or slave simply has no access), the IO thread will try to reconnect endlessly (waiting 60 seconds between attempts)
    • SQL thread will continue processing relay logs even while IO thread is unable to connect to master
  • 24. Master Thread
    • Additionally, the master server runs the Binlog Dump thread
    • This thread is simply dedicated to scanning the binary logs on the master and sending updates to the connected slave
    • If this thread isn’t running, it means that replication isn’t running – more accurately, that no slaves are currently connected
  • 25. Status files
    • 2 status files for replication’s use
    • Their use is to record the state of replication between server shutdown and startup
    • master.info records information about the slave’s master server
    • relay-log.info records information about the local relay logs
  • 26. Information in master.info
    • Master log file
    • Read master log pos
    • Master Host
    • Master User
    • Password (will not be shown in SHOW SLAVE STATUS)
    • Master Port
    • Connect Retry
    • In MySQL 4.1+, SSL options are stored if SSL is used
  • 27. Information in relay-log.info
    • Relay log file
    • Relay log pos
    • Relay master-log pos
    • Exec master-log pos
  • 28. Backup master
    • Master backups can be accomplished with mysqldump
    • Care must be taken to ensure the following 2 special considerations:
      • Consistent snapshot of master date (via lock tables for MyISAM or single transaction for InnoDB)
      • Recording of binary log information, for use on slaves (master-data)
  • 29. Backup master files
    • If a file-system level backup is required, care should be taken to manually record binary log name and position via SHOW MASTER STATUS statement.
    • To ensure consistency between backup and binary log position, the tables should be locked via FLUSH TABLES WITH READ LOCK immediately before backup (and SHOW MASTER STATUS)
    • LEAVE THE CLIENT CONNECTED!!!
    • After backup finishes, execute UNLOCK TABLES to release the read lock
  • 30. Backup slave
    • Same idea as master file system backup
    • Instead of recording position, it’s enough to backup the master.info and relay-log.info files
    • Instead of acquiring global read lock, it’s enough to STOP SLAVE before backup and START SLAVE once backup finishes
  • 31. Live demo
    • Time permitting, we’ll show a short demonstration of a simple unidirectional replication setup
  • 32. For more information
    • MySQL documentation
    • 5.0 documentation http://mirror.mirimar.net/mysql/doc/refman/5.0/en/replication.html
    • 4.1 documentation http://mirror.mirimar.net/mysql/doc/refman/4.1/en/replication.html
  • 33. Thank You! For more information: Issac Goldstand margol@mirimar.net http://www.beamartyr.net/ http://www.mirimar.net/

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