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    • Reliable MySQL Using Replication Issac Goldstand Mirimar Networks www.mirimar.net [email_address]
    • What is replication?
      • Allows 2 or more databases to maintain state between them
      • MySQL 3.23 and up supports asynchronous replication
      • One server acts as a master for one or more slaves
      • Slaves pull data to be replicated from server’s binary logs and execute the relevant statements locally
    • Replication basics…
      • One master supports multiple slaves
      • Each node on the network is assigned a unique identifying number
      • Each slave attempts to connect to the master and fetches data to be replicated
      Master Slave Slave Slave Slaves
    • Replication basics…
      • Clients perform data modification on master server
      • INSERT, SELECT, DELETE, LOAD DATA
      • EXECUTE in MySQL 5.0 and above
      DATA DATA INSERT INTO … Master Slave Client
    • Replication basics…
      • Immediately following execution of command on master, the command is written to the local binary log
      • Additionally, the master records its unique ID (to prevent endless loops in circular replication scenarios) and the timestamp for use with statements which use NOW(), etc.
      DATA DATA INSERT INTO … Binary Log Master Slave Client
    • Replication basics…
      • If the slave is online, the command is transmitted to the slave in parallel (well, immediately following) to being written in the local binary log
      • Otherwise, when the slave next connects it will receive a list of all pending statements from the master server’s binary log
      • The slave’s replication IO thread stores the command in the local relay log
      DATA DATA INSERT INTO … INSERT INTO … Relay Log Replication Thread Master Slave Client
    • Replication basics…
      • Once the data is received in the slave’s relay log, the slave SQL thread executes the command locally, bringing the slave up-to-date with the master
      • In MySQL 3.23, the IO and SQL threads were just one thread. In later versions this was changed to boost performance
      DATA DATA INSERT INTO … INSERT INTO … Relay Log Replication Thread DATA Master Slave Client
    • Replication Strategies
      • Load balancing – single write, distributed read
      Master Slave Slave Slave Client (SELECT) Client (SELECT) Client (SELECT) Client (SELECT) Client (SELECT) Client (SELECT) Client (INSERT)
    • Replication Strategies
      • Load balancing – single write, distributed read
      • Load balancing – circular read/write
      MySQL Server MySQL Server MySQL Server Client INSERT INTO… INSERT INTO … Client
    • Replication Strategies
      • Load balancing – single write, distributed read
      • Load balancing – circular read/write
      • High availability (hot failover)
      DATA DATA DATA DATA DATA Client Master Slave
    • Replication Strategies
      • Load balancing – single write, distributed read
      • Load balancing – circular read/write
      • High availability (hot failover)
      • Snapshot backups
      Master Slave Backup with LOCK TABLES (or single transaction) Client INSERT / SELECT Client INSERT / SELECT
    • Simple Replication Setup
      • Modify my.cnf to include a unique server-id for each node
      • On master server, ensure that log-bin (binary logging) is enabled in my.cnf
      • On slave, configure login credentials on master, either via my.cnf or CHANGE MASTER TO statement
      • Copy initial data snapshot from master to slave
      • Configure initial binary log position on slave
      • Start replication with SLAVE START command
    • Configure master my.cnf ------------- [mysqld] server-id = 1 log-bin
    • Configure slave my.cnf ------------- [mysqld] server-id = 2 master-user = someuser master-password = secret master-host = ip.of.master
    • Initial dataset
      • Binary log provides a record of all modifications to master database starting from a fixed point: when binary logging was activated
      • If all binary logs exist on master from initial install of MySQL, the slave(s) can use these to bring themselves up-to-date
      • Otherwise, a snapshot of the master must be taken, using mysqldump –master-data , to provide an initial dataset for the slave(s)
      • If only MyISAM tables are used, the LOAD DATA FROM MASTER statement may be used on the slave(s)
    • Configure log position MASTER mysql> SHOW MASTER STATUS; +---------------------------+----------+--------------+------------------+ | File | Position | Binlog_Do_DB | Binlog_Ignore_DB | +---------------------------+----------+--------------+------------------+ | vmware-mirimar-bin.000002 | 79 | | | +---------------------------+----------+--------------+------------------+ SLAVE mysql> CHANGE MASTER TO MASTER_LOG_FILE=‘ vmware-mirimar-bin.000002 ’, MASTER_LOG_POS= 79 ; SLAVE mysql> START SLAVE;
    • Using CHANGE MASTER TO
      • MASTER_HOST
      • MASTER_USER
      • MASTER_PASSWORD
      • MASTER_LOG_FILE
      • MASTER_LOG_POS
    • Advanced CHANGE MASTER TO
      • MASTER_PORT
      • RELAY_LOG_FILE
      • RELAY_LOG_POS
      • MASTER_SSL
      • SSL: CA/CAPATH/CERT/KEY/CIPHER
    • Confirming it works SLAVE mysql> SHOW SLAVE STATUSG *************************** 1. row *************************** Slave_IO_State: Waiting for master to send event Master_Host: vmware-mirimar Master_User: someuser Master_Port: 3306 Connect_Retry: 60 Master_Log_File: vmware-mirimar-bin.000002 Read_Master_Log_Pos: 79 Relay_Log_File: vmware1-mirimar-relay-bin.000002 Relay_Log_Pos: 250 Relay_Master_Log_File: vmware-mirimar-bin.000002 Slave_IO_Running: Yes Slave_SQL_Running: Yes Last_Errno: 0 Last_Error: Skip_Counter: 0 Exec_Master_Log_Pos: 79 Relay_Log_Space: 250 Seconds_Behind_Master: 0
    • Permissions
      • Slaves need REPLICATION SLAVE permission on master for basic usage
      • If LOAD TABLE FROM MASTER or LOAD DATA FROM MASTER statements are used, slave will also need SUPER and RELOAD privileges
    • Internal Threads
      • Since MySQL 4.0, replication slaves run two threads
      • IO thread continuously receives updates from master and writes to local relay log
      • SQL thread continuously executes statements in relay log
    • IO thread isolation
      • Isolating IO thread means that slave won’t have to wait for long-executing statements to finish executing before retrieving data from master
      • Also, slave will continue reading data from master if a statement creates a data conflict
    • SQL thread isolation
      • SQL thread isolation allows for replication in an environment without a continuous link between slave and masters
      • If master fails (or slave simply has no access), the IO thread will try to reconnect endlessly (waiting 60 seconds between attempts)
      • SQL thread will continue processing relay logs even while IO thread is unable to connect to master
    • Master Thread
      • Additionally, the master server runs the Binlog Dump thread
      • This thread is simply dedicated to scanning the binary logs on the master and sending updates to the connected slave
      • If this thread isn’t running, it means that replication isn’t running – more accurately, that no slaves are currently connected
    • Status files
      • 2 status files for replication’s use
      • Their use is to record the state of replication between server shutdown and startup
      • master.info records information about the slave’s master server
      • relay-log.info records information about the local relay logs
    • Information in master.info
      • Master log file
      • Read master log pos
      • Master Host
      • Master User
      • Password (will not be shown in SHOW SLAVE STATUS)
      • Master Port
      • Connect Retry
      • In MySQL 4.1+, SSL options are stored if SSL is used
    • Information in relay-log.info
      • Relay log file
      • Relay log pos
      • Relay master-log pos
      • Exec master-log pos
    • Backup master
      • Master backups can be accomplished with mysqldump
      • Care must be taken to ensure the following 2 special considerations:
        • Consistent snapshot of master date (via lock tables for MyISAM or single transaction for InnoDB)
        • Recording of binary log information, for use on slaves (master-data)
    • Backup master files
      • If a file-system level backup is required, care should be taken to manually record binary log name and position via SHOW MASTER STATUS statement.
      • To ensure consistency between backup and binary log position, the tables should be locked via FLUSH TABLES WITH READ LOCK immediately before backup (and SHOW MASTER STATUS)
      • LEAVE THE CLIENT CONNECTED!!!
      • After backup finishes, execute UNLOCK TABLES to release the read lock
    • Backup slave
      • Same idea as master file system backup
      • Instead of recording position, it’s enough to backup the master.info and relay-log.info files
      • Instead of acquiring global read lock, it’s enough to STOP SLAVE before backup and START SLAVE once backup finishes
    • Live demo
      • Time permitting, we’ll show a short demonstration of a simple unidirectional replication setup
    • For more information
      • MySQL documentation
      • 5.0 documentation http://mirror.mirimar.net/mysql/doc/refman/5.0/en/replication.html
      • 4.1 documentation http://mirror.mirimar.net/mysql/doc/refman/4.1/en/replication.html
    • Thank You! For more information: Issac Goldstand margol@mirimar.net http://www.beamartyr.net/ http://www.mirimar.net/