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Development of James Web Space Telescope (JWST)

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  • 1. Development of James Web Space Telescope (JWST) Ground Systems Using an Open Adaptable Architecture Bonnie Seaton Alan Johns Jonathan Gal-Edd NASA/GSFC Curtis Fatig GSFC/SAIC Ronald Jones GSFC/ASRC Aerospace Francis Wasiak GSFC/General Dynamics
  • 2. Observatory
    • JWST mission under development by NASA (launch planned for 2013) with major contributions from European and Canadian Space Agencies. The mission is designed to address four science themes:
      • Observation of the first luminous objects after the Big Bang
      • Assembly of these objects into galaxies
      • Birth of stars and planetary systems
      • Formation of planets and origins of life
    • The JWST ground segment is an open adaptable architecture that will be used to support evolving requirements for a mission with 10-year development and operational cycles
  • 3. Open Adaptable Architecture
    • JWST project requirement
      • Same ground system will be used for science instrument and spacecraft development, I&T and mission operations
        • Common Systems: real-time command and telemetry (C&T) system, database
      • Intent is to ‘test-as-you-fly’ to identify problems early in the lifecycle
      • System will evolve during 10 year development cycle prior to launch
    • Open Adaptable Architecture Themes
      • Support design upgrades and take advantage of new technologies
        • Each component independent of other components
        • Use ICDs, translators, ingest scripts for interfaces
        • Select best products (real-time, analysis, automation, etc.)
      • Implement using COTS rather than a home grown system
      • Database is application independent
      • Follow industry standards (CCSDS, OMG, IEEE, etc.)
      • Phased approach for evolving ground system
        • Phase 1: Development System
        • Phase 2: Integration and Test (I&T) System
        • Phase 3: Operations System
  • 4. Ground System Implementation Decisions (1 of 3)
    • Use the operational command and telemetry system for development and I&T
      • Use the same data and interfaces throughout the life of JWST
      • Design modular components at the start of the development
      • Provide upgrade path from the beginning of the process
      • Explore automation technologies such as system messaging
    • eXtensible Markup Language (XML)
      • JWST XML compatible with Consultative Committee for Space Data Systems (CCSDS) XTCE
      • Database is just the data, not tied to a particular application
      • Allows for cross-referencing of command, telemetry and ops products
      • Engineering data saved in a manner to be application independent
    To deal with a project of this scope where technology and software will evolve, the following implementation decisions have been made:
  • 5. Ground System Implementation Decisions (2 of 3)
    • Project Reference Database
      • Common area for all mission-related information
      • Data independent of any system
      • Configuration management of mission related information
    • Onboard scripts
      • Increased processing power of flight processor for event driven operations
      • Use Java script COTS engine
      • Use modular and common components onboard
      • Data dictionary
    • CCSDS File Delivery Protocol (CFDP)
      • Reduce functionality needed at control center
        • Use Deep Space Network to provide Level 0 processing of science data
      • Increase data reliability by providing a reliable file downlink protocol
      • Use CCSDS standards for software and maintenance
  • 6. Ground System Implementation Decisions (3 of 3)
    • Batch decommutated data
      • Common generic format for all engineering data
      • Engineering exchange format for other ground system components
      • Data storage format prior to ingest into archive
    • Engineering archive and trending
      • Common engineering data store for the life of the mission
      • Provide automated reporting
      • Provide tools to analyze the status and performance of the JWST observatory
  • 7. Phased Approach Evolution of the Ground System C&T System Load & Dump Tools Database C&T System Database Analysis System Simulator Phase 1 (Development) Development and I&T ground systems built around eventual operations core components: Flight Operations System (FOS), and Project Reference Database System (PRDS) Phase 2 (I&T) Phase 3 (Operations) Wavefront Sensing & Control Exec (WFSC Exec) JPL Deep Space Network (DSN) GSFC Flight Dynamics Facility (FDF) STScI Science & Operations Center (S&OC) Flight Operations Subsystem (FOS) Data Management Subsystem (DMS) Wavefront Sensing & Control Exec (WFSC Exec) Proposal Planning Subsystem (PPS) Operations Script Subsystem (OSS) Project Reference DB Subsystem (PRDS) NISN Observatory Simulators (OTB/STS )
  • 8. Phase 1 Development System
    • Initial systems know as Science Instrument Development Units (SIDUs) are used during development of the science instruments and flight software
    • In 2004, Eighteen SIDU systems built and deployed to: GSFC; JPL; Abingdon, England; Palo Alto, California; Ottawa, Canada; Munich, Germany; Madrid, Spain; and Cambridge, Canada
  • 9. Phase 2 I&T System
    • In 2006/2007, the system evolves into an I&T system with the deployment of seven Science Instrument Integrated Test Sets (SITS) which will be used for testing of hardware components
      • First delivered May 2006 to Abingdon, England
    • In 2008/2009, the final two I&T systems, Instrument Test Support Systems (ITSSs), will be used for final integration testing
  • 10. Phase 3 Operations Ground System
    • The base Phase 1 development system will have evolved into the operations system
    • The flight build of the operations system will be delivered in 2011, two years before launch
    JPL Deep Space Network (DSN) GSFC Flight Dynamics Facility (FDF) STScI Science & Operations Center (S&OC) Flight Operations Subsystem (FOS) Data Management Subsystem (DMS) Wavefront Sensing & Control Exec (WFSC Exec) Proposal Planning Subsystem (PPS) Operations Script Subsystem (OSS) Project Reference DB Subsystem (PRDS) Observatory Simulators (OTB/STS ) Development, I&T Systems Heritage NISN
  • 11. Lessons Learned to Date
    • Various vendors supplying different components keep the total system open and adaptable
    • Interoperable plug and play concept works if ICDs are defined
    • Central XML database is application independent which minimizes cost and is CCSDS XTCE compliant
    • Open engineering and science data formats that are defined in an ICD allow for dissimilar systems to have access to the data without impacting the design
    • CCSDS CFDP reduces amount of processing needed at end user site, increases data efficiency, and eases onboard recorder management problems
    • Web-based technologies for user displays provide more flexibility, quicker development, and reduce long-term cost
    • Evolving common C&T and database systems for development through I&T to operations is the best approach to ensure mission success
    • Phased approach to system development allows for technology upgrades to occur naturally
    After four years of real-life experiences with an open adaptable architecture, the JWST ground system team has learned that:
  • 12. Full Scale JWST Model at the Goddard Space Flight Center