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  • 1. Cities in Space: Articulating the Space Based Economy Narayanan Komerath Priya Gopalakrishnan Sam Wanis School of Aerospace Engineering, Georgia Institute of Technology With generous support from the GSGC, Texas Source: www.nasa.gov SGC/NASA JSC, USRA/NIAC and Georgia Tech School of Aerospace Engineering, Georgia Institute of Technology
  • 2. Outline  Cities in Space  The Space-Based Economy  Acoustic Shaping in Microgravity: Experiments  Tailored Force Fields  “NASA Means Business”  Into Show-Biz… School of Aerospace Engineering, Georgia Institute of Technology
  • 3. The natural resources available within the Near Solar System are a few orders of magnitude greater than those on Earth School of Aerospace Engineering, Georgia Institute of Technology
  • 4. In reaching out for them, we will discover, invent and develop ideas whose impact will be greater by many more orders of magnitude School of Aerospace Engineering, Georgia Institute of Technology
  • 5. Year 2050 – The Space-Based Economy Self-sustaining Economy Support/Service Economy Lunar Launcher Lunar Manufacturing Space Habitats Lunar Mining 2015 Lunar Resources Lunar Power 2010 GEO/ L1 Station Orbit transfer vehicles 2005 Space Station; Maintenance; Refueling; Repair; Robotics Com-sats; Sensing, Exploration; Military; Research 1950s –70s Launch To Earth Orbit; Race to the Moon School of Aerospace Engineering, Georgia Institute of Technology
  • 6. Example of “Space-Based Business” Customers, Facilities and Suppliers all Located Away From Earth (Developed by High School Students under the NASA “SHARP-PLUS” program) Georgia Space Grant Consortium project School of Aerospace Engineering, Georgia Institute of Technology
  • 7. The Space Yellow Pages: Primary Projects Human Missions to Mars Robotic Planetary Missions Lunar Resources Return to the Moon: Heavy Lift + CEV Hubble Space Telescope Science Probes GALILEO Com-sats GPS GLONASS Race to the Moon: Heavy Lift Remote Sensing ISS Microgravity Research Military Satellites Launch To Earth Orbit School of Aerospace Engineering, Georgia Institute of Technology
  • 8. The Space Yellow Pages: Level Two Projects Lunar Launcher Human Missions to Mars Robotic Planetary Missions Lunar Steel GEO/ L1 Station Lunar Resources BOEING HABITATS Return to the Moon: Lunar Manufacturing Heavy Lift + CEV Lunar Power Hubble Space Telescope EVA Repairs Lunar Base Supply Hydrogen to the Moon Science Probes Commercial Lunar Mining Satellite Refuel GALILEO Com-sats GPS Orbit transfer vehicles Race to the Moon: Heavy Lift Remote Sensing Fuel for Military Satellites ISS Microgravity Research Fuel Storage Station Military Satellites ISS Resupply Space Spare Parts Inc Launch To Earth Orbit School of Aerospace Engineering, Georgia Institute of Technology
  • 9. The Space Yellow Pages: Level Three Industry Lunar Launcher BOEING MarsCyclers Inc Asteroid Belt Prospectors Lunar Fuels Inc Lunar Steel GEO/ L1 Station BOEING HABITATS Lunar Manufacturing Lunar Power L 2 Space Telescope EVA Repairs Lunar Base Supply Hydrogen to the Moon Octopus Robotic Repairs Solar Positioning System Commercial Lunar Mining Satellite Refuel Com-sats Orbit transfer vehicles R3D3 Robots‟R‟Us GPS GALILEO Solar System Prospecting Space Defense & Law Authority Fuel Storage Station Fuel for Military Satellites ISS ISS Resupply Space Spare Parts Inc Earth Transport School of Aerospace Engineering, Georgia Institute of Technology
  • 10. The Space Yellow Pages: Level Four: Space-based Business Far Side Mineral Water North Avenue Emag Constructions Lunar Launcher Translunar Rail Authority Orbital Junk & Salvage Sunspot Cruises Inc Lunar Manufacturing BOEING MarsCyclers Inc Ace Space Ice Inc. GEO/ L1 Station Tranquility Titanium Inc Lunar Oxygen Lunar Power Jupiter Nuclear Propulsion Inc Mars & Beyond: Expeditions Lunar Mining Copernicus Metals Inc Inner Planet Transport System Orbit transfer vehicles Deep Breath Life Support Systems Ocean of Storms Solar Panels Inc Acoustic Shaping Inc Lunar Football League Cislunar Convention Center New Mexico Helium-3 Inc Space Engine Repair Inc Orbit Emergency Medical Inc Delta Space Lines Micro-G Chiropractors Float Bloat Micro-G Burgers Inc Inflatable Structures Inc Omaha Fuel Cells Inc School of Aerospace Engineering, Georgia Institute of Technology
  • 11. NASA Strategic Plan for Human Exploration of Mars: An Opinion Based on Observation 1985: Permanent Colonies on Mars by 2035. 1999: Reference Mission. Six Astronauts to Mars & back by 2018, 2 more missions to follow Ambition 2000: Systematic set of robotic missions followed by human mission by 2020 2004: Moon landing by 2008; Moon base 2016; missions to Mars; nuclear energy OK 2001: Robotic exploration of Mars from orbit, robotic landers “in the next 20 years”. 1985 2000 2015 2030 Time School of Aerospace Engineering, Georgia Institute of Technology
  • 12. Building Cities in Space Major obstacles: - Radiation shield construction - Need for artificial gravity - Need for “critical mass” of commercial interest Interior of Space Settlement „Island One‟: (from the 1970s) Courtesy SSI http://www.ssi.org/slideshow.html Source: www.nasa.gov School of Aerospace Engineering, Georgia Institute of Technology
  • 13. Gravity, Rotation and Radiation •Humans need near 1g: 9.8m/s^2 “gravity” for long-term living. •Artificial gravity at rim of rotating wheel: Rotation rate must be lower than 1 RPM to avoid disorientation.  Radius ~ 1km. •Radiation in Space (solar neutrons, charged particles + gamma rays + cosmic rays):humans cannot survive. •Need .5m of water or 2m of soil to stop radiation  Mass & “weight” of shield for 2km diameter habitat are huge! Note: Today‟s space stations do not have artificial gravity, or sufficient shielding. If a solar storm occurs, astronauts go inside small shelters, but exposure accumulates. No solution for long-duration mission (e.g. Mars). School of Aerospace Engineering, Georgia Institute of Technology
  • 14. Bootstrapping Infrastructure: The 2km Cylinder Project School of Aerospace Engineering, Georgia Institute of Technology
  • 15. Learning to Build Without Machine Tools: The Acoustic Shaping Project School of Aerospace Engineering, Georgia Institute of Technology
  • 16. ACOUSTIC SHAPING •Experiments on the NASA KC-135 “Vomit Comet” - Reduced Gravity Student Flight Opportunities Program:1997- 2000. •Team of AE sophomores first studied the behavior of a multitude of particles in a resonant acoustic chamber, in reduced gravity. • School of Aerospace Engineering, Georgia Institute of Technology
  • 17. ACOUSTIC SHAPING Wall formation process: KC-135 test. Frequency 800 Hz School of Aerospace Engineering, Georgia Institute of Technology
  • 18. Works with most materials, and with liquids In micro-gravity, solid particles in a resonant chamber assume stable locations along surfaces parallel to nodal planes of the standing-wave. Liquids in finite-g form walls along nodes – which are regions of lower static pressure. Irregular grain: microgravity Hollow Al2O3/ Al spheres: microgravity Powder suspended in water: 1-g School of Aerospace Engineering, Georgia Institute of Technology
  • 19. Extension of Acoustic to Electromagnetic Shaping Tailored Force Fields  Can large radiation shields be constructed far away from Earth before humans have to go there? School of Aerospace Engineering, Georgia Institute of Technology
  • 20. Radiation-Shielded, 1-G Station at Earth-Sun L-5 for NEO Resource Exploitation Example: Particle diameter: 0.2m Wavelength: 100m Particle acceleration: 10-6 g Resonator intensity: 328 MW/m2 Per module: Power input: 258 MW Resonator Q-factor: 10,000 Active field time: 13 hrs Beam diameter = 100m Solar Collector efficiency: 10% Collector area w/o storage: 2 sq.km School of Aerospace Engineering, Georgia Institute of Technology
  • 21. Why Have Cities Not Been Built in Space Yet? Radiation Shield? Artificial Gravity? •No commercial success path •No convergence of interests •No rationale for public support •No CLEAR VISION AND PLAN articulated to the public •NASA view: “We are at the service of the Public” •Public view: “We are waiting for NASA to guide us! School of Aerospace Engineering, Georgia Institute of Technology
  • 22. “NASA Means Business” Annual competition hosted by Texas SGC/NASA JSC to:  “Business Plan to help NASA Strategic Plan for Mars Exploration.” („99-2000)  “Help develop a “Customer Engagement Plan” (2001-02)  Help articulate role of Mars missions (2003)  Articulate role of ISS (2004) School of Aerospace Engineering, Georgia Institute of Technology
  • 23. The $10B Dip  Every Business Plan for a small Space-based enterprise is faced with a need for at least $10B in investment, with no return for 10 years or more.  Why: No infrastructure, no repair, no rescue, no synergy with other such businesses. School of Aerospace Engineering, Georgia Institute of Technology
  • 24. Effect of Infrastructure on Commercial Feasibility NPV Boosters 1200 1000 800 NPV (M$) 600 400 200 0 Baseline NASA in R&D E-mag launch Both -200 capability School of Aerospace Engineering, Georgia Institute of Technology
  • 25. Summary of the Space-Based Economy Concept •Buyers, Sellers, Suppliers, Manufacturers, are located beyond Earth. -Critical Mass of mutual interest and investment required to trigger process. -Infrastructure development with long-term plan. School of Aerospace Engineering, Georgia Institute of Technology
  • 26. Future Entrepreneurs Are Already Thinking!!! Courtesy: Centennial Elementary School, Atlanta, GA. 2nd Grade, April 2001 School of Aerospace Engineering, Georgia Institute of Technology
  • 27. How do we gather support for a Space-based Economy?  Everyone on Earth is a stake-holder in such an economy  Investment in Space technology seen as commercial investment, not just as investment in knowledge-generation  Critical needs identified by GSU Strategic Marketing classes: – Reliable, easy-access knowledge on problems, opportunities, and methods. – Realistic expectation that “NASA Means Business” – government commitment to infrastructure development – User-friendly access to space experiment development and launches. School of Aerospace Engineering, Georgia Institute of Technology
  • 28. From Aerospace Engineering Into Show-Biz…  “NASA Means Business” Competition 2003: “Develop Public Service Announcements to articulate the reasons to support the Space program, specifically the relevance of Mars missions” School of Aerospace Engineering, Georgia Institute of Technology
  • 29. Our Message •What has the space program done for us? •NASA‟s Not Just For Astronauts •So where does your money go? •MARS as a stepping stone •Where is the space program headed? School of Aerospace Engineering, Georgia Institute of Technology
  • 30. What has the space program done for us? Materials Toys Advanced shoe design and manufacturing PC’s Weather Extended Weather Improved Aircraft Engine Forecasting forecasting MRI and CAT Scans Earth Resource Management School of Aerospace Engineering, Georgia Institute of Technology
  • 31. NASA‟s Not Just For Astronauts Medical Doctors Scientists and Engineers Mission Operations Management Technicians School of Aerospace Engineering, Georgia Institute of Technology
  • 32. So where does your money go? Space Exploration Education Programs Employees – Salaries Circulates through the economy $1 technical expenditure = $3 of new business Communication Transportation School of Aerospace Engineering, Georgia Institute of Technology
  • 33. MARS as a stepping stone Water?? R & D – Robotics, Communications. Fuel generation Habitats Lander technology Terraforming? Low gravity operations Search for Life / signs of E-T School of Aerospace Engineering, Georgia Institute of Technology
  • 34. Where is the space program headed? Future Ambitions Space Cities Asteroid Hotels Not-so distant Future Orbiters, Net Landers, Scout Missions Lunar Mining Human Habitation Mars Global Present Space Programs Surveyor International Space 2001 Mars Odyssey Station Past Explorations Mariner 3 & 4 Viking Lander School of Aerospace Engineering, Georgia Institute of Technology
  • 35. Please visit our websites: http://www.adl.gatech.edu/research/tff/ http://www.adl.gatech.edu/research/tff/acoustic_shaping.html http://www.ae.gatech.edu/research/windtunnel/nmb/nmbhome.html Stay tuned for sample PSA … School of Aerospace Engineering, Georgia Institute of Technology
  • 36. Infrastructure Investment is the Key The economics of starting a space-based production company are heavily dependent on the presence of a rudimentary infrastructure. A national-level investment in space-based infrastructure is an essential catalyst for the development of a space-based economy. School of Aerospace Engineering, Georgia Institute of Technology
  • 37. Summary: Enabling Steps For Space-Based Manufacturing ENABLING STEP: Shuttle Main Tank Farm (or other large station) in LEO: - large-volume construction facilities; fuel storage; parts storage; - jump-start human presenceScience Institute Courtesy: Space Courtesy: Space Science Institute ENABLING STEP: Robot-built, Solar-powered Mass Driver on the Moon - enable commercial metal extraction; propellant extraction School of Aerospace Engineering, Georgia Institute of Technology
  • 38. Advantages of Space Based Economy Approach  The business plan of a single industry that may appear risky when viewed by itself, becomes realistic when patched into the network of a Space based Economy  Efficiencies of scale and mutual interest, providing viable solutions to today‟s “insurmountable” problems.  Various pieces of the SBE support each other : Path to a self- sustaining economy which generates wealth for Earth-based investors. School of Aerospace Engineering, Georgia Institute of Technology
  • 39. Creating Examples of “Space-Based Business” Criteria: Customers, Facilities and Suppliers all Located Away From Earth •Devise a Business Plan & Technical Plan. •Identify supplier/customer needs •Publicize: Show opportunities! School of Aerospace Engineering, Georgia Institute of Technology
  • 40. FORCES IN UNSTEADY2.7 b 143186.56 FIELDS POTENTIAL 2 3 A k R STANDING WAVE FIELDS: k 2 F ( z) 5 sin ( 2 k z) Particles Drift into Stable “Traps”. Theory similar for acoustic or e-mag fields! 6 b •For size << l, standing wave trap force ~ 103 times single-beam force. A 2 R 3 •Trap stiffness in standing wave trap ~ 107 times single-beam value.12 b c os ( 2 k z) D ( z) 5 •Source only needs to provide small gain over losses - 0.06 0.04 0.02 Force F ( z) Potential D ( z) 2 1 0 1 2 Trap regions can be Stable Trap of complex shape. 0.02 0.04 0.06 With standing waves in a low-loss resonator, small input intensity suffices to z produce substantial forces on particles. Various mode shapes can be generated by varying frequency and resonator geometry. School of Aerospace Engineering, Georgia Institute of Technology
  • 41. The Launch-Cost Dip and its Solution Example for “Acoustic Shaping Inc.”, Virtual prototype of a Space- based construction company 2000 NMB Competition Discounted Cash Flows for ASI 120.00 80.00 Discounted Cash flow (M$) 40.00 0.00 -40.00 Both NASA R&D and Infrastructure, NPV = $700M -80.00 NASA involvement in infrastructure development, NPV = $632M NASA involvement in R&D, NPV = $369M Baseline, NPV = $321M -120.00 0 5 10 15 20 Year School of Aerospace Engineering, Georgia Institute of Technology
  • 42. ACOUSTIC SHAPING Flight test proof of wall formation. Self-aligned. No spin. Acoustic chamber Mode 110 Styrofoam walls in reduced gravity Ground test comparison between predicted pressure contours and measured wall locations School of Aerospace Engineering, Georgia Institute of Technology
  • 43. SIMULATION: PREDICTED WALL SHAPES 220 320 110 100+020 230+100 110+220 School of Aerospace Engineering, Georgia Institute of Technology
  • 44. Asteroid Reconstruction to Build Cities? •Solar-powered radio resonators in the NEO region to reconstitute pulverized asteroids into specified shapes. •Formation-flown spacecraft to form desired resonator geometry. •Asteroids pulverized using directed beam energy or robots, •Solar energy converted to the appropriate frequencies. •Materials and structures for such an endeavor must come mostly from lunar or asteroidal sources. School of Aerospace Engineering, Georgia Institute of Technology
  • 45. Creating Examples of “Space-based Business”: NMB2001 Concept for micro-g manufacturing, used to examine the startup of a small company in space. Non-contact manufacturing in reduced gravity • Solid panels with specified shapes : flat, curved, cylinders • Scalable to 10ft x 10ft x 1” panels, or micro-fabrication Flexible Automation: tailor sound & injection location Compatible with solar energy: Acoustic drivers and radiant heating School of Aerospace Engineering, Georgia Institute of Technology