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Some random  thoughts of IPv6 Marcial White University of Advancing Technology
The gameplan <ul><li>What is the internets? </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>(hint: not a truck) </li></ul></ul></ul></ul...
<ul><li>Basically, a bunch of little networks connected to each other </li></ul><ul><li>Internet protocol </li></ul><ul><u...
IPv4 – AddressesNotation <ul><li>32-bit addresses </li></ul><ul><ul><li>1 bit = 0 or 1 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>32 bits ...
Limited Addresses <ul><li>32 bits, 2 possibilities per digit (0 or 1) </li></ul><ul><li>2^32 </li></ul><ul><li>4,294,967,2...
Address math <ul><ul><li>1/3 of 4,294,967,296  </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>1,431,655,765 IP addresses in use </li><...
Subnetting <ul><li>Temporarily fixes limited addressing </li></ul><ul><li>Network ID </li></ul><ul><li>Host ID </li></ul><...
Subnetting Example <ul><li>IP:  192.168.  1  .100 </li></ul><ul><li>SNM: 255.255.255.0 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>And in binary...
CIDR/NAT <ul><li>Classless Inter-Domain Routing </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>24 x 1’s in the SNM 255.255.255.0 </li></ul></ul...
Classes <ul><li>Classes depend on the first octet of the IP address,  except for a few special cases </li></ul><ul><li>The...
Communicating <ul><li>Transmission Control Protocol </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Connection based protocol </li></ul></ul></u...
The internet is … <ul><li>TCP/IPv4 + DNS = INTARWEBBING </li></ul><ul><li>Security through </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>IPSec...
In other words … <ul><li>The Internet = a big pain in the ass </li></ul>
Why? <ul><li>DARPA scope limitations </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>DARPAnet </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Initia...
So what do we do from here? <ul><li>Development of IPng </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>SIPP </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul...
Whats so cool about this stuff? <ul><li>According to RFC-Archive.org (4): </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Larger address scheme ...
Why not IPv5? <ul><li>According to O’Reilly (5): </li></ul><ul><li>Developed to optimize streaming  </li></ul><ul><li>Conn...
So what is IPv6? <ul><li>Basically IPv4 with: </li></ul><ul><li>128 bit addresses </li></ul><ul><li>Address auto-configura...
IPv6 Highlighted <ul><li>Fixes address space issue </li></ul><ul><li>Eliminates the NEED for NAT </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li...
IPv6 Addresses <ul><li>128 bits </li></ul><ul><ul><li>2^128 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>340,282,366,920,938,463,463,374,607...
Problems (6)? <ul><li>Router storage limitations </li></ul><ul><li>Allocation policies  </li></ul><ul><li>Rolling out IPv6...
Router storage limitations? <ul><li>Older Cisco 2600 series routers </li></ul><ul><ul><li>256 megs of storage space </li><...
Allocation policies <ul><li>Geographic allocation </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Much like current IPv4 </li></ul></ul></ul><ul...
Early ’90s Ford ABS <ul><li>They really sucked </li></ul><ul><li>So did IPv4 when it was realized that we didn’t plan for ...
Ideas? Anyone? Bueller? <ul><li>Mike O’Dell of UUNET proposes GSE: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Alternate Addressing Architecture...
Good idea but… <ul><li>Purists argue this is in violation of the end-to-end principle of networking </li></ul><ul><li>And ...
So what do we do? <ul><li>Familiarize yourself with IPv6 so that you can have an opinion, and participate in the community...
And dhen? <ul><li>So what do we do from here? </li></ul><ul><li>Indeed … that is the question. </li></ul><ul><li>For more ...
A.D.D. IPv6 <ul><li>Can’t sit still long enough to learn the in’s and out’s of IPv6? </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Check out f...
References <ul><ul><ul><ul><li>http://www.census.gov/ipc/www/popclockworld.html </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><...
BSP - BOH <ul><li>http://www.jointsubcommittee.com http://www.jungletrain.net   </li></ul>
Questions? <ul><li>Hey Data, how do I shot web?!? </li></ul>Processing …  (wtf)
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Basics of IPv6

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Transcript of "Basics of IPv6"

  1. 1. Some random thoughts of IPv6 Marcial White University of Advancing Technology
  2. 2. The gameplan <ul><li>What is the internets? </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>(hint: not a truck) </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Ok so WTF happened to IPv5? </li></ul><ul><li>What is IPv6? </li></ul><ul><li>Why is IPv6? </li></ul><ul><li>How do I IPv6? </li></ul>
  3. 3. <ul><li>Basically, a bunch of little networks connected to each other </li></ul><ul><li>Internet protocol </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Unique global computer addressing </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Currently on: IPv4 (aka TCP/IPv4) </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>TCP/UDP </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Addressing </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Subnetting </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>NAT </li></ul></ul></ul>What is the internet?
  4. 4. IPv4 – AddressesNotation <ul><li>32-bit addresses </li></ul><ul><ul><li>1 bit = 0 or 1 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>32 bits = xxxxxxxx xxxxxxxx xxxxxxxx xxxxxxxx </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Dot-decimal notation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Decimal = 0-9 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Dot = . o_0 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Example address: 192.168.1.100 </li></ul></ul>
  5. 5. Limited Addresses <ul><li>32 bits, 2 possibilities per digit (0 or 1) </li></ul><ul><li>2^32 </li></ul><ul><li>4,294,967,296 <(~~ possible addresses </li></ul><ul><li>6,528,089,562 <(~~ people on the earth (1) </li></ul><ul><li>~ 729,200,000 <(~~ people on line in 2003 (2) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>(3) Forbes Magazine says … </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>1/3 of the possible addresses are already in use </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>1/3 of the possible addresses have already been spoken for </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>1/3 of the possible addresses need to supply the rest of the world with myspace accounts  </li></ul></ul></ul>
  6. 6. Address math <ul><ul><li>1/3 of 4,294,967,296 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>1,431,655,765 IP addresses in use </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>1,431,655,765 IP’s per 729,200,000 peeps </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Almost 2 IP’s per person average </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>5,798,889,562 people aren’t on line </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>If everyone in the world tried to be on line with 1 IP per person, 2,233,122,266 people would not get addresses! </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>ZOMG Imagine life without YouTube OR 4Chan!!! </li></ul></ul></ul>
  7. 7. Subnetting <ul><li>Temporarily fixes limited addressing </li></ul><ul><li>Network ID </li></ul><ul><li>Host ID </li></ul><ul><li>Classes </li></ul><ul><li>NAT </li></ul><ul><li>CIDR </li></ul>
  8. 8. Subnetting Example <ul><li>IP: 192.168. 1 .100 </li></ul><ul><li>SNM: 255.255.255.0 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>And in binary, just to make it fun: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>IP: 11000000 10101000 00000001 01100100 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>SNM: 11111111 11111111 11111111 00000000 </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Network ID becomes the first three octets </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>192.168.1 </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Host ID becomes the last octet </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>.100 </li></ul></ul></ul>
  9. 9. CIDR/NAT <ul><li>Classless Inter-Domain Routing </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>24 x 1’s in the SNM 255.255.255.0 </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>So, CIDR notation is: 192.168.1.100/24 </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Network Address Translation </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Provides a way to build networks inside of networks, using a special class of IP’s </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Uses another computer’s IP to communicate with external networks (including the internet) </li></ul></ul></ul>
  10. 10. Classes <ul><li>Classes depend on the first octet of the IP address, except for a few special cases </li></ul><ul><li>The 5 classes and their default SNM: </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>A, B, C, D, E </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Class A /8 </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>1.0.0.0 through 126.0.0.0 </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Class B /16 </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>128.0.0.0 through 191.255.0.0 </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Class C /24 </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>192.0.0.0 through 223.255.255.0 </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Class D </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>224.0.0.0 through 239.255.255.0 </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Class E </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>240.0.0.0 through 255.255.255.0 </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  11. 11. Communicating <ul><li>Transmission Control Protocol </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Connection based protocol </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>3 way handshake </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Great for file transfers and grabbing web pages </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>User Datagram Protocol </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Connectionless based protocol </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Great for real time data transfer </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Shoutcast (jungletrain.net) </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Video conferencing </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  12. 12. The internet is … <ul><li>TCP/IPv4 + DNS = INTARWEBBING </li></ul><ul><li>Security through </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>IPSec (AH/ESP) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Firewalls (similar to ACL) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Network Design (SPF?) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>IDS </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>IPS </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>OBSCURITY </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>which we know isn’t very secure </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>If it weren’t for those kids and their stupid dog </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  13. 13. In other words … <ul><li>The Internet = a big pain in the ass </li></ul>
  14. 14. Why? <ul><li>DARPA scope limitations </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>DARPAnet </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Initially funded by the infamous Al Gore </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Intended to be a redundant data system that could function without a set path </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Fancy hard drive backups </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>No casual users </li></ul><ul><li>Who would want to use these computer thingies anyways? </li></ul>
  15. 15. So what do we do from here? <ul><li>Development of IPng </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>SIPP </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Simple Internet Protocol Plus </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>RFC1710 </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>TUBA </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>TCP and UDP with Bigger Addresses </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>RFC1347, RFC1561 </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>CATNIP </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Common Architecture for Next-Generation IP </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>RFC1707 </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  16. 16. Whats so cool about this stuff? <ul><li>According to RFC-Archive.org (4): </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Larger address scheme </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Simplified header format </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Integrated AuthenticationPrivacy </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>IPSec </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Fragmentation </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>MTU-Discovery eliminates the need for fragmentation </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  17. 17. Why not IPv5? <ul><li>According to O’Reilly (5): </li></ul><ul><li>Developed to optimize streaming </li></ul><ul><li>Connection oriented </li></ul><ul><li>Guaranteed QoS </li></ul><ul><li>Little to no standardization support </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Too specialized </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>IPv5 was never meant to replace IPv4, merely to supplement it </li></ul>
  18. 18. So what is IPv6? <ul><li>Basically IPv4 with: </li></ul><ul><li>128 bit addresses </li></ul><ul><li>Address auto-configuration </li></ul><ul><li>Mandatory multicast addresses </li></ul><ul><li>Mandatory IPSec </li></ul><ul><li>Simplified header structure </li></ul><ul><li>Multiple addresses on the same interface </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>And a few other nifty features… </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  19. 19. IPv6 Highlighted <ul><li>Fixes address space issue </li></ul><ul><li>Eliminates the NEED for NAT </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>IPv6 can still be NAT’ed for pseudo-anonymity </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Required security </li></ul><ul><li>Simplifies routing </li></ul><ul><li>MAC based unique addressing </li></ul>
  20. 20. IPv6 Addresses <ul><li>128 bits </li></ul><ul><ul><li>2^128 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>340,282,366,920,938,463,463,374,607,431,768,211,456 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Yes, that’s 12 commas </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Roughly 800 addresses per gram of matter in the Earth (6) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Hexidecimal notation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Hexidecimal 0-15 (or 0-9, a-f) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Example address: fe80::260:8ff:fecc:d80e/64 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Note : instead of . </li></ul></ul></ul>
  21. 21. Problems (6)? <ul><li>Router storage limitations </li></ul><ul><li>Allocation policies </li></ul><ul><li>Rolling out IPv6 without a full understanding will end up a larger mess than IPv4 </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>In which case, the internet would be nearly unsalvageable </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Politics vs. Technology </li></ul>
  22. 22. Router storage limitations? <ul><li>Older Cisco 2600 series routers </li></ul><ul><ul><li>256 megs of storage space </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>2,147,483,648 bits of storage </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>67,108,864 IPv4 Addresses </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>16,777,216 IPv6 Addresses </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Shouldn’t be TOO bad … </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>However …… </li></ul></ul></ul>
  23. 23. Allocation policies <ul><li>Geographic allocation </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Much like current IPv4 </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Who gets what IPs? </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>How do we keep track of 3.4×10 38 addresses? </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Big ups routing table MASSIF </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>BOH </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>P.s. I <3 jungle </li></ul></ul></ul>
  24. 24. Early ’90s Ford ABS <ul><li>They really sucked </li></ul><ul><li>So did IPv4 when it was realized that we didn’t plan for the future </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>NAT was a shoddy workaround… </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>We can’t let that happen to IPv6 (7) </li></ul><ul><li>79,228 hundred billion billion times the addresses of IPv4 </li></ul><ul><li>79,228 hundred billion billion times the clusterf*ck if we screw this up </li></ul>
  25. 25. Ideas? Anyone? Bueller? <ul><li>Mike O’Dell of UUNET proposes GSE: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Alternate Addressing Architecture for IPv6 (8) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Basically: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Split up a 16 byte address into an 8 byte EID and 8 byte “Routing Goop(RG)” (locator) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Resembles a NAT structure, but the RG is a manipulable by the routing system </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Packets get modified in realtime </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Allows for scalable multi-homing </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  26. 26. Good idea but… <ul><li>Purists argue this is in violation of the end-to-end principle of networking </li></ul><ul><li>And more importantly </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Implementing this would require a few incompatible changes to tcp/udp </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>We don’t want to rewrite the internet, again </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Controversially insecure </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Currently not in use, no momentum </li></ul></ul></ul>
  27. 27. So what do we do? <ul><li>Familiarize yourself with IPv6 so that you can have an opinion, and participate in the community of developers and testers to further development of what could be a really useful protocol. </li></ul>
  28. 28. And dhen? <ul><li>So what do we do from here? </li></ul><ul><li>Indeed … that is the question. </li></ul><ul><li>For more depth on IPv6, check out the new class next semester! Registration opens in a couple weeks, be ready! </li></ul><ul><li>TCP/IPv4 is the pre-requisite </li></ul>
  29. 29. A.D.D. IPv6 <ul><li>Can’t sit still long enough to learn the in’s and out’s of IPv6? </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Check out freenet6.com for a free IPv6 extension (part of your geographically assigned IPv6 address) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>TSPc </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Linux Kernel 2.4.x and up </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>USAGI </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>KAME </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  30. 30. References <ul><ul><ul><ul><li>http://www.census.gov/ipc/www/popclockworld.html </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>http://global-reach.biz/globstats/index.php3 </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>http://www.forbes.com/intelligentinfrastructure/2006/04/11/internet-google-space_cx_df_0412internet.html </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>http://www.rfc-archive.org/getrfc.php?rfc=1454 </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>http://www.oreillynet.com/onlamp/blog/2003/06/what_ever_happened_to_ipv5.html </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ipv6 </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>http://www.nanog.org/mtg-0606/pdf/vince-fuller.pdf#search=%22ipv6%20routing%20table%20issues%22 </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>http://ietfreport.isoc.org/idref/draft-ietf-ipngwg-gseaddr/ </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  31. 31. BSP - BOH <ul><li>http://www.jointsubcommittee.com http://www.jungletrain.net </li></ul>
  32. 32. Questions? <ul><li>Hey Data, how do I shot web?!? </li></ul>Processing … (wtf)
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