Basics of IPv6
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Basics of IPv6

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Basics of IPv6 Basics of IPv6 Presentation Transcript

  • Some random thoughts of IPv6 Marcial White University of Advancing Technology
  • The gameplan
    • What is the internets?
            • (hint: not a truck)
    • Ok so WTF happened to IPv5?
    • What is IPv6?
    • Why is IPv6?
    • How do I IPv6?
    • Basically, a bunch of little networks connected to each other
    • Internet protocol
        • Unique global computer addressing
    • Currently on: IPv4 (aka TCP/IPv4)
        • TCP/UDP
        • Addressing
        • Subnetting
        • NAT
    What is the internet?
  • IPv4 – AddressesNotation
    • 32-bit addresses
      • 1 bit = 0 or 1
      • 32 bits = xxxxxxxx xxxxxxxx xxxxxxxx xxxxxxxx
    • Dot-decimal notation
      • Decimal = 0-9
      • Dot = . o_0
      • Example address: 192.168.1.100
  • Limited Addresses
    • 32 bits, 2 possibilities per digit (0 or 1)
    • 2^32
    • 4,294,967,296 <(~~ possible addresses
    • 6,528,089,562 <(~~ people on the earth (1)
    • ~ 729,200,000 <(~~ people on line in 2003 (2)
      • (3) Forbes Magazine says …
        • 1/3 of the possible addresses are already in use
        • 1/3 of the possible addresses have already been spoken for
        • 1/3 of the possible addresses need to supply the rest of the world with myspace accounts 
  • Address math
      • 1/3 of 4,294,967,296
          • 1,431,655,765 IP addresses in use
      • 1,431,655,765 IP’s per 729,200,000 peeps
          • Almost 2 IP’s per person average
      • 5,798,889,562 people aren’t on line
          • If everyone in the world tried to be on line with 1 IP per person, 2,233,122,266 people would not get addresses!
        • ZOMG Imagine life without YouTube OR 4Chan!!!
  • Subnetting
    • Temporarily fixes limited addressing
    • Network ID
    • Host ID
    • Classes
    • NAT
    • CIDR
  • Subnetting Example
    • IP: 192.168. 1 .100
    • SNM: 255.255.255.0
      • And in binary, just to make it fun:
      • IP: 11000000 10101000 00000001 01100100
      • SNM: 11111111 11111111 11111111 00000000
    • Network ID becomes the first three octets
        • 192.168.1
    • Host ID becomes the last octet
        • .100
  • CIDR/NAT
    • Classless Inter-Domain Routing
        • 24 x 1’s in the SNM 255.255.255.0
        • So, CIDR notation is: 192.168.1.100/24
    • Network Address Translation
        • Provides a way to build networks inside of networks, using a special class of IP’s
        • Uses another computer’s IP to communicate with external networks (including the internet)
  • Classes
    • Classes depend on the first octet of the IP address, except for a few special cases
    • The 5 classes and their default SNM:
        • A, B, C, D, E
          • Class A /8
            • 1.0.0.0 through 126.0.0.0
          • Class B /16
            • 128.0.0.0 through 191.255.0.0
          • Class C /24
            • 192.0.0.0 through 223.255.255.0
          • Class D
            • 224.0.0.0 through 239.255.255.0
          • Class E
            • 240.0.0.0 through 255.255.255.0
  • Communicating
    • Transmission Control Protocol
        • Connection based protocol
        • 3 way handshake
        • Great for file transfers and grabbing web pages
    • User Datagram Protocol
        • Connectionless based protocol
        • Great for real time data transfer
            • Shoutcast (jungletrain.net)
            • Video conferencing
  • The internet is …
    • TCP/IPv4 + DNS = INTARWEBBING
    • Security through
        • IPSec (AH/ESP)
        • Firewalls (similar to ACL)
        • Network Design (SPF?)
            • IDS
            • IPS
        • OBSCURITY
            • which we know isn’t very secure
            • If it weren’t for those kids and their stupid dog
  • In other words …
    • The Internet = a big pain in the ass
  • Why?
    • DARPA scope limitations
        • DARPAnet
            • Initially funded by the infamous Al Gore
            • Intended to be a redundant data system that could function without a set path
            • Fancy hard drive backups
    • No casual users
    • Who would want to use these computer thingies anyways?
  • So what do we do from here?
    • Development of IPng
        • SIPP
            • Simple Internet Protocol Plus
            • RFC1710
        • TUBA
            • TCP and UDP with Bigger Addresses
            • RFC1347, RFC1561
        • CATNIP
            • Common Architecture for Next-Generation IP
            • RFC1707
  • Whats so cool about this stuff?
    • According to RFC-Archive.org (4):
        • Larger address scheme
        • Simplified header format
        • Integrated AuthenticationPrivacy
            • IPSec
        • Fragmentation
            • MTU-Discovery eliminates the need for fragmentation
  • Why not IPv5?
    • According to O’Reilly (5):
    • Developed to optimize streaming
    • Connection oriented
    • Guaranteed QoS
    • Little to no standardization support
        • Too specialized
    • IPv5 was never meant to replace IPv4, merely to supplement it
  • So what is IPv6?
    • Basically IPv4 with:
    • 128 bit addresses
    • Address auto-configuration
    • Mandatory multicast addresses
    • Mandatory IPSec
    • Simplified header structure
    • Multiple addresses on the same interface
          • And a few other nifty features…
  • IPv6 Highlighted
    • Fixes address space issue
    • Eliminates the NEED for NAT
        • IPv6 can still be NAT’ed for pseudo-anonymity
    • Required security
    • Simplifies routing
    • MAC based unique addressing
  • IPv6 Addresses
    • 128 bits
      • 2^128
      • 340,282,366,920,938,463,463,374,607,431,768,211,456
        • Yes, that’s 12 commas
      • Roughly 800 addresses per gram of matter in the Earth (6)
    • Hexidecimal notation
      • Hexidecimal 0-15 (or 0-9, a-f)
      • Example address: fe80::260:8ff:fecc:d80e/64
        • Note : instead of .
  • Problems (6)?
    • Router storage limitations
    • Allocation policies
    • Rolling out IPv6 without a full understanding will end up a larger mess than IPv4
        • In which case, the internet would be nearly unsalvageable
    • Politics vs. Technology
  • Router storage limitations?
    • Older Cisco 2600 series routers
      • 256 megs of storage space
      • 2,147,483,648 bits of storage
      • 67,108,864 IPv4 Addresses
      • 16,777,216 IPv6 Addresses
      • Shouldn’t be TOO bad …
        • However ……
  • Allocation policies
    • Geographic allocation
        • Much like current IPv4
        • Who gets what IPs?
        • How do we keep track of 3.4×10 38 addresses?
        • Big ups routing table MASSIF
        • BOH
        • P.s. I <3 jungle
  • Early ’90s Ford ABS
    • They really sucked
    • So did IPv4 when it was realized that we didn’t plan for the future
        • NAT was a shoddy workaround…
    • We can’t let that happen to IPv6 (7)
    • 79,228 hundred billion billion times the addresses of IPv4
    • 79,228 hundred billion billion times the clusterf*ck if we screw this up
  • Ideas? Anyone? Bueller?
    • Mike O’Dell of UUNET proposes GSE:
      • Alternate Addressing Architecture for IPv6 (8)
      • Basically:
        • Split up a 16 byte address into an 8 byte EID and 8 byte “Routing Goop(RG)” (locator)
        • Resembles a NAT structure, but the RG is a manipulable by the routing system
            • Packets get modified in realtime
            • Allows for scalable multi-homing
  • Good idea but…
    • Purists argue this is in violation of the end-to-end principle of networking
    • And more importantly
        • Implementing this would require a few incompatible changes to tcp/udp
        • We don’t want to rewrite the internet, again
        • Controversially insecure
        • Currently not in use, no momentum
  • So what do we do?
    • Familiarize yourself with IPv6 so that you can have an opinion, and participate in the community of developers and testers to further development of what could be a really useful protocol.
  • And dhen?
    • So what do we do from here?
    • Indeed … that is the question.
    • For more depth on IPv6, check out the new class next semester! Registration opens in a couple weeks, be ready!
    • TCP/IPv4 is the pre-requisite
  • A.D.D. IPv6
    • Can’t sit still long enough to learn the in’s and out’s of IPv6?
        • Check out freenet6.com for a free IPv6 extension (part of your geographically assigned IPv6 address)
        • TSPc
        • Linux Kernel 2.4.x and up
          • USAGI
          • KAME
  • References
          • http://www.census.gov/ipc/www/popclockworld.html
          • http://global-reach.biz/globstats/index.php3
          • http://www.forbes.com/intelligentinfrastructure/2006/04/11/internet-google-space_cx_df_0412internet.html
          • http://www.rfc-archive.org/getrfc.php?rfc=1454
          • http://www.oreillynet.com/onlamp/blog/2003/06/what_ever_happened_to_ipv5.html
          • http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ipv6
          • http://www.nanog.org/mtg-0606/pdf/vince-fuller.pdf#search=%22ipv6%20routing%20table%20issues%22
          • http://ietfreport.isoc.org/idref/draft-ietf-ipngwg-gseaddr/
  • BSP - BOH
    • http://www.jointsubcommittee.com http://www.jungletrain.net
  • Questions?
    • Hey Data, how do I shot web?!?
    Processing … (wtf)