PDF a11y testing for the rest of us 
@dboudreau 
Sept. 9th, 2014 
a11ySummit 2014 
Deque Systems, Inc.
role=“PDF Sensei”
role=“PDF Sensei”
"It's a pain that I have to download each PDF. Pain in the ass… I find HTML easier to deal with."
By 2003, PDF hatin’ was all the rage…
But PDFs never went away, did they?
Some 11 years and billions of PDFs later…
While technology has come a looooong way…
Can you claim to have won the war on inaccessible PDFs yet?
PDFs… What’s your strategy?
PDFs… What’s your strategy?
Do you even know what to do with them
Not everyone is a PDF expert!
Not everyone has access to one 24/7 either!
And let’s be honest…
So, what happens is… 
A truckload of PDF documents! 
You!
Slowly, but surely…
Have no fear, Frank is here! 
“You can trust us, everything is going to be all right!”
What you need are PDF Accessibility Testing Self-Defense Techniques
THIS is what your PDF accessibility strategy should look like!
PDF Techniques for WCAG 2.0
PDF4: Hiding decorative images
Tagged PDF != Accessible PDF
Tagged PDF = PDF that are accessible to screen readers
Measuring PDF Accessibility 
A Testing Proposal For the Rest of Us
Or, as I like to put it…
Great Tools to Consider 
 
Acrobat Pro XI Accessibility Checker Runs on both Windows and MacOs 
 
CommonLook PDF plugin ...
Tough Luck
PDF Accessibility Checker
Instant feedback FTW!
That being said…
Faking Your Way Up the PDF a11y Ladder 
1. 
Access Restrictions 
2. 
Default Language 
3. 
Document Title 
4. 
Bookmarks 
...
Check Points 
Technique 
WCAG SC 
Access Restrictions 
-- 
4.1 
Default Language 
PDF16 
3.1.1 
Document Title 
PDF18 
2.4...
a11yTips – an ever growing resource
Access Restrictions 
Are there any access restrictions on the document, such as password protection? 
a11yTip #1 Ensure ac...
Default Language 
Is the natural language of the PDF file specified in the document properties? 
a11yTip #2 Specify the de...
Document Title 
Does the PDF have a meaningful title (not just a file name)? 
a11yTip #3 Specify descriptive and meaningfu...
Image-Based Documents
Text-Based Documents
Bookmarks 
Does the PDF contain bookmarks and are they helpful for navigating efficiently to various sections of the docum...
Content Reflow 
When Reflow mode is activated, does all the content reorganize naturally in a single, easy to read column?...
Read Out Loud 
When Read Out Loud is activated, does all the content get read correctly and in the right order? 
a11yTip #...
Heading Structure 
Is content organized consistently using semantically and correctly structured headings? 
a11yTip #7 Mar...
Tabbing Order 
Can the document be navigated in a predictable order that is consistent with the meaning of the content? 
a...
Hit the tab key, YO! 
Use the down arrow key.
Informative Images 
Does the text alternative provided for every informative image convey the same meaning or purpose as t...
Decorative Images 
Are purely decorative images marked up as artifacts, so screen readers can safely ignore them? 
a11yTip...
Meaningful Hyperlinks 
Is hyperlink text marked up using Link annotations and is the purpose of that text meaningful? 
a11...
Data Tables 
Are the tables marked up properly and are header cells and data cells explicitly associated? 
a11yTip #12 Use...
PDF a11y Testing Leveling the playing field
Diving deeper into accessible PDFs 
https://dequeuniversity.com/courses/list/pdf 
$45
PDF strategy! What will yours be?
Knowbility KickStarter Campaign
Denis Boudreau 
Deque Systems, Inc. 
db@deque.com 
@dboudreau
Photo Credits 
All rights belong to their respective owners. 
http://monicarodgers.files.wordpress.com/2011/03/newandimpro...
Measuring PDF Accessibility - PDF a11y Testing for the Rest of Us (a11ySummit2014)
Measuring PDF Accessibility - PDF a11y Testing for the Rest of Us (a11ySummit2014)
Measuring PDF Accessibility - PDF a11y Testing for the Rest of Us (a11ySummit2014)
Measuring PDF Accessibility - PDF a11y Testing for the Rest of Us (a11ySummit2014)
Measuring PDF Accessibility - PDF a11y Testing for the Rest of Us (a11ySummit2014)
Measuring PDF Accessibility - PDF a11y Testing for the Rest of Us (a11ySummit2014)
Measuring PDF Accessibility - PDF a11y Testing for the Rest of Us (a11ySummit2014)
Measuring PDF Accessibility - PDF a11y Testing for the Rest of Us (a11ySummit2014)
Measuring PDF Accessibility - PDF a11y Testing for the Rest of Us (a11ySummit2014)
Measuring PDF Accessibility - PDF a11y Testing for the Rest of Us (a11ySummit2014)
Measuring PDF Accessibility - PDF a11y Testing for the Rest of Us (a11ySummit2014)
Measuring PDF Accessibility - PDF a11y Testing for the Rest of Us (a11ySummit2014)
Measuring PDF Accessibility - PDF a11y Testing for the Rest of Us (a11ySummit2014)
Measuring PDF Accessibility - PDF a11y Testing for the Rest of Us (a11ySummit2014)
Measuring PDF Accessibility - PDF a11y Testing for the Rest of Us (a11ySummit2014)
Measuring PDF Accessibility - PDF a11y Testing for the Rest of Us (a11ySummit2014)
Measuring PDF Accessibility - PDF a11y Testing for the Rest of Us (a11ySummit2014)
Measuring PDF Accessibility - PDF a11y Testing for the Rest of Us (a11ySummit2014)
Measuring PDF Accessibility - PDF a11y Testing for the Rest of Us (a11ySummit2014)
Measuring PDF Accessibility - PDF a11y Testing for the Rest of Us (a11ySummit2014)
Measuring PDF Accessibility - PDF a11y Testing for the Rest of Us (a11ySummit2014)
Measuring PDF Accessibility - PDF a11y Testing for the Rest of Us (a11ySummit2014)
Measuring PDF Accessibility - PDF a11y Testing for the Rest of Us (a11ySummit2014)
Measuring PDF Accessibility - PDF a11y Testing for the Rest of Us (a11ySummit2014)
Measuring PDF Accessibility - PDF a11y Testing for the Rest of Us (a11ySummit2014)
Measuring PDF Accessibility - PDF a11y Testing for the Rest of Us (a11ySummit2014)
Measuring PDF Accessibility - PDF a11y Testing for the Rest of Us (a11ySummit2014)
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Measuring PDF Accessibility - PDF a11y Testing for the Rest of Us (a11ySummit2014)

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Most people would agree that the best strategy for PDF accessibility is to integrate accessibility best practices prior to the conversion process, when the document is first being created. But in the real world, where legacy and automatically generated PDF documents abound, we don't always have the luxury of going back to the source document to fix accessibility issues. Sometimes, all we have to work with is the PDF document itself. So when the accessibility of that PDF document is so bad, and crying out loud that it sucks just isn't enough, then what do you do? Being able to rely on a backup plan to evaluate PDF accessibility and come up with a list of issues might be exactly what you need to figure out the full extent of the damage… When PDF Accessibility isn't exactly at the top of your LinkedIn Skills and Expertise list and you don't have access to someone who does, you need to roll up your sleeves and get creative. In this presentation we will see how much ground can be covered by combining the powers of the WCAG 2.0 guidelines and a customized checklist to determine the level of accessibility of your PDF documents.

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Measuring PDF Accessibility - PDF a11y Testing for the Rest of Us (a11ySummit2014)

  1. 1. PDF a11y testing for the rest of us @dboudreau Sept. 9th, 2014 a11ySummit 2014 Deque Systems, Inc.
  2. 2. role=“PDF Sensei”
  3. 3. role=“PDF Sensei”
  4. 4. "It's a pain that I have to download each PDF. Pain in the ass… I find HTML easier to deal with."
  5. 5. By 2003, PDF hatin’ was all the rage…
  6. 6. But PDFs never went away, did they?
  7. 7. Some 11 years and billions of PDFs later…
  8. 8. While technology has come a looooong way…
  9. 9. Can you claim to have won the war on inaccessible PDFs yet?
  10. 10. PDFs… What’s your strategy?
  11. 11. PDFs… What’s your strategy?
  12. 12. Do you even know what to do with them
  13. 13. Not everyone is a PDF expert!
  14. 14. Not everyone has access to one 24/7 either!
  15. 15. And let’s be honest…
  16. 16. So, what happens is… A truckload of PDF documents! You!
  17. 17. Slowly, but surely…
  18. 18. Have no fear, Frank is here! “You can trust us, everything is going to be all right!”
  19. 19. What you need are PDF Accessibility Testing Self-Defense Techniques
  20. 20. THIS is what your PDF accessibility strategy should look like!
  21. 21. PDF Techniques for WCAG 2.0
  22. 22. PDF4: Hiding decorative images
  23. 23. Tagged PDF != Accessible PDF
  24. 24. Tagged PDF = PDF that are accessible to screen readers
  25. 25. Measuring PDF Accessibility A Testing Proposal For the Rest of Us
  26. 26. Or, as I like to put it…
  27. 27. Great Tools to Consider  Acrobat Pro XI Accessibility Checker Runs on both Windows and MacOs  CommonLook PDF plugin For Adobe Acrobat on Windows  PDF Accessibility Checker 2 Independently runs on Windows
  28. 28. Tough Luck
  29. 29. PDF Accessibility Checker
  30. 30. Instant feedback FTW!
  31. 31. That being said…
  32. 32. Faking Your Way Up the PDF a11y Ladder 1. Access Restrictions 2. Default Language 3. Document Title 4. Bookmarks 5. Content Reflow 6. Read Out Loud 7. Heading Structure 8. Tabbing Order 9. Informational Images 10. Decorative Images 11. Meaningful Hyperlinks 12. Data Tables
  33. 33. Check Points Technique WCAG SC Access Restrictions -- 4.1 Default Language PDF16 3.1.1 Document Title PDF18 2.4.2 Bookmarks PDF2 2.4.5 Content Reflow -- 1.3.2 Read Out Loud -- 1.3.2 Heading Structure PDF9 1.3.1 Tabbing Order PDF3 1.3.2 Informative Images PDF1 1.1.1 Decorative Images PDF4 1.1.1 Meaningful Hyperlinks PDF11 2.4.4 Data Tables PDF6 1.3.1
  34. 34. a11yTips – an ever growing resource
  35. 35. Access Restrictions Are there any access restrictions on the document, such as password protection? a11yTip #1 Ensure access restrictions on PDF documents don’t lock users out http://bit.ly/1ogK9Lw
  36. 36. Default Language Is the natural language of the PDF file specified in the document properties? a11yTip #2 Specify the default language of PDF documents http://bit.ly/1ogdC52
  37. 37. Document Title Does the PDF have a meaningful title (not just a file name)? a11yTip #3 Specify descriptive and meaningful titles for PDF documents http://bit.ly/Q3WLWW
  38. 38. Image-Based Documents
  39. 39. Text-Based Documents
  40. 40. Bookmarks Does the PDF contain bookmarks and are they helpful for navigating efficiently to various sections of the document? a11yTip #4 Create bookmarks from the content structure in PDF documents http://bit.ly/1vD93GZ
  41. 41. Content Reflow When Reflow mode is activated, does all the content reorganize naturally in a single, easy to read column? a11yTip #5 Ensure the reading order of a PDF makes sense when reflowed http://bit.ly/1ikVqXa
  42. 42. Read Out Loud When Read Out Loud is activated, does all the content get read correctly and in the right order? a11yTip #6 Ensure the default reading order in PDF document makes sense http://bit.ly/1oleGoo
  43. 43. Heading Structure Is content organized consistently using semantically and correctly structured headings? a11yTip #7 Mark up headings in PDF documents using heading elements http://bit.ly/Rl0hxa
  44. 44. Tabbing Order Can the document be navigated in a predictable order that is consistent with the meaning of the content? a11yTip #8 Create a tabbing order for PDF content that is logical and intuitive http://bit.ly/1o8HcMu
  45. 45. Hit the tab key, YO! Use the down arrow key.
  46. 46. Informative Images Does the text alternative provided for every informative image convey the same meaning or purpose as the image? a11yTip #9 Provide meaningful text alternatives for images in PDF documents http://bit.ly/1iue3bg
  47. 47. Decorative Images Are purely decorative images marked up as artifacts, so screen readers can safely ignore them? a11yTip #10 Turn purely decorative images in PDF documents into artifacts http://bit.ly/1ovRTX1
  48. 48. Meaningful Hyperlinks Is hyperlink text marked up using Link annotations and is the purpose of that text meaningful? a11yTip #11 Provide replacement text for PDF links that are not meaningful http://bit.ly/1l02siv
  49. 49. Data Tables Are the tables marked up properly and are header cells and data cells explicitly associated? a11yTip #12 Use table markup to structure tabular data in PDF documents http://bit.ly/1uRX2Nl
  50. 50. PDF a11y Testing Leveling the playing field
  51. 51. Diving deeper into accessible PDFs https://dequeuniversity.com/courses/list/pdf $45
  52. 52. PDF strategy! What will yours be?
  53. 53. Knowbility KickStarter Campaign
  54. 54. Denis Boudreau Deque Systems, Inc. db@deque.com @dboudreau
  55. 55. Photo Credits All rights belong to their respective owners. http://monicarodgers.files.wordpress.com/2011/03/newandimproved.jpg http://www.flickr.com/photos/krawcowicz/4153762400/ http://www.jornalhojelivre.com.br/wp-content/uploads/2013/04/megaphone.jpg http://www.wallpaper4me.com/images/wallpapers/nobodycares-317303.jpeg http://www.resumestoyou.com.au/wp-content/uploads/2013/04/bigstock-Businessman-With-Red-Umbrella-23108744.jpg http://www.thedivineinspirations.com/images/banner_3.jpg http://www.geedeeaccounting.com/www/473/files/drowning_paper.jpg http://julianvasquezheilig.files.wordpress.com/2014/01/head_in_sand.jpg http://images.huffingtonpost.com/2013-11-16-bigstockportraitofsadyoungwomancr41848843.jpg http://harmonit.se/projekt/wp-content/uploads/office-batman.jpg http://empoweryourbusiness.files.wordpress.com/2012/09/boringtcs.jpg http://pro-legal.ro/wp-content/uploads/2013/03/abusive-clauses1.bmp http://www.landthink.com/wp-content/uploads/staying-competitive-in-todays-land-brokerage-business.jpg http://www.flickr.com/photos/toradojonj/8618952453/ http://nduffel.files.wordpress.com/2012/10/take-the-bull-by-the-horns.jpg http://www.flickr.com/photos/41898910@N03/6162523696/ http://bilder.filmering.at/stories/news2/Cineplexx.jpg http://i.imgur.com/23lw8yu.jpg http://www.maskcara.com/wp-content/uploads/2012/09/unhappy-guy-with-crossed-arns.jpg http://i.ytimg.com/vi/gUptKs5Fccw/maxresdefault.jpg http://www.flickr.com/photos/justbane/3646397328/ http://www.flickr.com/photos/liliana1708/8642224555/ http://columbian.media.clients.ellingtoncms.com/img/croppedphotos/2013/09/20/0923_met_salt_shaker.jpg http://www.flickr.com/photos/88717578@N00/1439576293/ http://www.flickr.com/photos/mercurymountain/3441989123/ http://www.rubbishclearancebournemouth.co.uk/img/customer-service.jpg http://www.flickr.com/photos/44124421278@N01/2500303479/ http://www.flickr.com/photos/23043123@N00/268525273/ http://www.hernandezfirm.com/wp-content/uploads/2013/07/knucklehead-1024x1024.jpg http://inspirationtopublication.files.wordpress.com/2011/12/but-wait-logo.jpg http://www.flickr.com/photos/toradojonj/8618951295/ http://www.flickr.com/photos/11391549@N02/2405054957/
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