Cultural Shifts and Enterprise Accessibility - AccessU 2013 (dboudreau)
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Cultural Shifts and Enterprise Accessibility - AccessU 2013 (dboudreau)

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Various public administrations around the globe are adopting WCAG 2.0 as the baseline for their web accessibility standards, but do they really understand what it is they're adopting? The upcoming ...

Various public administrations around the globe are adopting WCAG 2.0 as the baseline for their web accessibility standards, but do they really understand what it is they're adopting? The upcoming Section508 refresh will probably align the United States to WCAG 2.0 level AA in the next year or so - these standards disrupt traditional development patterns within organizations. This disruption jeopardizes the profitability of Web projects. History shows that accessibility experts have raised countless heated debates on how to best implement WCAG. If subject matter experts cannot agree on the most efficient interpretations, how can we expect the rest of us to agree on a common understanding? How can an organization managing multiple web development teams over as many web development projects make their entire web presence consistently accessible, when no one agrees on what must be done, and how? This session will begin by demonstrating how accessibility standards can be filtered into a series of simple, straightforward and easy to implement requirements that can help organizations tackle web accessibility more efficiently. Through lectures and break out sessions, participants will analyze various WCAG 2.0 success criteria to build a common understanding that can then be shared with every stakeholders in a Web project, regardless of their level of expertise with the accessibility guidelines, so organizations can achieve their goals of digital inclusion on the web.

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Cultural Shifts and Enterprise Accessibility - AccessU 2013 (dboudreau) Cultural Shifts and Enterprise Accessibility - AccessU 2013 (dboudreau) Presentation Transcript

  • Broughtto you byAdministrative Track – AccessU 2013Cultural Shifts andEnterprise AccessibilityJohn Slatin AccessU 2013Denis Boudreau, Deque SystemsInc.Austin –May 15th, 2013
  • Broughtto you by BY - Attribution NC - NonCommercial SA - ShareAlike 2.5 Canada/ 22013. Some Rights Reserved.
  • Broughtto you byInstructorDenis Boudreau @dboudreau on Twitter Web Accessibility Avenger Consultant, Deque Systems W3C Invited Expert/ 3
  • Broughtto you bySummary1. Enterprise Accessibility2. Policy, Requirement and Process3. Crowdsourcing Accessibility4. Best Practices vs. Violations5. Cultural Shifts and Changes6. Implementing Accessibility7. Role-Based Accessibility8. Accessibility in the Production Life Cycle9. Testing for Web Accessibility/ 4
  • Broughtto you by/ 5Not every accessibility story hasto end badly. But this one does.Enter OrganizationABC.(sadly based on a true story)Let me Tell You a Story…
  • Broughtto you by/ 6Variations of this happen way toooftenon way too many projects.
  • Broughtto you byWho Was To Blame?!Just Who is Accountable for Accessibility? Most think its a technological challenge Fewer think its a communication concern All are both right AND wrongUltimately, who answers for accessibility in the organization?/ 7
  • Broughtto you byTop 5 Reasons for FailingWhat Were the Top Reasons for Failing at ABC?1.…2.…3.…4.…5.…/ 8
  • Broughtto you by/ 9My experience with most organizations has often beenthat disappointing. Which has led to the question:"How can I help organizations help me help them?"
  • Broughtto you byEnterprise Accessibility
  • Broughtto you byEnterprise AccessibilityThe Accessibility Challenge Organizations deal with many internal & external teams Establish reliable processes amongst all existing teams Build a common framework of requirements Find a way to guarantee organizational coherence Ensure consistency across all Web properties/ 11
  • Broughtto you byEnterprise AccessibilityAccessibility is Everyone’s ResponsibilityEveryone (IT or COM) has a role to playExisting stakeholders need to play their partAssigning responsibility to various peopleSharing the tasks to produce accessible resultsNeeds to be integrated in the existing workflowCan’t be seen as just another expertise to bring in/ 12
  • Broughtto you byMost Common PitfallsTop 5 Traps Most Organizations Fall In1. View accessibilityas a final step (quality control)2. Rely on an expert instead of team efforts3. Care about the checklist and nothing else4. Expecting automated tools to do the work5. Underestimate the impacts of technological platforms/ 13
  • Broughtto you byWe’ve Been Here BeforeWhat Organizations Usually Do with Accessibility Consider the accessibilityrequirements Develop the project (hoping for the best) Make sacrifices and concessions all along Call for an audit at the very end of the project Ask for confirmation on the efforts that were made Cross their fingers (again, hoping for the best)/ 14
  • Broughtto you byWe’ve Been Here BeforeWhat Organizations Usually Get From Accessibility 100+ page reports on the conformance level Countless recommendations for remediation A bitter feeling of general failure despite all efforts Frustration, anger - possibly harsh consequences too/ 15
  • Broughtto you byWell, Maybe Not So Much…What Organizations Should Be Getting A general sense of:• Confidence that accessibility is within reach• Motivation in creating overall better products• Encouragement as practices and methods improve• Collaboration in working towards a common goal• Pride for contributing to a more inclusive WebAfter all, this is what most of us are usually getting, right?/ 16
  • Broughtto you byAccessibility Doesn’t Just HappenIt Needs to be Planned From the StartThere’s only so much you can achieve “by accident”Semantic HTML + CSS can only get you so farBut what about:• Keyboard navigation, user testing, color choices?• Compatibility with various assistive technologies?• The underlying technologies projects are based on?/ 17
  • Broughtto you byAccessibility Usually MeansWorking on Projects That Were…Never really meant to be accessibleNever planned appropriatelyBased on flawed assumptions from day oneAlways looked at from a single perspectiveConducted by uninformed peopleCreated using limited technologies/ 18
  • Broughtto you byAccessibility Usually MeansBeing Asked to Work Against Organization status quo Stakeholders on the defensive (and rightfullyso) Impossible or immutable deadlines Limited or non existent budgets Without any significantinternal guidelines/ 19
  • Broughtto you byPolicies, Requirements and Processes
  • Broughtto you by/ 21WCAG 2.0Section 508
  • Broughtto you by/ 22Many public administrations andorganizations often decide torewrite accessibility standards.This can be bad news for the Web.Creating Accessibility Policies
  • Broughtto you byThe Canadian Govt.ApproachTurning W3C recommendations into requirements Make WCAG 2.0 level AA a mandatory standard Providing measurable means to achieve compliance Applying at least one technique per success criteria Generally trying to avoid the common failures Indirectly granting those techniques normative statusThis can create limitation effects for some organizations./ 23
  • Broughtto you byThe Quebec Govt.ApproachRefute WCAG 2.0 because of its vagueness Make WCAG 2.0 level AA a mandatory standard Identify techniques and turn them into requirements Breaking down each SC into measurable goals Creating another standard altogether in the processThis definitely creates limitation effects for most organizations./ 24
  • Broughtto you byThe Ugly Truth…What Makes WCAG 2.0 Great Also Makes it Flawed Being technology agnostic is fantastic Great for sustainability but comes with drawbacks A certain vagueness in success criteria formulation Leaves room for various uneducated interpretations Opens the door to lots of uneven implementations Indirectly contributes to making accessibility hard/ 25
  • Broughtto you byInformative or NormativeWCAG 2.0, a Double-Edged Sword?Vagueness is clarified in the techniques & failuresLiterally, thousands of pages to go throughTechniques are only informative (not required)Not everyone reads them (most don’t take the time)We are all welcomed to cherry pick what we likeOr maybe even come up with new techniques/ 26
  • Broughtto you byOn FragmentationHow Standards Fragmentation “Hurts the Web”Slows down potential progress for accessibilityMust spend more resources on alternate versionsMainstream authoring tools lack accessibilitysupportProducts developed locally can’t compete globallyOrganizations musttrack & support differing standards/ 27
  • Broughtto you byOn HarmonizationHow Standards Harmonization “Helps the Web”All benefit from years of international collaborationFunding is saved by using W3C/WAI resourcesSoftware developers benefit from economies of scaleWeb developers can more easily produce contentOrganizations take advantage of collaborative resourcesBut that doesn’t mean things can’t be improved/ 28
  • Broughtto you byStandards HarmonizationWhy Standards Harmonization isEssential to Web AccessibilityExplains key role of harmonizationPromotes adoption of a consistentset of international standardsAvailable athttp://www.w3.org/WAI/Policy/harmon/ 29
  • Broughtto you byImplementation ChallengesThe Perfect Example1.3.1 Info and RelationshipsInformation, structure, and relationships conveyed throughpresentation can be programmaticallydetermined or areavailable in text. (Level A)What does this success criteria even mean?When is a success criteria “sufficiently met”?How can anyonevalidate if it’s conformant or not?/ 30
  • Broughtto you by/ 31Experience shows that for 25 people in a room,we will get about as many different answers...How many would we get today?
  • Broughtto you by/ 32But that doesn’t mean you can’t adapt thoserequirements so they better fit with yourorganization’s culture.
  • Broughtto you byCreating RequirementsCherry Picking Your StandardsChoose your weapon: WCAG 2.0, Section 508, ADA…Considered ISO/IEC 40500 – was it a game changer?Standards made for rather arid readingsGot Business Analysts to integrate requirementsAchieving conformance – where did they start?/ 33
  • Broughtto you byLong and Winding RoadGetting ThereAdopting vs. adapting – what suited them best?Defined the scope for Web accessibilityFighting ACS (the Accessibility Checklist Syndrome)Integrated accessibilityin the development lifecycleBroke down the requirements for stakeholders/ 34
  • Broughtto you byLessons LearnedWhat Will the Organization Experience?Bad – accessibility as last minute QAGood – accessibilityin the early stagesThe Power of PlanningOrganizational ChangesCultural Shifts – ResistancePragmatism – Choosing their battlesBaby Steps to Greatness/ 35
  • Broughtto you byKey ChallengesPart Of The Problem With Accessibility Is…Developers and designers are reinventing the wheelNo one sees the broader picture, no cohesion effortsThe organization depends on individuals who come and goProcesses are only as strong as those who remainNo one benefits from the collective intelligence/ 36
  • Broughtto you byCollective IntelligenceDefinition:"A phenomenon in sociology that describes a type ofshared or group intelligence that emerges from thecollaboration and competition of many individuals.”How can organizations tap into this valuable resource?How can they reap the benefits of all these brains workingtogether for accessibility?/ 37
  • Broughtto you byCrowdsourcing Accessibility
  • Broughtto you byPutting It To The testBuilding a Common Understandingof WCAG 2.0The range of interpretations greatly variesNot uncommon at all for experts to disagreeDisagreements often based on culture and backgroundWithin an organization,reaching consensus is keyConsensus is a great way to get stakeholder buy-inThose who argue the longest usually win/ 39
  • Broughtto you byGoing Back To This ExampleThe Perfect Example1.3.1 Info and RelationshipsInformation, structure, and relationships conveyed throughpresentation can be programmaticallydetermined or areavailable in text. (Level A)What does this success criteria even mean?When is a success criteria “sufficiently met”?How can anyonevalidate if it’s conformant or not?/ 40
  • Broughtto you by/ 41Let’s find out just how many differentanswers we can come up with, justamongst our little group today.
  • Broughtto you byComparing Apples to Apples?SC 1.3.1 Can Be Summarized As…1.Using proper semantics to structure content2.Providing proper heading structure3.Providing proper markup for data tables4.Associating form control and label explicitly5.Grouping sets of form controls and labelsAny other suggestions?/ 42
  • Broughtto you byCrowdsourcing AccessibilityDrum Roll…. Let’s Play a Game!Let’s pretend you are tasked with writing accessibilitystandardsfor your organization.Knowing the end goal is to make sure allteams (internal or external) can create accessible content.Would you choose to apply WCAG 2.0? Why?Would you choose to rewrite it partially? Why?Would you choose to rewrite it completely? Why?/ 43
  • Broughtto you byScenario 1 (individually)Your organization chooses to align to WCAG 2.0 AA.You were designated as the accessibility specialist,and tasked with defining WCAG Success Criteria foryour team.Define what SC 1.1.1 means in layman’s termsDefine specific requirements to meet the SCCapture your thoughts on a piece of paper/ 44
  • Broughtto you byScenario 2 (groups of 3-4)You are part of a small accessibility cell, and taskedwith defining WCAG Success Criteria in laymansterms for the rest of the team. You all come to thiswith your previous experience and need to reachconsensus. Compare SC meanings and create new common answer Compare requirements, agree on common interpretation Document that common interpretation in new version/ 45
  • Broughtto you byScenario 3 (larger group)You are all representatives of different teams from thesame organization, tasked with developingan internalpolicy for Web accessibility. I am responsible forleading our group of experts. Discuss your interpretation with other group members Reach agreement on what goes into the internal policy Come up with a final global interpretation for the group Write user stories for each disabilities (one per requirement)/ 46
  • Broughtto you byResulting RequirementsUsing Collective Intelligence over SC 1.1.1Requirements include:1. …2. …3. ...4. …5. …6. …7. …/ 47
  • Broughtto you byComparing Apples to Apples?My Take on SC 1.1.1 Would Be:1.Alt Text (Active Images)2.Alt Text (Informational Images)3.Alt Text (Complex Images)4.Alt Text (Decorative Images)5.Alt Text (Input Type Images)6.Alt Text (Embedded Multimedia)Is there really a better answer? What’s our goal here?/ 48
  • Broughtto you by/ 49What really matters is not how your requirements arewritten, but that your team actuallyunderstands the intent behind them.User experience over conformance.
  • Broughtto you byBack To BasicsPragmatica11y Understanding the essence of the principles Trust developers and designers to find solutions Build a solid understanding of the guidelines Foster innovation by allowing creative thinking Focus on awareness, not requirements and checklists/ 50
  • Broughtto you byBest Practices vs.Violations
  • Broughtto you byPeople Will DisagreeWhere Do You Draw The Line? What constitutes a real violation? What constitutes a simple best practice? All about culture and backgrounds clashes Goes back to how people learned and who taught them There is a limit to the answers WCAG 2.0 can provide/ 52
  • Broughtto you byBest Practice or Violation?Success Criterion 1.1.1 (Level A)“The alternative text value of informative imagesshould be 150 characters or less”./ 53
  • Broughtto you byBest Practice or Violation?Success Criterion 1.3.1 (Level A)“There can never be more than one first level heading(h1) per page”./ 54
  • Broughtto you byBest Practice or Violation?Success Criterion 1.3.1 (Level A)“There needs to always be at least one first levelheading (h1) per page”./ 55
  • Broughtto you byBest Practice or Violation?Success Criterion 1.3.1 (Level A)“Headings must be organized hierarchically andheading levels can never be skipped”./ 56
  • Broughtto you byBest Practice or Violation?Success Criterion 1.3.1 (Level A)“Tables used only for layout need to be avoided at alltimes”./ 57
  • Broughtto you byBest Practice or Violation?Success Criterion 1.3.2 (Level A)“The reading order of content must always match thevisual order displayed on the page”./ 58
  • Broughtto you byBest Practice or Violation?Success Criterion 2.4.1 (Level A)“Skip links are always required and must be the firstelement encountered on the page”./ 59
  • Broughtto you byKeep In Mind…Use of WCAG Techniques and FailuresSufficient Techniques – not the only solution and should neverbe required as the only way to meet WCAG 2.0.Advisory Techniques – can always be considered, but are notsufficientwhen used alone.Failures – designed to always indicate failure, but theirnumber is more limited than it should. There could be more.There will be more with time./ 60
  • Broughtto you by/ 61Taking techniques and turning them inrequirementsto meet specific Success Criteriashould always be avoided.
  • Broughtto you byCultural Shifts and Changes
  • Broughtto you byCultural Shifts and ChangesLet’s Face It - Accessibility is DisruptiveAccessibility disrupts development habitsOrganizations aren’t used to the extra costsPeople aren’t used to have theirs skills questionedUnbalancing the ecosystem creates resistance/ 63
  • Broughtto you byCultural Shifts and ChangesThe 5 stages of AccessibilityDenial » “PWD aren’t our target audience!”Anger » “This is a barrier to my creativity!”Bargaining » “Isn’t level A enough?”Depression » “It’s never good enough!”Acceptance » “We can do this!”/ 64
  • Broughtto you by/ 65“The only way we’re going to get accessibilityintothe DNA of an organization is for them tohave ownership of it.”- Lainey Feingold,attorneyextraordinaire,2013
  • Broughtto you byChange Management 101So, How Do We Do That?Change Management –The process of aligning howpeople work and behave to fitspecific changes in thebusiness strategy, systems ororganizational structure./ 66CurrentState(statusquo)NewState(improved)TransitionIncreasingcomfort,control andconfidence
  • Broughtto you byChange Management 101/ 67Key Elements Strategy Organize Motivate Teamwork Improve Measure
  • Broughtto you byBut there’s a problem…People are very Resistant to Change1.Confrontation – direct inadmissibility of the change2.Rejection – fear of losing, anxiety towards change3.Avoidance – lack of motivation towards change4.Faking – seemingly adopting without implementing/ 68
  • Broughtto you byWhat HaveYOU Experienced?What Kind of Resistance Have You Encountered?1.…2.…3.…4.…5.…6.…7.…/ 69
  • Broughtto you by/ 70Web accessibility challenges thestatus quo and forces organizationsinto adopting profound changestrategies as well as significantcultural shifts.
  • Broughtto you byTypical Answers to ChangeWho are you Dealing With?The critic – who opposes the changeThe victim – who panics in front of the changeThe bystander – who ignores the changeThe navigator – who is empowered by the change/ 71
  • Broughtto you byAccessibility OwnershipHow Can We Help People Become Navigators?1.…2.…3.…4.…5.…6.…7.…/ 72
  • Broughtto you byAccessibility OwnershipHelping People Become Navigators Communicate the threat of not changing Keep explaining the reasons for changing Involve team in decision making Be as transparent as possible Minimize uncertainties Celebrate successes/ 73
  • Broughtto you by/ 74For people to willingly go on with thechange, they must first understandwhat’s in it for them.
  • Broughtto you byPeople Management 101/ 75Key Elements Attract Educate Train Motivate Empower Reward
  • Broughtto you by/ 76Training is expensive, butincompetence due to lack oftraining is more expensive even!Don’t Ever Forget!
  • Broughtto you byAccessibility OwnershipLearning to View Change as an OpportunityInvolve your team early in the processCreate opportunities for people to rise upCommunicate constantly on milestonesPlan properly from the very startDon’t ever let up – always keep with the pace/ 77
  • Broughtto you by/ 78Organizations who fail to do this makechange become a burdenfor all.Organizations who succeed use changeas a catalystto greatness.
  • Broughtto you byOrganizational Change Portfolio/ 79Streams of Change Communication Learning Organization PerformanceCredit: Luc Galoppin, 2008
  • Broughtto you byOrganizational Change Portfolio/ 80Communication StreamNot change propagandaManage expectations andsupport changeStay in touch with the teamAnswer simple questions:“who are we” and “what are wehere for”?
  • Broughtto you byOrganizational Change Portfolio/ 81Learning StreamUpgrade the knowledge andskillsets of the organization interms of context, content andaction (why, what, how)Aim for learning rather thanjust training – address basicquestions like motivation,knowledge and skills
  • Broughtto you byOrganizational Change Portfolio/ 82Organization Stream Define and implement a neworganization structure thatreflects the changes at hand Define and establish newwork responsibilities in orderto make the change happen Provide concrete support(winning conditions)
  • Broughtto you byOrganizational Change Portfolio/ 83Performance Stream Translate the principles ofaccessibilityinto concretenew ways of working Include detailed instructionsfor expected changes Establish meaningful andmeasurable goals
  • Broughtto you by/ 84Part of the secret resides in beingtransparent and maintaining an openand direct discussion with your teammembers.
  • Broughtto you byImplementing Accessibility
  • Broughtto you by/ 86Making a commitment to make its websiteaccessible is one thing, planning forimplementationof accessibility is another.Implementing Accessibility
  • Broughtto you bySo Where Do We Begin?Considerations for the Planning Process1. Establishing Responsibilities2. Conducting Initial Assessment3. Developing Organizational Policy4. Selecting Appropriate Software5. Providing Proper Training6. Developing Accessible Website7. Promoting Organizational Awareness8. Monitoring Website Accessibility/ 87
  • Broughtto you byImplementation - Step OneEstablishing Responsibilities A coordination team with a coordination plan• Involve key players from key departments• Designate a dedicated team leader A high-level champion to reinforce commitment• Ideally, someone from upper management• Track implementation progresses/ 88
  • Broughtto you byImplementation - Step TwoConducting Initial Assessments Identify external accessibility requirements Quickly assess the current level of accessibility Measure current accessibility awareness level Assess current accessibilityexpertise level Determine suitability of current software Analyze software procurement practices Estimate resources required to address the needs/ 89
  • Broughtto you byImplementation - Step ThreeDeveloping Organizational Policy Identify existing accessibility policies Establish an organizational accessibilitypolicy Announce the new policy - make it a core value Organizepromotional events around the policy Create promotion plans to increase awareness Make it inspiring and about the people/ 90
  • Broughtto you byImplementation - Step FourSelecting Appropriate Software Review procurement requirements Benchmark different options for accessibility Select most conforming authoring software Engage vendors into an accessibility roadmap Develop a web publishing process Counter shortcomings of selected software/ 91
  • Broughtto you byImplementation - Step FiveProviding Proper Training Plan a range of accessibility training options Meet the needs of people with different roles Plan internal and external documentation Arrange for various training strategies Offer repeated training opportunities/ 92
  • Broughtto you byImplementation - Step SixDeveloping an Accessible Website Identify accessibilityas a core priority Integrate accessibilityrequirements on day one Verify accessibilityat key stages in the process Provide robust tools to ensure accessibility Develop accessibilitychecklists for each role Supply each team with a validation process/ 93
  • Broughtto you byImplementation - Step SevenPromoting Organizational Awareness Incorporate policy into key documents Regularly reinforce the accessibility policy Establish forums for exchange Communicate about the clientele Organizeaccessibility events with experts Provide updates and briefings on the progress/ 94
  • Broughtto you byImplementation - Step EightMonitoring Website Accessibility Specify the accessibilityevaluation process Ensure quality of the evaluation process Conduct ongoing monitoring of website Invite and respond to user feedback Escalate to champion policy as needed Periodically review all aspects for effectiveness/ 95
  • Broughtto you byDigging DeeperImplementation Planfor Accessibility•Dated back from 2002•Being revisited right now•Come join the fun!http://www.w3.org/WAI/impl// 96
  • Broughtto you by/ 97Whenever you fail to plan for accessibilityyour plan becomes to fail at accessibility.Simple Math
  • Broughtto you byAccessibility in the Production Lifecycle
  • Broughtto you byAccessibility in the Life CycleMoving Forward with Accessibility Ventilate requirements across the whole team Prevent clueless errors and expensive omissions Provide clear, defined patterns and strategies Accessibility is about teamwork and workflows Collective ownership of accessibilityrequirements/ 99
  • Broughtto you by/ 100Efficiently integrating accessibility within thedevelopment lifecycle is all about being ableto plan the right intervention, at theright time, by the right people.
  • Broughtto you byVentilating RequirementsMaking the Accessibility Goal a Team Effort Getting involvement from the whole team Make this goal a positive pursuit of quality Break down the requirements into existing roles Benefiting from the already available expertise The best resources are already on board/ 101
  • Broughtto you byPrevention is Better Than CureMuch Cheaper to Get it Right the First Time More efficient use of everyones time Significantreductions in terms of costs Significantbenefits in production Significantgains in customer relations Significantgains in internal relations/ 102
  • Broughtto you byA Culture of Digital EqualityBuilding Accessibility in the Organization’s DNAIntegrating accessibilityas a core valueDocument processes and methodologiesBuild around your accessibility expertiseCapture the knowledge before it goes awayMake it an integral part of your processes/ 103
  • Broughtto you by/ 104An effective way to do that is to understand howaccessibility impacts the responsibilities ofevery stakeholder in a project.
  • Broughtto you byRole-Based Accessibility
  • Broughtto you byThe WCAG 2.0 Mind MapWCAG 2.0 Map:A visual guide tounderstanding webaccessibilityhttp://stamfordinteractive.com.au/conversations/the-wcag-2-0-map// 106
  • Broughtto you byRole-Based AccessibilityGeneric Model OverviewAN - Analysis PR - HTML/CSS prototypingAR - Architecture FE - Front end developmentID - Interaction design BE - Back end developmentGD - Graphics design QA - Quality controlCS - Content strategy MA - MaintenanceSE - Search engine optimization/ 107AN AR ID GD CS SE PR FE BE QAProject ManagementMA
  • Broughtto you byPutting it All TogetherA Few Questions to Ask OurselvesHow do various stakeholders relate to accessibility?Who “owns” a specific accessibility requirement?How can accessibility requirements be shared?How can I adapt a generic model to my organization?/ 108
  • Broughtto you byPutting it All TogetherAccessibility and AnalysisAN AR ID GD CS SE PR FE BE QAProject ManagementMACovers tasks normally associated with capturing the project’srequirements, analysis of the project’s strategic orientations,analysis of the options for technology platforms, functionalanalysis of Web interfaces./ 109
  • Broughtto you byPutting it All TogetherAccessibility and Analysis/ 110Principles Applicable Success CriteriaLevel A Level AA Level AAAPerceivable -- -- --Operable -- -- 2.2.3, 2.2.4, 2.2.5Understanding 3.2.1, 3.3.1 3.3.3, 3.3.4 3.3.5, 3.3.6Robust -- -- --Total (9) 2 2 5
  • Broughtto you byPutting it All TogetherAccessibility and ArchitectureAN AR ID GD CS SE PR FE BE QAProject ManagementMACovers tasks normally associated with the architecture of theinformation (web content) and the architecture of the data./ 111
  • Broughtto you byPutting it All TogetherAccessibility and Architecture/ 112Principles Applicable Success CriteriaLevel A Level AA Level AAAPerceivable 1.3.1 -- --Operable 2.4.2 2.4.5, 2.4.6 2.4.8, 2.4.10Understanding -- 3.1.2 3.1.3, 3.1.4Robust -- -- --Total (9) 2 3 4
  • Broughtto you byPutting it All TogetherAccessibility and Interaction DesignAN AR ID GD CS SE PR FE BE QAProject ManagementMACovers tasks normally associated with the planning of webinterfaces, content changes, interactivity and other interface-related contents of the pages./ 113
  • Broughtto you byPutting it All TogetherAccessibility and Interaction Design/ 114Principles Applicable Success CriteriaLevel A Level AA Level AAAPerceivable 1.3.1, 1.3.3, 1.4.1, 1.4.2 1.4.4 1.4.7, 1.4.8Operable 2.1.1, 2.1.2, 2.2.1, 2.2.2,2.3.1, 2.4.42.4.5, 2.4.6 2.1.3, 2.2.3, 2.2.4, 2.2.5,2.3.2, 2.4.8, 2.4.9Understanding 3.2.1, 3.2.2, 3.3.1, 3.3.2 3.2.3, 3.2.4, 3.3.3, 3.3.4 3.1.3, 3.1.5, 3.2.5, 3.3.5,3.3.6Robust 4.1.2 -- --Total (36) 15 7 14
  • Broughtto you byPutting it All TogetherAccessibility and Graphic DesignAN AR ID GD CS SE PR FE BE QAProject ManagementMACovers tasks normally associated with the graphic design ofinterfaces, the related graphic declinations, the specific design ofnavigation elements, context changes and other general designof the main content of the pages./ 115
  • Broughtto you byPutting it All TogetherAccessibility and Graphic Design/ 116Principles Applicable Success CriteriaLevel A Level AA Level AAAPerceivable 1.3.1, 1.3.3, 1.4.1, 1.4.2 1.4.3, 1.4.4, 1.4.5 1.4.6, 1.4.7, 1.4.8, 1.4.9Operable 2.1.1, 2.1.2, 2.2.2, 2.3.1,2.4.12.4.5, 2.4.6, 2.4.7 2.2.3, 2.2.4, 2.3.2, 2.4.8Understanding 3.2.1, 3.3.1, 3.3.2 3.2.3, 3.2.4, 3.3.3 3.2.5, 3.3.5, 3.3.6Robust -- -- --Total (32) 12 9 11
  • Broughtto you byPutting it All TogetherAccessibility and Content StrategyAN AR ID GD CS SE PR FE BE QAProject ManagementMACovers tasks normally associated with producing the site’s textcontents, equivalent alternative for non-text content and othergeneral text elements presented in the pages./ 117
  • Broughtto you byPutting it All TogetherAccessibility and Content Strategy/ 118Principles Applicable Success CriteriaLevel A Level AA Level AAAPerceivable 1.1.1, 1.2.1, 1.2.2, 1.2.3,1.3.1, 1.3.31.2.5 1.2.7, 1.2.8Operable 2.1.1, 2.1.2, 2.4.2, 2.4.4 2.4.6 2.4.9Understanding 3.3.1 3.1.2 3.1.3, 3.1.4, 3.1.5, 3.1.6Robust -- -- --Total (21) 11 3 7
  • Broughtto you byPutting it All TogetherAccessibility and Search Engine OptimizationAN AR ID GD CS SE PR FE BE QAProject ManagementMACovers tasks normally associated with providing text equivalentsfor non-text contents and making contents on a web page moreeasily indexable/crawlableby search engines./ 119
  • Broughtto you byPutting it All TogetherAccessibility and Search Engine Optimization/ 120Principles Applicable Success CriteriaLevel A Level AA Level AAAPerceivable 1.1.1, 1.2.1, 1.2.2, 1.2.3,1.3.11.2.4, 1.2.5, 1.4.5 1.2.6, 1.2.7, 1.2.8, 1.2.9Operable 2.1.1, 2.1.2, 2.2.1, 2.2.2,2.4.1, 2.4.2, 2.4.3, 2.4.42.4.5, 2.4.6, 2.4.7 2.1.3, 2.2.3, 2.4.8, 2.4.9,2.4.10Understanding -- -- --Robust -- -- --Total (28) 14 6 9
  • Broughtto you byPutting it All TogetherAccessibility and HTML/CSS PrototypingAN AR ID GD CS SE PR FE BE QAProject ManagementMACovers tasks normally associated with the production of all website master templates (HTML and CSS)./ 121
  • Broughtto you byPutting it All TogetherAccessibility and HTML/CSS Prototyping/ 122Principles Applicable Success CriteriaLevel A Level AA Level AAAPerceivable 1.1.1, 1.3.1, 1.3.2 1.4.3, 1.4.4, 1.4.5 1.4.6Operable 2.1.1, 2.1.2, 2.4.1, 2.4.2,2.4.32.4.5, 2.4.6, 2.4.7 2.1.3, 2.4.8, 2.4.10Understanding 3.1.1, 3.3.2 3.2.4 3.1.3, 3.2.5Robust 4.1.1, 4.1.2 -- --Total (25) 12 7 6
  • Broughtto you byPutting it All TogetherAccessibility and Front-End DevelopmentAN AR ID GD CS SE PR FE BE QAProject ManagementMACovers tasks normally associated with the development ofcontribution tools, HTML and CSS integration, and theprogramming of proposed scripts and applications on the website./ 123
  • Broughtto you byPutting it All TogetherAccessibility and Front-End Development/ 124Principles Applicable Success CriteriaLevel A Level AA Level AAAPerceivable 1.1.1,1.2.1,1.2.2,1.2.3,1.3.1,1.3.2,1.3.3,1.4.1,1.4.21.2.4,1.2.5,1.4.3,1.4.4,1.4.5 1.2.6,1.2.7,1.2.8,1.2.9,1.4.6,1.4.7,1.4.8,1.4.9Operable 2.1.1,2.1.2,2.2.1,2.2.2,2.3.1,2.4.1,2.4.2,2.4.3,2.4.42.4.5,2.4.6,2.4.7 2.1.3,2.2.3,2.2.4,2.2.5,2.3.2,2.4.8,2.4.9,2.4.10Understanding 3.1.1,3.2.1,3.2.2,3.3.1,3.3.2 3.1.2,3.2.3,3.2.4,3.3.3,3.3.4 3.1.3,3.1.4,3.1.6,3.2.5,3.3.5,3.3.6Robust 4.1.1,4.1.2 -- --Total (60) 25 13 22
  • Broughtto you byPutting it All TogetherAccessibility and Back-End DevelopmentAN AR ID GD CS SE PR FE BE QAProject ManagementMACovers tasks normally associated with the development of serverside programming and database management./ 125
  • Broughtto you byPutting it All TogetherAccessibility and Back-End Development/ 126Principles Applicable Success CriteriaLevel A Level AA Level AAAPerceivable 1.1.1, 1.3.1, 1.3.2 -- --Operable 2.1.1, 2.1.2, 2.2.1, 2.2.2,2.4.3, 2.4.42.4.5, 2.4.6, 2.4.7 2.1.3, 2.2.3, 2.2.4, 2.2.5,2.4.9, 2.4.10Understanding 3.2.1, 3.2.2, 3.3.1, 3.3.2 3.1.2, 3.2.4, 3.3.3, 3.3.4 3.1.3, 3.1.4, 3.2.5, 3.3.6Robust 4.1.1, 4.1.2 -- --Total (32) 15 7 10
  • Broughtto you byPutting it All TogetherAccessibility and Quality ControlAN AR ID GD CS SE PR FE BE QAProject ManagementMACovers tasks normally associated with general validations at thevery end of the project, before launching./ 127
  • Broughtto you byPutting it All TogetherAccessibility and Quality Control/ 128Principles Applicable Success CriteriaLevel A Level AA Level AAAPerceivable 1.1.1,1.2.1,1.2.2,1.2.3,1.3.1,1.3.2,1.3.3,1.4.1,1.4.21.2.4,1.2.5,1.4.3,1.4.4,1.4.5 1.2.6,1.2.7,1.2.8,1.2.9,1.4.6,1.4.7,1.4.8,1.4.9Operable 2.1.1,2.1.2,2.2.1,2.2.2,2.3.1,2.4.1,2.4.2,2.4.3,2.4.42.4.5,2.4.6,2.4.7 2.1.3,2.2.3,2.2.4,2.2.5,2.3.2,2.4.8,2.4.9,2.4.10Understanding 3.1.1,3.2.1,3.2.2,3.3.1,3.3.2 3.1.2,3.2.3,3.2.4,3.3.3,3.3.4 3.1.3,3.1.4,3.1.5,3.1.6,3.2.5,3.3.5,3.3.6Robust 4.1.1,4.1.2 -- --Total (61) 25 13 23
  • Broughtto you byPutting it All TogetherAccessibility and Project ManagementAN AR ID GD CS SE PR FE BE QAProject ManagementMAPlanning accessibility at each step, allocating responsibilities,ensuring criteria are met at every milestone, understanding thedifference between accessible and conforming content, beingaware of tool limitations and working around them, assessingthe impact of technology platforms for the overall project./ 129
  • Broughtto you byPutting it All TogetherAccessibility and MaintenanceAN AR ID GD CS SE PR FE BE QAProject ManagementMAMaking sure relevant knowledge transfer from the productionteam is passed on to the maintenance team, so accessibilityefforts put into the project dont degrade as soon as content isupdated on the website. Adapting the workflow to the reality ofthe maintenance team, based on the roles defined previously./ 130
  • Broughtto you byWAI-Engage WikiRole-Based AccessibilityLooking at WCAG 2.0 SC by rolesGet involved in the community:comment, contribute, useMake this your own and bring itinto your organization!http://is.gd/5CoJd4/ 131
  • Broughtto you bySumming It UpGet subject matter experts in your lifecycle tointegrate accessibility so the right questions are askedat the right time by the right people Plan accessibility from the very early stages Plan sufficient and consistent support Iterative rounds of accessibilityvalidation to stay on track Recommendations to guide the remediation process Ensure autonomy through knowledge transfer/ 132
  • Broughtto you byTesting for Web Accessibility
  • Broughtto you byTesting for AccessibilityDeveloping a Methodology1.Define the Evaluation Scope2.Explore the Target Website3.Select a Representative Sample4.Audit the Selected Sample5.Report the Evaluation Findingshttp://www.w3.org/TR/WCAG-EM// 134
  • Broughtto you byMethodology - Step OneDefining the Evaluation Scope Define the Scope of the Website Define the Goal of the Evaluation Define the Conformance Target Define the Techniques and Failures to be Used/ 135
  • Broughtto you byMethodology - Step TwoExplore the Target Website Identify Common Web Pages of the Website Identify Common Functionality of the Website Identify the Variety of Web Page Types Identify Web Technologies Relied Upon/ 136
  • Broughtto you byMethodology - Step ThreeSelect a Representative Sample Include Common Web Pages of the Website Include Exemplar Instances of Web Pages Include Other Relevant Web Pages Include Complete Processes in the Sample Include a Randomly Selected Sample Eliminate Redundancies in the Sample/ 137
  • Broughtto you byMethodology - Step FourAudit the Selected Sample Check for the Broadest Variety of Use Cases Assess Accessibility Support for Features Use Techniques and Failures Where Possible Archive Web Pages for Reference Record Software Tools and Methods Used/ 138
  • Broughtto you byMethodology - Step FiveReport the Evaluation Findings Provide Documentation for Each Step Provide a Conformance Evaluation Statement Provide a Performance Score Provide Machine-Readable Reports/ 139
  • Broughtto you byApproach to TestingAdopting an AssessmentMethod Usually, a three step process1. Testing the web page with a screen reader2. Using an automatic checker for basic problems3. Running manual testing to complete the audit/ 140
  • Broughtto you byAccessibility Testing1st - Using NVDA to Evaluate User ExperienceUsing NVDA to Evaluate WebAccessibilityhttp://www.webaim.org/articles/nvda// 141
  • Broughtto you byAccessibility Testing2nd - Using FireEyes to Evaluate AccessibilityWorldspace FireEyes QuickStart Tutorialhttp://www.deque.com/tutorial/ 142
  • Broughtto you byAccessibility Testing3rd – Complete with Manual TestingWebAIMs WCAG 2.0 Checklistfor HTML documentshttp://webaim.org/standards/wcag/checklistOr actually createyour own, basedon WCAG 2.0!/ 143
  • Broughtto you byBuilding Your Own ChecklistWhat Does the Team Really Need? Clear guidance as to what constitutes a requirement A reference to some normative framework (WCAG 2.0)• A referral to a specific requirement• An identifying short name for easy reference• A prescriptive checklist explanation item• A commonly approved method for testing• An appreciation of requirement impacts/ 144
  • Broughtto you byMore Tools for Everyone!Mozilla Firefox Web Developer Toolbar Accessibility Evaluator Juicy Studio Toolbar FireBug HeadingsMap NoSquint Fangs/ 145Internet Explorer Web Accessibility ToolbarOther Useful Tools Color Contrast Analyzer FireEyes Extension WAVE Toolbar
  • Broughtto you byExampleUsing Success Criterion 2.4.7 Focus Visible (level AA)1. Checklist: It is visually apparent which page element hasthe current keyboard focus (i.e., as you tab through thepage, you can see where you are).2. Testing Method: Manually set focus on the user interfaceelements using the Tab key. Confirm that when anelement receives focus, the background color or border ischanged to make it visually distinct./ 146
  • Broughtto you byExample Using SC 1.1.1Other Rich Examples…Non-Text Content (level A)• Alt Text (Active Images)• Alt Text (Informational Images)• Alt Text (Complex Images)• Alt Text (Decorative Images)• Alt Text (Input Type Image)• Alt Text (Embedded Multimedia)/ 147
  • Broughtto you byExample Using SC 1.3.1Other Rich Examples…Info and Relationships (level A)• Semantics• Heading Structure• Data Tables• Explicit Forms Association• Fieldset and Legends/ 148
  • Broughtto you byBeware of Opinions!Interpretations vs. Opinions vs. Facts Value opinions, but only consider documented facts Distinguish normative from informative Recognize techniques as what they are Differentiate sufficienttechniques from advisory Acknowledge the importance of failures/ 149
  • Broughtto you by/ 150A simple eXcel spreadsheet can get you a verylong way… and generate endless debates!{{{ Be ready }}}Start Small
  • Broughtto you by/ 151After all, accessibility is an art,not an exact science.Remember…
  • Broughtto you byInvolving Users in TestingGetting Feedback Where it Matters Most Developers can only do so well when testing Real users can provide truly valuable feedback Building an appropriate testing environment Validating user testing results with users Using results as another catalystto greatness/ 152
  • Broughtto you bySumming It UpThe answer to Enterprise Accessibility?1. Defining policy, requirement and process2. Managing cultural shifts and changes3. Implementing accessibility successfully4. Breaking down roles and responsibilities5. Integrating in the production life cycle6. Building a test suite for web accessibility/ 153
  • Broughtto you by// Denis Boudreau,// Senior Subject Matter Expert// Web Accessibility Avenger// Deque Systems, Inc.// +1 (514) 730-9168// db@deque.com// www.deque.com// @dboudreauThankYou!